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It’s a booklet that shows how to survive and protect ourselves in nature. Students that are members of NLC Team prepared it.

It’s a booklet that shows how to survive and protect ourselves in nature. Students that are members of NLC Team prepared it.

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  • 1. NATURAL LEARNING CONCEPT SURVIVAL KIT March, 2012TURKEY POLAND SWEDEN 1 2010-1-TR1-COM06-13683
  • 2. CONTENT INTRODUCTIONClimate and Effects of Global Warming in Turkey Sweden Poland Geographical Features of Turkey Poland Sweden NATURE How to Survive in Nature Food & Nature Edible Plants in Sweden Turkey Poland How to Protect Ourselves in Nature Poisonous Plants & Wild Animals in Poland Turkey Sweden LET’S PREPARE A SURVIVAL KIT 2
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Climate and Effects of Global Warming in Turkey, Sweden, and PolandTURKEY Although Turkey is situated in a geographical location where climatic conditions are quite temperate, the diverse nature of the landscape, and the existence in particular of the mountains that run parallel to the coasts, result in significant differences in climatic conditions from one region to the other.Turkey has seven distinct geographic weather and climatic regions.While the coastal regionsenjoy milder climates, the inland Anatolia plateau experiences hot summers and cold winterswith limited rainfall.Global change will affect every citizen, every part of the environment and our natural resources,and thus practically every aspect of our lives — our economy, our urban and suburbandevelopment patterns, natural areas we protect, and our life styles.Turkey experienced one ofits driest and hottest summer season over the past several months. Nowadays, the countryfaced floods because of severe rains. TRTürkiye’nin iklim koşulları, oldukça ılıman bir coğrafi konumu olmasına ve farklı doğa güzelliktekimanzaralarına rağmen kıyılara paralel uzanan dağların konumu nedeniyle bir bölgeden diğerbölgeye değişen farklı iklim koşulları ile sonuçlanmıştır.Türkiye’de yedi ayrı coğrafi bölgebulunmaktadır. Kıyı bölgeleri ılıman iklimlere sahiptir fakat İç Anadolu bölgesi platosunda kışlarsoğuk ve yağışlı, yazlar sıcak ve kuraktır.Küresel değişim, yaşadığımız çevrenin her bölümünü ve doğal kaynakları etkilemektedir.Böyleceekonomimizden, şehir ve yerel yönetimlere, korumaya çalıştığımız doğal alanlar gibi hayatımızınher aşamasına ve yaşam biçimimize etki etmektedir.Türkiye geçtiğimiz birkaç ay içinde en kurak 3
  • 4. ve sıcak yaz mevsimini yaşamış şimdilerde ise artan şiddetli yağmurlarla oluşan sel felaketleri ilekarşı karşıya kalmıştır. PLMimo, że położenie geograficzne Turcji jest w klimacie umiarkowanym , ze względu naróżnorodność krajobrazu, oraz góry, które biegną równolegle do wybrzeża, powoduje toznaczne różnice w warunkach klimatycznych pomiędzy jednym regionem a drugim.Turcja ma siedem odrębnych pogodowo i klimatycznie regionów. Podczas gdy w regionachprzybrzeżnych cieszyć się można łagodniejszym klimatem, na płaskowyżu Anatolii możnadoświadczyć gorących lat i mroźnych zim z ograniczonymi opadami deszczu.Globalna zmiana klimatyczna wpłynie na każdego obywatela, każdą część środowiska i zasobównaturalnych, a nawet na styl naszego życia, a więc praktycznie na każdy aspekt naszego życia.Turcja doświadczyła ostatnio jednego z najbardziej suchych i najgorętszego sezonu letniegow czasie ostatnich miesięcy. Obecnie kraj musi zmierzyć się z powodziami spowodowanymiulewnymi deszczami. SWTrots att Turkiet ligger på en plats, geografiskt sätt, där klimatet är ganska milt, är skillnadernai klimatförhållandena betydande från en region till en annan. Detta beror på de olika formernaav landskapet, och i synnerhet förekomsten av berg som löper parallellt med kusten. Turkiethar sju olika geografiska väder- och klimatregioner. Medan kustregionerna får njuta av mildareklimat, så upplever inre Anatolien platån varma somrar och kalla vintrar med begränsadnederbörd. Globala förändringar kommer att påverka varje medborgare, varje del av miljön ochvåra naturresurser, och därmed praktiskt taget varje aspekt av våra liv - vår ekonomi, vårastäder och förorters utveckling, naturområden och vår livsstil. Turkiet upplevde en av sinatorraste och varmaste somrar under de senaste månaderna. Numera får landet översvämningarpå grund av svåra regn. 4
  • 5. SWEDEN Swedens climate is strongly influenced by the proximity to the Atlantic and Gulf Stream. This means that winter temperatures are much higher than it is in the same latitude in Canada and Siberia. Sweden has both continental and coastal climate. In summer the average temperature is around 16C, while the winter average temperature is more variable, ranging from 0 to minus 15C. Visible signs of a rise in temperature is that the growing season has become longer, the snow cover disappears earlier, in the mountains, the tree line shifted upward and glaciers have become smaller. In Sweden, we can get a nice Mediterranean climate, but also increases the risk of extreme weather such as torrential rains and powerful storms leading to flooding. The summer will be longer and hotter with droughts and water shortages, wintertemperatures will rise sharply. The vegetation will change - deciduous forest growing,coniferous forest declines. The climate in Sweden, get more character of coastal climate -milder, but also more clouds and precipitation. There is a risk that everything will be just theopposite, if the Gulf Stream changes direction or becomes weaker. Without the warmth of theGulf Stream, Sweden can expect a much harsher climate than today. SW Sveriges klimat är starkt påverkat av närheten till Atlanten och Golfströmmen. Dettagör att vintertemperaturen är betydligt högre än vad den är på motsvarande breddgrad i t.ex.Kanada och Sibirien. Sverige har både inlandsklimat och kustklimat. På sommaren ärmedeltemperaturen ca 16C medan vinterns medeltemperatur är mer varierande, mellan 0 tillminus 15C. Synliga tecken på en stigande temperatur är att växtsäsongen har blivit längre, attsnötäcket försvinner tidigare, i fjällen har trädgränsen förflyttats uppåt och glaciärerna har blivitmindre. I Sverige kan vi få ett skönt Medelhavsklimat men risken ökar också för extrema vädersom skyfall och kraftigare stormar som leder till översvämningar. Sommaren blir längre ochvarmare med torka och vattenbrist, vintertemperaturen kommer att stiga kraftigt. Växtlighetenkommer att förändras – lövskog ökar, barrskog minskar. Klimatet i hela Sverige, även i inlandet 5
  • 6. får mer karaktär av kustklimat – mildare, men också mer moln och nederbörd. Det finns en riskatt allt blir precis tvärtom, d.v.s. om Golfströmmen ändrar riktning eller blir svagare. Utanvärmen från Golfströmmen kan Sverige räkna med ett betydligt kärvare klimat än dagens. PLKlimat w Szwecji jest silnie uzależnione od prądów Atlantyku i prądu zatokowego. Oznacza to,że temperatury w zimie są znacznie wyższe niż w tej samej szerokości geograficznej w Kanadziei Syberii. W lecie średnia temperatura wynosi około 16  C, podczas gdy średnia temperaturazimą jest bardziej zróżnicowana, od 0 do -15  C. Widoczny wzrost temperatury powoduje, żezaczyna się sezon wegetacyjny pokrywa śnieżna zanika wcześniej.W Szwecji można cieszyć się śródziemnomorski klimatem, ale także zwiększa się ryzykoekstremalnych zjawisk pogodowych, takich jak ulewne deszcze i silne burze prowadzące dopowodzi. Lato jest wtedy dłuższe i gorętsze powodując susze i niedobór wody, zimątemperatura wzrasta gwałtownie.Roślinność ulega zmianie – zwiększa się ilość lasów liściastych,spada ilość iglastych lasów TRİsveç iklimi Atlantik ve Gulf Stream’e olan yakın konumundan çok etkilenmektedir. Bu daKanada ve Sibiryada aynı enlemde olmasına rağmen İsveç’te kış sıcaklıklarının, bu bölgeleregöre daha yüksek olduğu anlamına gelir. İsveç, hem karasal hem de kıyı iklimine sahiptir. Yazaylarında ortalama sıcaklık 16  C, kış aylarında ortalama sıcaklık 0 ile -15 dereceye kadardeğişiklik gösterebilir.Isıdaki gözle görülür artışla ürün yetiştirme mevsimi uzar, kar örtüsü erken kaybolur, dağlardaağaç hattı yukarı doğru kayar ve buzullar küçülür.İsveçte güzel bir Akdeniz İklimi’ne sahibiz fakat bu aynı zamanda, şiddetli yağışlar ve sellere yolaçan güçlü fırtınalar gibi kötü hava şartları riskini artırır. Yaz mevsimi kuraklık ve su sıkıntısı iledaha uzun ve sıcak, kış mevsiminde sıcaklıklar ise gözle görülür bir şeklide artışgösterecektir.Bitki örtüsü iğne yapraklı ormanların artması, kozalaklı ormanların azalması iledeğişecektir. İsveç’te iklim hafif ama daha fazla yağış getiren bulutlarla kıyı iklimi karakterindedir.Gulf Stream’in yön değiştirmesi veya daha zayıf hale gelmesi durumunda her şeyin tam tersiolması gibi bir risk vardır. Gulf Stream sıcaklığını olmadan, İsveç’te bugün olduğundan çok dahasert iklim bekleyebilirsiniz. 6
  • 7. POLAND There is a temperate climate in Poland, with the influence of maritime and continental one. It depends on many factors-meteorological conditions and geographical location. The most important among all the factors is the impact of the seas, oceans and continents. We have identified number of air masses affecting the climate.Cloudy, cool and rainy summers are the affect of polar air-sea and Icelandic low. Winters underthe influence of polar continental air are frosty while summers are hot. Tropic continental massmakes summer hot but stormy and often thaws in winter. Arctic mass lowers the temperaturein winter and causes rain in spring.In Poland, the winds blow mainly from the western direction. In the north the local wind isknown as the sea breeze. The wind in the mountains is called Halny. Temperatures are shapedby geographical location, topography and air masses.An average temperature in Poland during the year is 7 to 8˚C. The lowest averagetemperature occurs in Suwalki, about 6˚C where the vegetation period lasts only 180 days. Thehighest average temperatures occur in the Lowland Silesia and the Carpathian Foothills – above8˚C and the growing season lasts about 220 days.Rainfalls depend on the altitude above sea level, topography of the land and its distance fromlarge water tanks. The average amount of rainfall in Poland is about 600 mm. The highestaverage rainfalls occur in the mountains. The greatest rainfalls are in summer. PLW Polsce klimat jest umiarkowany , wpływa na niego powietrze morskie i kontynentalne.Zależy on od wielu czynników- warunków meteorologicznych i położenia geograficznego.Najważniejszym czynnikiem jest jednak wpływ mórz, oceanów i kontynentów. Mamy w Polsceliczbę mas powietrza również mających wpływ na klimat. Pochmurne, deszczowe i chłodne latojest efektem powietrza morskiego arktycznego. Zimy pod wpływem powietrza arktycznegokontynentalnego są mroźne a lato gorące. Tropikalne masy powietrza kontynentalnegopowodują, że lato jest gorące ale równocześnie występują częste burze, a w zimie roztopy.Masy powietrza arktycznego obniżają temperaturę w zimie i powodują deszcze w lecie. WPolsce wiatry wieją głównie z kierunku zachodniego. Na północy wieje wiatr lokalny znany pod 7
  • 8. nazwą morska bryza, a w górach wiatr zwany halnym. Temperatury są kształtowane przez takieczynniki jak położenie geograficzne, topografia terenu i masy powietrza. Średnia temperaturaw ciągu roku kształtuje się na poziomie 7 – 8 stopni. Najniższa średnia temperatura występujew Suwałkach – około 6 stopni. Najwyższa średnia temperatura występują na Dolnym Śląsku i upodnóża Karpat - około 8 stopni . Opady deszczu zależą od położenia względem poziomumorza, topografii terenu i odległości od dużych zbiorników wodnych. Średnia opadów wPolsce wynosi ok. 600 mm. Najwyższe opady odnotowuje się w górach a największe pojawiająsię w lecie. SWPolen har ett tempererat klimat med påverkan av framförallt havsvatten och kontinenter, menockså andra faktorer som väderförhållanden, luftmassor och geografiskt läge.Effekten av polära luftmassor och Isländska lågtryck är att somrarna blir molniga,regniga ochsvala. Vintrarna har kall, frostig luft p.g.a. inflytande av den polära kontinentala luften medansomrarna är varma. Tropisk kontinental massa gör sommaren het, men med stormar och oftamilda vintrar. Arktisk massa sänker temperaturen på vintern och orsakar regn på våren.I Polen blåser vindarna främst från västlig riktning. I norr kallas den lokala vinden havsbrisen.Vinden i fjällen kallas Halny. Temperaturer är formade av geografiskt läge, topografi ochluftmassor. En medeltemperatur i Polen under året är 7 till 8 ˚ C. Den lägstamedeltemperaturen inträffar i Suwalki, ca 6 ˚ C där vegetationen bara varar i 180 dagar. Denhögsta medeltemperaturen inträffar i låglandet Schlesien och Karpaterna Foothills - över 8 ˚ Coch odlingssäsongen varar cirka 220 dagar. Regn beror på höjden över havet, topografi avjorden och dess avstånd från stora vattentankar. Den genomsnittliga mängden nederbörd iPolen är ca 600 mm. Den högsta genomsnittliga nederbörden förekommer i bergen. Den störstaregnmängden faller på sommaren. TRPolonya’da deniz ve kıtasal iklimin etkisi ile ılıman bir iklim vardır.Bu birçok faktöre-meteorolojikkoşullar ve coğrafi konuma bağlıdır. Tüm faktörler arasında en önemlisi denizler, okyanuslar vekıtaların etkisidir.Biz iklimi etkileyen hava kütlelerinin sayısını belirledik.Bulutlu, serin ve yağışlı yazlar, kutup hava-deniz akımı ve İzlanda’nın düşük hava akımınınetkisidir. Kutup kıta ikliminin etkisi altında kışları ayaz, yazlar ise sıcaktır. Tropik kıta kütlesi kışı 8
  • 9. sıcak ama fırtınalı ve genellikle çözülür hale getirir. Kuzey kutup kitlesi, kış aylarında sıcaklığınıdüşürür ve ilkbaharda yağmur neden olur.Polonyada, rüzgarlar genelde batı yönünden eser. Kuzeyde esen yerel rüzgar, deniz meltemiolarak bilinir.Dağlarda esen rüzgara Halny denir. Sıcaklıklar, coğrafi konum, topografya ve havakütleleri ile şekillenir.Polonya’da bir yıl boyunca ortalama sıcaklık 7-8 derece arasındadır. Sebzecilik periyodununsadece 180 gün olduğu Suwalki’de 6 derece olan sıcaklık ortalama en düşük sıcaklıktır. Büyümesürecinin yaklaşık 220 gün sürdüğü Lowland Silesia ve Carpathian Foothills bölgelerinde 8derecenin üzerinde seyreden sıcaklık ile en yüksek sıcaklık yaşanmaktadır. Yağışlar kara ve denizseviyesine, topografya üzerinde yüksekliğe ve büyük su kaynaklarına olan mesafeye bağlı olarakdeğişiklik gösterir. Polonya’da ortalama yağış miktarı 600 mm’dir. Ortalama olarak en yüksekyağış dağlara düşmektedir. En fazla yağış yaz aylarında gerçekleşmektedir. Geographical Features of Turkey, Poland and SwedenTURKEYMore than half of the land area is higher than 1000 meters and two thirds is higher than 800meters as well. Mountain ranges extend in an east-west direction. They run parallel to the northand south coasts. These are a principal factor in determining the ecological and geographicalconditions of the country. Nearly all Turkeys rivers have their sources within its borders andflow into the sea, into neighboring countries or into some system of interior drainage.Turkey is surrounded by sea on three sides; the Black Sea in the north, the Mediterranean inthe south and the Aegean Sea in the west. In the northwest there is also an important internalsea; the Marmara Sea. With more than 300 natural and 130 artificial, Turkey is indeed acountry of lakes.While in coastal areas winters are mild and summers are moderately hot, theinland areas experience extremes of temperature. The hot summers have high daytimetemperatures with generally cool nights and the cold winters have limited precipitation withfrost occurring on more than 100 days during the year. TRTürkiye’de arazinin yarısı 1000 metreden daha yüksek ve üçte ikisi de 800 metre üzerindedir.Dağlar doğudan batıya uzanır. Kuzey ve güney kıyılarına paralel olarak uzanan dağlar ülkeninekolojik ve coğrafi koşullarını belirleyen ana faktördür. Neredeyse Türkiye’deki tüm nehirlerin 9
  • 10. kendi sınırları içinde kaynakları vardır ve bazıları denize dökülür, bazıları komşu ülkelereulaşırken, bazıları iç drenaj sistemine sahiptir.Türkiye’nin üç tarafı denizlerle kaplıdır; kuzeyde Karadeniz, güneyde Akdeniz, batıda Ege denizi.Ayrıca kuzey batıda Marmara Denizi olarak adlandırılan bir iç denize sahiptir. Türkiye sayısı300’ü aşan doğal ve 130 yapay olmak üzere coğrafik özelliklerinde barındırdığı gölleri ile de birgöller ülkesidir. Kıyı bölgelerde kışlar ılık yazlar oldukça sıcak iken, iç kesimlerde yükseksıcaklıklar yaşayabilirsiniz. Sıcak yaz günlerinde geceleri serin olurken, gündüz yüksek sıcaklıklaryaşanır. Soğuk kış günlerinde ise yılda 100 günden fazla yaşanan kar yağışı ile don meydanagelmektedir. PLPonad połowa powierzchni Turcji znajduje się na poziomie wyższym niż 1000 metrów, a dwietrzecie na poziomie wyższym niż 800 metrów. Pasma górskie rozciągają się w kierunku wschód-zachód. Rozciągają się równolegle z północy i południowego wybrzeża. Są one głównymczynnikiem determinującym warunki ekologiczne i geograficzne kraju. Prawie wszystkie rzeki wTurcji mają swoje źródła w jej granicach i dopływ do morza.Turcję otaczają trzy morza: Morze Czarne od północy, Morze Śródziemne od południa i MorzeEgejskie od zachodu. W zachodnio- północnej części znajduje się również Morze Marmara. Jestto również kraj jezior, zarówno sztucznych jak i naturalnych. W obszarze wybrzeży zimy sąłagodne a lata gorące, natomiast w centrum gorące letnie dni zmieniają się w zimne noce, azimy obfitują w opady oraz mróz utrzymujący się przez około 100 dni w roku. SWMer än hälften av landarealen är högre än 1000 meter och två tredjedelar är högre än 800meter. Bergskedjor sträcker sig i öst-västlig riktning. De ligger parallellt med norra och södrakuster. Detta är den viktigaste faktorn för att fastställa ekologiska och geografiskaförutsättningar i landet. Nästan alla Turkiets floder har sina källor inom sina gränser och rinnerut i havet, till grannländerna eller till något system av dränering.Turkiet är omgivet av havet på tre sidor, Svarta havet i norr, Medelhavet i söder och Egeiskahavet i väster. I nordväst finns också ett viktigt innanhav, Marmarasjön. Med mer än 300naturliga och 130 konstgjorda sjöar, är Turkiet verkligen sjöarnas land. I kustområden ärvintrarna milda och somrarna måttligt varma, de inre områdena har extrematemperaturerskillnader. De varma somrarna har höga dagstemperaturer med allmänt kalla 10
  • 11. nätter. Vintrarna är kalla och har begränsad nederbörd men frost förekommer mer än 100dagar under året.SWEDENSweden was formed as part of the Scandinavian mountain chain about 400 million years agoand is located in Northern Europe. Sweden is 1570 km long and is Europe’s fifth largest countrywith an area of 450 000 km². In Sweden there are 96000 lakes and the country has a 2700 kmlong coastline. Along the coast there are large collections of islands and archipelagos. Swedenhas been shaped by ice sheets and 20 000 years ago the land was completely covered by2000m thick ice sheet. Sweden is in the conifer belt and ¾ is covered by forests. In the souththere are large agricultural areas and the north west of the country consists of mountains. SinceSweden is a very long country the climate differs a lot between the northern and the southernpart, cold in the north and milder in the south. Sweden’s ten rivers flow from the mountainsinto the Baltic Sea. Annual precipitation is on average 700 mm. Although Sweden is so far north,the upper part of the country lies north of the Arctic Circle, the country is relatively warm. TheGulf Stream warms up the country. The majority of the population 9.4 million people live in thesouthern part of the country. Population density is low, 21 inhabitants per km². Stockholm,Sweden’s capital has one million inhabitants. SWSveriges bildades som en del av den Skandinaviska bergskedjan för ca 400 miljoner år sedanoch ligger i norra Europa. Sverige är 157 mil långt och Europas femte största land med en ytapå 450 000 km2. I Sverige finns det 96 000 sjöar och landet har en 270 mil lång kustlinje.Utmed kusterna finns på flera ställen stora samlingar av öar, skärgårdar. Sverige har formats avinlandsisar och för 20 000 år sedan var landet helt täckt av en 2000 m tjock inlandsis. Sverigeligger i barrskogsbältet och 3/4 är täckt av skog. I söder finns stora jordbruksområden och dennordvästra delen av landet består av fjäll. Eftersom Sverige är så långt i nord-sydlig riktning ärdet stora skillnader på klimatet, kallt i norr och mildare i söder. Sveriges tio floder rinner frånfjällen ut i Östersjön. Årsnederbörden är i genomsnitt 700 mm. Trots att Sverige ligger så långtnorrut, översta delen av landet ligger norr om polcirkeln, är landet relativt varmt. Golfströmmenvärmer upp landet. Huvuddelen av befolkningen på 9,4 miljoner människor bor i landets södratredjedel. Befolkningstätheten är låg, 21 invånare per km2. Stockholm, Sveriges huvudstad, haren miljon invånare. 11
  • 12. PLSzwecja została utworzona jako część skandynawskiego łańcucha górskiego 400 milionów lattemu i znajduje się w północnej Europie. Szwecja ma 1570 km długości i jest piątym co dowielkości w Europie krajem o powierzchni 450 000 km ². W Szwecji znajduje się 96000 jezior alinia brzegowa kraju wynosi 2700 km. Wzdłuż wybrzeża znajdują się duże skupiska wysp iarchipelagów. Szwecja została ukształtowana przez lodowce 20 000 lat temu. ¾ powierzchnizajmują lasy. Na południu znajdują się duże obszary rolnicze, a północno-zachodnia część krajuto góry. Ponieważ Szwecja jest bardzo długa, klimat różni się znacznie między północną ipołudniową częścią, na północy jest bardzo zimno a cieplej na południu. Roczne opady wynosząśrednio 700 mm. Większość populacji 9,4 milionów ludzi żyje w południowej części kraju.Gęstość zaludnienia jest niska - 21 osób na km ². Sztokholm, stolica Szwecji ma milionmieszkańców. TRYaklaşık 400 milyon yıl önce İskandinav dağ zincirinin bir parçası olarak kurulan İsveç, KuzeyAvrupada yer alır. İsveç, 1570 km uzunluğunda ve 450 000 km² alanı ile Avrupanın en büyükbeşinci ülkesidir. İsveçte 96 000 göl yer alır ve ülke 2700 km uzunluğunda bir sahil şeridinesahiptir. Kıyılarında geniş ada ve takımadalar bütünü yer alır. İsveç’i buz tabakalarışekillendirmiştir. Bundan 20 000 yıl önce arazi tamamen 2000m kalın buz tabakası ile kaplıydı.İsveç kozalaklı bitkilerin yer aldığı bir bölgedir ve ¾’ü ormanlarla kaplıdır. Ülkenin güneyindegeniş tarım alanları ve kuzey batısında dağlar yer alır. İsveç çok uzun bir ülke olduğu için iklimkuzey ve güney kesiminde büyük farklılık gösterir; kuzey kesimi soğuk, güney kesimi ise dahayumuşaktır. İsveç’te yer alan 10 nehir, dağlardan Baltık Denizine akar. Yıllık yağış ortalaması700 mm üzerindedir. İsveç kuzeye yakın olmasına rağmen, ülkenin üst kısmı kuzey kutupdairesinde kalır, ülke nispeten sıcaktır. Körfez akıntısı ülkeyi ısıtır. Nüfusun çoğunluğu, 9.4milyon insan, ülkenin güney kesiminde yaşar. Nüfus yoğunluğu düşüktür; km² başına 21 kişidir.İsveç’in başkenti Stockholm’de bir milyon kişi yaşar.POLANDPoland is situated in Central Europe between Baltic Sea in the north and Karpaty and Sudetymountains in the south, in the basin of two rivers- Vistula and Odra. The total area of thecountry is 322 575 km². The geographic regions go from the lowland areas in the North andcentral Poland, to the hills and mountains in the South. Shaping of the surface in our countryfrom North to South shows variability, the sculpture of Poland is very diverse. The area of 12
  • 13. mountains and highlands have been destroyed in previous centuries, then have been shapedagain into rejuvenated structures. In the south of Poland there are the Tatras - beautifulmountains range between the Alps and the Caucasus. A relatively small area gives a display ofvarious forms of nature. The peaks in High Tatras soar up to 2700m above the sea level. Themost beautiful mountain lake is Morskie Oko (Sea Eye). It is imposing because of its size andmagnificent surroundings. A number of caves and grottoes are other Tatras attractions – afabulous and colourful underground world. The wild, primeval character of the Tatras has beenpreserved; the mountains are still habitat for many species of fauna and flora. You can meet abear, a lynx, a whistler or a wild goat, a symbol of the Tatra Mountains as well as alpine trees,plants and flowers. In central and northern Poland after the ice sheet had been melted dunes,coastal lakes and deltas have been formed. The lowest point in Poland is Raczki Elblag-1.8below sea level. PLPolska położona jest w centrum Europy pomiędzy Morzem Bałtyckim na północy a Karpatami iSudetami na południu ,w dorzeczu dwóch rzek – Wisły i Odry. Całkowita powierzchnia Polski to322 575 km². Powierzchnia Polski jest bardzo zróżnicowana- od nizin na północy i centrum powyżyny i góry na południu. Na południu Polski znajdują się Tatry- piękne pasmo gór pomiędzyAlpami i Kaukazem. Względnie niewielki obszar zawiera zróżnicowane formy natury. Szczyty wWysokich Tatrach sięgają do 2700 metrów nad poziomem morza. Najpiękniejsze górskiejezioro to Morskie Oko. Jest ono imponujące nie tylko ze względu na rozmiar ale i otoczenie.Kolejną atrakcją Tatr są jaskinie i groty- bajeczny podziemny świat. Pierwotny, dziki charakterTatr został zachowany – góry są wciąż siedliskiem dla wielu gatunków fauny i flory. Można tamspotkać niedźwiedzia, rysia, świstaka jak również drzewa, kwiaty rośliny, które nie występująnigdzie indziej. Najniższe miejsce w Polsce znajduje się w Raczkach- 1.8 m poniżej poziomumorza. SWPolen är beläget i centrala Europa mellan Östersjön i norr och Karpaty och Sudety bergen isöder, i sjön mellan två floder, Vistula och Odra. Den totala ytan av landet är 322 575 km ². Degeografiska regionerna går från låglänta områden i norra och centrala Polen, till kullar och bergi söder. Landets topografi visar stor variation i landet från norr till söder. Berg och högland harförstörts under tidigare århundraden, men har sedan formats igen i föryngrade strukturer. I 13
  • 14. södra Polen finns Tatrabergen – de vackra bergen ligger mellan Alperna och Kaukasus. På enrelativt liten yta visar naturen olika former. Topparna i Tatrabergen stiger upp till 2700m överhavet. Den vackraste fjällsjön är Morskie Oko (Sea Eye). Området är imponerande på grund avsin storlek och praktfulla omgivning. Grottor är en annan av Tatras attraktioner - en fantastiskoch färgstark underjordisk värld. Den vilda, urtida karaktär hos Tatrabergen har bevarats,bergen är fortfarande livsmiljö för många arter av djur och växter. Du kan möta en björn, ettlodjur, en whistler eller en vild get, en symbol över Tatrabergen, samt alpina träd, växter ochblommor. I mellersta och norra Polen har sanddyner, kustnära sjöar och deltan bildats efter attinlandsisen har smält. Den lägsta punkten i Polen är Raczki Elblag - 1.8 under havsytan. TRPolonya Orta Avrupa’da, kuzeyde Baltık Denizi güneyde Karpaty ve Sedety dağlarının arasında,iki nehir-Vistula ve Odra havzasında yer alır. Ülkenin toplam yüzölçümü 322 575 km²’dir. Coğrafibölgeleri Kuzey ve Orta Polonya’daki alçak arazilerden Güney’deki tepe ve dağlara doğruuzanır. Ülkedeki yeryüzü şekilleri çok çeşitlidir ve Kuzeyden Güneye değişkenlik gösterir.Dağlar ve dağlık alanlar önceki yüzyıllarda oldukça tahrip edilmiştir; ancak daha sonragençleşmiş yapılarla yeniden şekillenmiştir. Polonyanın güneyinde Tatras - Alpler ve Kafkasyaarasında sıralanan güzel dağlar - vardır. Nispeten küçük bir alandaki doğası değişik şekillerdegüzel görüntüler verir. Yüksek Tatras zirveleri deniz seviyesinden 2700m’ye kadar uzanır. Engüzel dağ gölü Morskie Oko (Deniz Göz) dur. Büyüklüğü ve muhteşem çevresi nedeniyleoldukça etkileyicidir. Bir dizi doğal mağara ve yer altı mağaraları muhteşem ve rengârenkdünyasıyla Tatras’ın diğer çekici yerlerinden biridir. Tatras’ın vahşi, ilkel niteliği muhafazaedilmiştir; dağlar hala pek çok çeşit fauna ve floranın yaşam alanıdır. Alpin ağaçlar, bitkiler veçiçeklerin yanı sıra bir ayı, vaşak ya da bir yaban keçisi ki Tatra Dağlarının sembolüdür, ilekarşılaşabilirsiniz. Orta ve Kuzey Polonyada buz kumulları eridikten sonra kıyı gölleri ve deltalaroluşmuştur. Polonyanın en alçak noktası Raczki Elblag’dır - deniz seviyesinin 1,8 altındadır. 14
  • 15. NATURE How to Survive in Nature An understanding of the basic concepts of how to survive in the nature is important if youever find yourself in an emergency situation in the wilderness. To learn how to survive in the nature, it is necessary to develop certain skills. Building a shelter is the first skill. In cold areas you can dig the snow and make a big hole.It will protects you from cold. Another way to build shelter is that;You can tie a few stickstogether and make the frame of the shelter.Then, make the frame of roof with stciks. Finallycover the roof with leaves. Making fire is the second skill. Always carry with you a waterproof matchers, a butanelighter, a magnetic set for lighting fires. Third skill is to find water and food.You can find water from rivers, small ponds, in the holesor rocks, rain drops, snow, leaves. You can find food from; fishing, hunting insects, digging foruseful roots of plants, picking up fruits. Signaling for help is another important skill. If you ever find yourself lost, signaling forrescue is an option you should consider. SOS (Save Our Souls) is the best known internationaldistress signal. When signaling for help, the most noticeable signal is your fire. It is easily seenat night. During the day, the smoke from your fire can be seen for many miles. On a sunny day,a mirror can be a good signaling device. Any shiny object will serve as a signal. Its essential that you have some basic principles of wilderness first aid and know how toapply them, even under stress. First, remember to be calm! In the cut and bleeding stuationstry to control bleeding by placing a bandage or pressing firmly with the palm of your hand. Ifthe bone isn’t broken, lift the wounded limb higher than the victim’s heart. Splint the limb as itlies.If you move it, it may worsen the situation.Place two splints on each side of the limb. Youcan use sticks, newspaper or cardboard.Use bandages or cloth. Tie the splint in severalplaces;so the limb can not move.We recommend you practice these skills, because just reading is not enough. When going intothe wilderness, it is your responsibility to have the proper knowledge and skills. 15
  • 16. FOOD & NATUREEDIBLE PLANTS IN SWEDENSpruce shoot ( Norway Spruce) The new shoots are best, they can be eaten immediately orcooked, but also older shoots can be eaten after boiling.Pine needles (Scots Pine) Pine needles are boiled and includes much vitamin C.Polypody It is the root of the Polypody that are edible, both fresh but even better cooked, then itis a bit bitter in taste. It tastes a little licorice.Bulrush The root is edible, but you should boil it because bulrush mainly grows in nutrient-richrivers and lakes. 16
  • 17. Dandelion (Common Dandelion) The leaves of the dandelion is eaten as a salad, root canbe eaten if it’s boiled.Birch Birch sap is sweet and nutritious, you take away a bit of the birch bark and make a holeinto the tree. Even the leaves on the birch is edible, they can be eaten fresh or cooked.Cowberry The fruit is edible, tasty and nutritious. Bilberry fruit is edible, tasty and nutritious. including iron-rich.Raspberry and Blackberry: The berries are edible, tasty and nutritious.Rosehip fruit is nutritious (vitamin C) and can be eaten immediately or cooked.Hairy Burdock The root system is edible, but should be boiled first. 17
  • 18. Beard lichen Can be eaten immediately or cooked. NettleThe leafs from the Nettles can be eaten immediately or cooked.EDIBLE PLANTS IN TURKEYAcacia (Akasya) Acacia is a spreading, usually short tree with spines and alternate compound leaves. Its young leaves, flowers, and pods are edible raw or cooked.Almond (Badem)The almond tree, which sometimes grows to 12.2 meters, looks like apeach tree. The fresh almond fruit resembles a gnarled, unripe peachand grows in clusters. The stone (the almond itself) is covered with athick, dry, woolly skin.Banana (Muz) These are treelike plants with several large leaves at the top. Their flowers are borne in dense hanging clusters. Their fruits are edible raw or cooked. They may be boiled or baked. You can boil their flowers and eat them like a vegetable. 18
  • 19. Chesnut (Kestane) Chestnuts are highly useful as survival food. Ripe nuts are usually picked in autumn, although unripe nuts picked while green may also be used for food. Perhaps the easiest way to prepare them is to roast the ripe nuts in embers. Hazelnut (Fındık) Hazelnuts ripen in the autumn when you can crack them open and eat the kernel. The dried nut is extremely delicious. The nuts high oil content makes it a good survival food. In the unripe stage, you can crack them open and eat the fresh kernel. Oaktree (Meşeağacı) All parts are edible, but often contain large quantities of bittersubstances. White oak acorns usually have a better flavor thanred oak acorns. Gather and shell the acorns. Soak red oakacorns in water for 1 to 2 days to remove the bitter substance.You can speed up this process by putting wood ashes in thewater in which you soak the acorns. Boil the acorns or grindthem into flour and use the flour for baking. You can use acornsthat you baked until very dark as a coffee substitute. EDIBLE PLANTS IN POLAND Vulgare strawberry Fragaria vesca (Poziomka pospolita) : Strawberry is a plant with the height of 5-15cm.Fruit can be processed into jams, marmalades, juices and syrups. Tea leaves can be harvested throughout the year, but the best are in the autumn, when are reddish. 19
  • 20. White Clover Trifolium repens (kończyna biała) White clover is a perennial plant of 15-45 cm. Clover blossoms can be used for a refreshing cup of tea or cooked like spinach. You can also add to cakes as filling.Fragrant violet (fiołek). It is a perennial with a short, creeping rhizome of runners. It reaches the height of 5-10 cm. Edible young leaves are harvested in March-April. They can be cooked or eaten raw. The leaves are added to herbal soups and omlettes along with other herbs.Chicory Cichorium intybus (cykoria) :Chicory is a perennial height of 30-150 cm.Chicory root is very rich in nutrients - starch and insulin.The best are the roots of young plants.They can be cut, roasted and burned as excellent (bitter)incorporated into the coffee.Nettle Urtica dioica (pokrzywa zwyczajna) : Nettle is a durable plant with the height of 40-100cm. Creeping. In early spring you can gather it to eat the young shoots (about 15cm). 20
  • 21. Cress meadow Cardamine pratensis (rzeżucha łąkowa) :Cress is a perennial plant of 20-60cm. It is best to eat cress(whole stems) chopped finely with butter on bread, It can beadded to the homogenized cheese and curd. You can sprinkleit noodles, meat or add it into soups and sauces.Elderberry Sambucus nigra (czrany bez) : Elderberry, wild lilac also called as a shrub. Fruits are not suitable for direct consumption, but you can do juice, marmalade, jam, jelly and soup with them. Unripe fruits and other parts of the plant are poisonous. The juice is a popular means of sweating and antitussive.MARSH PURGATORY Stachys palustris (czyściec błotny). Purgatory is a marsh plant durable, almost without smelling. It can be eaten prepared like potatoes or asparagus – it is very tasty and nutritious. They can also be eaten raw or dried. In the spring after cooking, you can also eat young shoots. 21
  • 22. How to Protect Ourselves in Nature POISONOUS PLANTS 22
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  • 24. WILD ANIMALS 24
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  • 28. Let’s Prepare a Survival-KitA "survival kit" should really be adapted to the terrain and the climateexpected to stay in, but some things are useful almost anywhere. The thingsthat I choose to have with the description (survival-box) are suitable forSwedish conditions but should be useful both in Poland and in Turkey. Notethat I do not have a knife in the survival-box, you should always wear a goodknife, and the knife is an obvious part of the survival equipment Survival box (one part of the total survival kit) I recommend a tin box with the approximate dimensions of 12 * 8 * 4 cm, it will fit in a pocket (the maximum size is 15 * 10 * 5 cm). It is better to have a box of sheet metal because then you can also use it as a small pan, but also as a digging tool.My "survival box" includes:• Matches in a moisture-proof protection• Fish-hooks, floats and fishing line• Thin wire on a reel• Needle and thread (strong thread), even safety pins• Freezer bags, 5-7 l of water and food storage as well as moistureprotection for your shoes• Nails (5-inch nails; to produce weapons, traps, or "holes")• A little soap (to keep clean is important, both to disease and the bacteria)Other things that are good to have with them, except for the survival box,in a "Survival Kit" are:  Compass  A small hatchet  Flashlight  A hat  Multitool  First aid support  Grinding stone for the  Elastic tie knife 28
  • 29. Matches should be kept completely dry. Matches in a waterproof film canister. Fishing equipment: fishing line, fishing Thin wire on a reel, to build shelters, hooks, leads, wine cork as a float, etc. repair or manufacture founder. Needles, strong thread and safety pins. Freezer bags (5-7 l) to carry and store water and gathered food or as a shoe covers. 29
  • 30. Nails, 5 inches, can be used for making Soap: It is always important to stay clean "holes" but also in traps or hunting gear. to reduce the risk of infection and disease. A good knife and a grindstone to keep A good multi-tool has many good functions. tools and hunting tools sharp and crisp.The above items are examples of good content in a survival box. Threeother things that one should always have with them is a first aid kit, anelastic tie and a compass. 30