NL: Spain: Pop Culture & Media EffectsPresentation Transcript
SPAIN: POP CULTURE & MEDIA EFFECTS BY: NIMAT LALANI
Activists Using the Mass Media to Reach a Global Audience http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l6Vj8ZLw3Bg “The Re-Acciona exhibit in Copenhagen invites citizens from around the world to record their message about climate change and then projects that message for the world to see. The Acciona company uses social media to spread the word about the importance of the COP15 Conference and climate change solutions.” Communication masts and aerials, Costa del Sol, Malaga Province, Spain
Historic Trends “While the tradition of the press in Spain truly dates back to the eighteenth century, its roots are to be found in the seventeenth century.” Gazette Tradition
“The first periodical publications in Spain belong to the so-called gazette tradition.”
“Among these, the first gazettes to circulate in Spain were those from France: La Gazette, Le Journal des Savantesand Le Mercure Galan.”
“The first gazette to be published in Spain, the weekly GacetaSemanal de Barcelona, appeared in 1641.”
“The second and more important gazette, the Gaceta de Madrid, known as Gazeta Nueva and Relación, was published in 1661.”
“This political and military news source appeared annually until in 1667 it became a weekly. Later it was published biweekly, and in 1808 it became a daily.”
Historic Trends in the 18th Century The eighteenth-century press was strongly influenced by the periodical press of France. The eighteenth century saw a proliferation of news in Spain. The majority was dedicated to literary content and information dealing with the arts and sciences. This press also contained articles on the improvement of the national economy. One of the earliest Spanish newspapers was the eighteenth-century El Diario de Los Literatos, which was published in 1737 and focused primarily on literary content and survived until 1742. The paper espoused and defended the ideas and philosophy of eighteenth-century Spanish thinkers and writers, such as Feijoo and Luzan. It was one of the first papers to carry the title Diario(daily). However, it was not published daily. The first daily was the DiarioNoticioso, Curioso, Erudito, Comercialy Politico and was published in February of 1758 by Francisco Mariano Nipho (1719-1803), the founder of journalism in Spain. This paper, later called the Diario de Madrid, became the first daily newspaper published in Spain.
King Fernando VI granted this paper a special privilege to publish moral and political discourses, announcements, and literature.
Historic Trends in the 19th Century Costumbrismo Costumbrismo Painter: Ernest Descals Newspapers in Spain continued to proliferate in the nineteenth century. A whole literary movement, known as Costumbrismo, based on character sketches and articles on Spanish customs and manners, arose out of the press of Spain during the nineteenth century. Readers were attracted by general and political news as well as by articles by well-known writers, such as MesoneroRomanos and Mariano José Lara. http://www.ernestdescals.com/6401/index.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GXWfSfk1YcY&NR=1&feature=fvwp
Historic Trends in the 19th Century cont.Rise and Fall of the Early Press in Spain Perhaps the most important obstacle was the issue of freedom of the press. In Spain, full freedom of the press was not achieved until the revolution of 1868 and the First Republic (1871). It should be noted that the political developments, which brought about this freedom, were short lived. By 1878, there were already some 380 newspapers in Spain. By 1882, this number had grown to 917. In 1920, there were more than two thousand. With respect to dailies, in 1900 there were around 300 papers. However, this number dropped to 290 in 1920. In the nineteenth century, Spain's newspapers faced difficulties. Spain's transportation system and railway network were unreliable. Coupled with its rough terrain, the underdeveloped transportation system limited the distribution of the press. Also, the literacy rate was low, about 25 percent of a population of 16 million. In the 1970s, the press declined. The only papers during this time to maintain circulation rates of 200,000 were ABC and La Vanguardia. Circulation rates continued to fall well into the late 1970s. However there was a small increase in 1981 and 1982.
Historic Trends in the 19th Century cont. Moreover, during the nineteenth century, newspapers became closely affiliated with specific political groups and also linked to particular business interests. This was departure from the earlier part of the century when writers and other intellectuals controlled the press. During the later part of the century, the press became a for-profit enterprise.
Kiosk Literature Newspapers as well as other periodical press form part of what has been called "kiosk literature" in Spain. This literature dates back to the nineteenth century and is related to the Spanish tradition of buying, selling, and reading. This type of literature usually refers to both serious and popular literature that is sold in kiosks. It is a literature of mass appeal which includes serious newspapers, sports press, economic, and travel magazines as well as what is referred to in Spain as "prensa del corazón" (press of the heart). This periodical press is primarily a set of magazines containing what might be called "gossip columns”. The best example of this press is the popular magazine Holá!, founded by Eduardo Sánchez and Mercedes Junco in 1944. Circulation of the magazine has continued to increase through the years. Much of the magazine deals with the Spanish Royal family, European royalty, and international entertainment stars. With respect to format, photographs receive more attention than text, which is minimal for the most part. Holá! has been described as escapist, which was fostered by Franco's ideas of culture and the arts.
Political Effects on the Media in the 20th Century During the twentieth century, ABC was one of the most important Spanish newspapers. Founded in 1903 (1905 as a daily) by the Luca de Tena family, it continues to have strong ties to the monarchy and the Catholic Church. It espouses conservative viewpoints and is highly critical of both Cataán and Basque nationalism. Before and during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939), ABC was instrumental in attacking the governments of the Second Republic (1931-1936), specifically with respect to Cataán and Basque nationalism and any political manifestations of labor and radical ideologies, especially socialism. After the war, ABC was closely tied to the Franco government but it always maintained its monarchist stance. After the Civil War, the state became the principal newspaper publisher in Spain. All papers were subsumed into what was then called Prensa del Movimiento, an organization with close ties to the Spanish Falange. In 1948, there was an official media that controlled all the nation's press. Until the late 1960s, the government subsidized this state-run propaganda tool. With the victory of Franco and the destruction of the Second Republic at the end of the Civil War in 1939, all newspapers were placed under the control of the government's press agency, the DelegaciónNacional de Prensay Propaganda (National Press and Propaganda Agency). While some privately owned papers did exist, they had to accept directives and administration imposed by the Franco regime.
Censorship Until the death of Franco, censorship was a main feature of all Spanish culture. The government was intolerant of any political or artistic expression that challenged or seemed to insult the Franco government or military forces. During the Franco years, the press, literature, and the cinema were heavily censored. In addition to governmental censorship, there was also censorship organized by Catholic organizations. The Church's role was primarily to censor materials that were deemed to be immoral or of a sexually explicit nature. The Constitution of 1978 guaranteed the rights of a free press and outlawed prior censorship.
News Agencies Agencia (EFE) is the oldest and most important of the Spanish media resources. Founded by the Franco government in 1938. Controlled the flow of news, including news from foreign agencies. After the transition to democracy, this agency remained closely associated with the government. Operates as the official news agency of the state and is one of the largest news agencies in the Spanish-speaking world. The agency has 1,145 employees worldwide, and it distributes to more than one thousand locations throughout the world. It staffs offices in 137 cities and in 102 countries. More than 2,000 journalists are affiliated with it. Using satellite transmitters, it sends more than 300 reports daily, and it offers 24-hour service to participating journalists. In addition to EFE, there are other important news agencies in Spain. Among these there are Agencia de Comunicaciones, AvantpressColpisaEuropa Press, AgenciaCataána de Noticias, and Reuters España.
Newspapers in Spain “Three important political events helped shape the press of twentieth century Spain: the rise of the Second Republic; the Spanish Civil War and subsequent triumph of General Francisco Franco; and the death of Franco and the transition to democracy. During the forty years of the Franco dictatorship, the government had complete control of all forms of the press and media. Censorship was exercised and dissent was not tolerated. After the death of Franco, the press gained freedom and with it the ability to take on the role of a modern European democracy. In the early 2000s, the press and other forms of the media have complete freedom to comment on all political, cultural, and social issues."
Newspapers in Spain cont. There is a higher percentage of those who read the newspaper in Spain than those who buy it. “The reason for this can be found in the Spanish habit of sharing newspapers. For example, their availability in restaurants, etc.” Advertising is used to bring in majority of the income of Spanish newspapers and magazines. Newspapers and magazines are mainly privately owned.
PBS: Are Print Newspapers Alive and Well in Spain? “For now, it seems so. Last year the National Statistics Institute here released data which showed that Spaniards are buying more newspapers than they were five years ago -- a trend that is just the opposite in many other countries.” The national average of daily newspaper readers in Spain increased from 36.3 percent in 2000 to 41.8 percent in 2006. “But even with those statistics, some media experts believe there are reasons to worry that newspapers here might follow the same downward trend of their U.S. counterparts.”
PBS: Are Print Newspapers Alive and Well in Spain? Cont. Café Culture “Many Spaniards, particularly men, have three places they go daily: work, home and "the bar”. The bar is actually more of a café, and there are several on almost every street. The bar is a place where you meet up with other regulars, have a coffee, read the paper or talk news with others. In this city, plagued by water shortages, hellish traffic, rising housing costs and other urban maladies, people love to talk news and the bar is the perfect place to do that.” “Walking around with a certain newspaper under your arm or reading it in a café means something here -- it's a way of showing other people your political leanings. The paper you read defines who you are (socialist, monarchical, conservative, etc.), and you can't show off a website in the same way.”
PBS: Are Print Newspapers Alive and Well in Spain? Cont. Limited Wifi and Aging Population “I have spent many an hour hunting in vain for a WiFi signal in cafes and all the other likely spots. The city was set to get municipal WiFi launched back in 2004, but the plan was eventually nixed by the Spanish Telecommunications Market Regulator, which claimed it infringed on free competition. So far, I've only been able to find truly free WiFi at libraries and a couple of pizza joints. It's not non-existent, it's just hard to find and limited.” “Barcelona isn't alone. A friend of mine in Sevilla tells me that there are four Starbucks stores in his city, and none of them offer WiFi. ‘The rare cafe that offers it does so only in the evenings, and makes you pay for it, and it's very expensive,’ he says. So when you want to relax with the news, it's the paper version or none at all.” “In addition to lack of accessible WiFi public spaces, Spain also has one of the lowest birth rates in the world and an aging population that hasn't quite caught on yet to the idea of accessing news and other information online. So newspapers and television are still the primary means of accessing news for many people.”
PBS: Are Print Newspapers Alive and Well in Spain? Cont. Barrio Relationships In addition, business transactions in these shops are more personal experiences. Perhaps it's more appealing to go down and buy the newspaper from the same nice shopkeeper every day or every weekend, and the rewards of that one bit of personal interaction might outweigh the questionable rewards we reap by staring blankly at laptop screens and clicking around. Not Such a Rosy Situation for Print “In 2006, only 26.2 percent of the population aged 14-19 read the papers regularly, while the statistic for the general population was 10 percent higher. And just today statistics were released here in Barcelona which show that half the city now has an Internet connection at home.”
Newspapers in Spain cont. Geographical Distribution and Ownership The press in Spain is divided into national and regional newspapers. There are three important newspapers: El País (liberal), El Mundo(independent) and ABC (conservative). Most newspapers and a lot of the electronic media are owned by the major media groups: PRISA, GrupoCorreoPrensaEspañola, UNEDISA, and GrupoGodó.
Newspapers in Spain cont. El País , published in Madrid, is Spain's leading newspaper. It has set the tone for serious journalism in Spain, and it played a central role in the country's transition to democracy. In the early 1970s, a group of investors and journalists sought to begin a truly liberal independent newspaper in Spain. El País championed liberal democratic views along with pluralist views toward the recently formed autonomous communities. After the dictator's death in 1975, one of the principal mass communication groups in Spain, PRISA, began the paper. El País: DiarioIndependiente de la Mańanafirst appeared on May 4, 1976.
Newspapers in Spain cont. El País Its publication marked a milestone in the history of Spanish journalism and political and cultural history. PRISA also owns the radio network SER and is part owner of the subscription television channel Canal+(Plus). Published in Madrid in a tabloid format of between 80 to 100 pages, it contains many business, educational, travel, and literary supplements. It concentrates on reporting and analysis of all aspects of Spanish life and culture. There is a marked emphasis on international news, indicating the paper's role in European journalism. For its international coverage, it uses both news agency material as well as overseas correspondents. It also has established close relationships with other European newspapers such as the Independent and La Repubblica. Its op-ed pieces often set the agenda for public debates. The paper also publishes regional editions (Andalucia and Barcelona). In addition, it publishes an international edition and an Internet edition.
Newspapers in Spain cont. El Mundo It’s one of the major daily newspapers published in Madrid with a national readership. Founded in 1989, its masthead reads, "El Mundo del SigloVeintuno" (The World of the Twenty-First Century). In tabloid format with around 80 pages per copy, it contains both international news and in-depth coverage of national news. In addition, it contains business and sports pages with extensive literary and Sunday magazines and supplements. It is also known for its investigative journalism. During the socialist government of Felipe González, it carried out extensive investigative reporting into corruption of governmental officials.
Newspapers in Spain cont. ABC One of a very few conservative, older family-owned newspapers. Published by PrensaEspañola, and owned by the Luca de Tena family, ABC is part of the Catholic and monarchist press to survive Spain's transition to democracy. It is a very successful paper with a national readership. It is, however, not as important as El País or El Mundo. ABC is published in a small format of around 130 pages, stapled at the spine, and printed on poor quality paper. It contains few photographs. The newspaper's articles are printed in difficult-to-read columns. In terms of format, in comparison to El País and El Mundo, it does not seem modern. The paper is a constant critic of the socialist PSOE government of Felipe González, and it has been very critical of Cataán and Basque nationalism. Its readership appears to be people who are suspicious of change.
Newspapers in Spain cont. La Vanguardia One of the oldest and most prestigious daily newspapers published in Catalonia. Founded in 1881, by the Cataán industrialists Carlos and BartoloméGodó, and is still owned by the Godó family. While it is one of the major newspapers in Barcelona, it has a significant readership in other parts of Spain. Published in a tabloid format of around 100 pages. It is known for its coverage of Cataán as well as Spanish and international news. Its high quality reporting represents the industrial and business sectors of Cataán society. Written in Spanish, the paper contains a great deal of information on Cataán culture and politics. However, it often takes a critical view of Cataán nationalists, especially of the Cataán parliament and the convergence and unity political party. Recently, this paper has received competition from another Barcelona paper, El Periodico.
Newspapers in Spain cont.
The sporting press of Spain enjoys a huge popularity.
The most important sporting newspapers are Marca, As, Sport, El MundoDeportivoand Super Deporte.
Marcais by far, the most successful. It is one of the most important of all Spanish dailies. It was part of the Punto Editorial and was later bought by Recolectos in 1984. It also receives support from the British Pearson Group. While the paper covers all sports, it is most intensely interested in football-soccer.
Broadcast Media Radio
Profound impact on Spanish media.
During and after the Civil War, radio was used primarily as an instrument of government propaganda.
After the war, the Franco forces seized republican broadcasting stations.
Beginning in 1939, there was prior censorship of all commercial radio broadcasts.
During the Franco period, coverage of all news, both national and international was in the hands of an official state network, Radio Nacional de España (RNE).
RNE held a monopoly on radio transmission until 1977.
Broadcast Media cont. Radio
Unlike the Spanish print media, radio did not experience a process of liberalization, during which restrictions were eased.
In 1997, the number of radios in Spain was 13.1 million.
Since 1989, the General Bureau regulates radio for radio broadcasting and television.
The most important radio networks in Spain are RNE, Cadena de OndasPopulares (COPE), SociedadEspañola de Radio Difusión (SER) and Onda Cero.
SER is the most popular of all the radio networks. It commands a high audience (9.6 million) and is known for its music (rock and popular) and its news programs. This network, especially "Hora 25" program, played an important role in Spain's transition to democracy by broadcasting some of the first uncensored news stories.
The audience for radio news in Spain is greater than that of print media, but smaller than that of television.
As in the case of print media and television, radio has figured prominently in consolidating culture and identity in Spain's regions and autonomous communities.
Broadcast Media cont. Television
It is estimated that over 90 percent of the population watches television daily.
On average Spaniards watch more than three hours of television per day.
They watch television at home but also in bars and cafes; they especially love to watch football matches.
In terms of audience size, TVE1 and Antena 3 draw the greatest number of viewers.
Like newspapers and radio, television was controlled and censored during the Franco regime. During those years Television de España(TVE), Spain's first station, founded in 1956, held a state monopoly on television broadcasting. A second channel was introduced in 1965.
Even after the death of Franco, Spanish television was under the influence of the government. This lasted into the 1980s, when the first regional televisions appeared, particularly Basque television (ETB) and Cataán television. After 1983 regional television stations began to appear throughout Spain.
Broadcast Media cont. Television
The major development in Spanish television after the death of Franco was broadcasting in regional languages and the arrival of commercial national stations.
The most important of these was the establishment of Canal+, which is owned by a French company of the same name and the Spanish media group PRISA.
Canal+ is a subscription channel, known particularly for its broadcasting of films and high quality programming.
Other important Spanish channels are Antena 3 and Tele5.
Antena3 offers the Spanish viewing public programming dealing with current events, sports, news, sitcoms, and popular game shows.
Tele 5 is owned by an Italian company and by the Spanish Organization for the Blind, ONCE. It is known for its game shows and controversial reality programs. Its news programs are not high quality.
Spanish television has evolved from a state owned institution, which expressed the views of the government and was heavily censored to one that tends to echo the views of particular regions, a more European perspective, and the demands of the public in general.
It must also be noted that the majority of the Spanish public receives their news, be it local, regional, national, or international, from television and not the print media.
Broadcast Media cont. Electronic News Media
Online newspapers in Spain are a recent phenomenon, and they account for 17 percent of the distribution of web traffic.
Publication history begins with the appearance of the BoletínOficial del Estrado, a governmental newspaper which was first published on the Internet in 1994.
The first general information online newspapers in Spain appeared in 1995. These were the Barcelona papers: El Periódico and La Vanguardia.
Later that same year the following papers went online: ABC (Madrid) and El Diario Vasco (San Sebastian).
In 1996, two other important papers appeared online: El Mundo(Madrid) and El País (Madrid).
In 2002 there are more than 100 editions of printed Spanish newspapers. With the passage of time, Spaniards are reading more and more newspapers online.
Magazines in Spain
There are some 350 periodicals in Spain. Most of them have a small circulation, and only a handful sell over 500,000 copies. Among these are Pronto and Hola, the "prensa del corazón" (the press of the heart), selling about 877,000 and 597,000 copies per issue respectively. Hola has spawned other versions of itself in other countries, such as Hello in the UK.
Pronto, Hola, Lecturas, and Semana commentate on the lives of the rich and famous TV and pop stars, European royalty, the Spanish aristocracy, politicians and public figures. They avoid scandals, and portray the better side of their selected personalities.
Sports magazines, women’s magazines (e.g. there is a Spanish edition of Cosmopolitan), TV listings magazines all have a following. Current affairs magazine such as Época are available, which gives in-depth coverage of news stories in Spain and abroad.
Music Juaquin Sabina Yo Mi Me Contigo Style: Adult-Contemporary Juaquin loves to write and sing about life in Spain. He particularly likes to poke fun at popular culture through examples and stories. Very relaxing voice. http://www.mtviggy.com/global/spain
Overall Picture of Spanish People and Culture http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iRL4B8VYRWI&feature=player_embedded