A high school diploma is no longer enough; now, nearly every good job requires some education beyond high school – such as an associates or bachelors degree, certificate, license, or completion of an apprenticeship or significant on-the-job training.
Currently, far too many students drop out or graduate from high school without the knowledge and skills required for success, closing doors and limiting their post-high school options and opportunities.
The best way to prepare students for life after high school is to align K-12 and postsecondary expectations. All students deserve a world-class education that prepares them for college, careers and life.
Why College- and Career-Ready Expectations for All?
A HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA IS NO LONGER ENOUGH FOR SUCCESS The changing economy is accelerating the expectations gap, as careers increasingly require some education/training beyond high school, and more developed knowledge and skills.
Jobs in Today’s Workforce Require More Education & Training Source: Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna M. Desrochers, Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K–16 Reform, Educational Testing Service, 2003.
Occupations in the professional/ technical and managerial categories.
Often require four-year degrees and above
Occupations that include clerical, sales, construction, installation/repair, production, and transportation/material moving.
Occupations in the service and agricultural categories.
Source: The Future of Middle-Skill Jobs” by Harry J. Holzer and Robert I. Lerman, Brookings Institution, February 2009.
Often require some education and training beyond high school (but typically less than a bachelor’s degree), including associate’s degrees, vocational certificates, significant on-the-job training.
Employment Shares by Occupational Skill Level, 2006 Source: The Future of Middle-Skill Jobs” by Harry J. Holzer and Robert I. Lerman, Brookings Institution, February 2009.
Demand for Middle-Skill Workers Outpaces Kentucky’s Supply
I n 1950, 60% of jobs were classified as unskilled, attainable by young people with high school diplomas or less. Today, less than 20% of jobs are considered to be unskilled.
One result: In Kentucky, the demand for middle- and high-skilled workers is outpacing the state’s supply of workers educated and experienced at that level.
Sources: Carnevale, Anthony P. and Donna Desrochers (2003). “Standards for What? The Economic Roots of K-12 Reform ,” Education Testing Services. http://www.learndoearn.org/For-Educators/Standards-for-What.pdf; Skills to Compete. http://www.skills2compete.org; Measuring Up (2008), “The National Report Card on Higher Education. “ http://measuringup2008.highereducation.org/index.php
81% of Kentucky’s jobs are middle- or high-skill (jobs that require some postsecondary education or training).
Yet only 29% of Kentucky adults have some postsecondary degree (associate’s or higher).
Kentucky should be preparing students for the jobs of tomorrow, not the jobs of yesterday – or even today.
A quarter of American workers are now in jobs not even listed in the Census Bureau’s occupation codes in 1967.
Given the growth of new job sectors – most notably “green jobs” – it is common sense to provide all students with a strong foundation that keeps all doors open and all opportunities available in the future.
Source: Milano, Jessica, Bruce Reed & Paul Weinstein Jr. (Sept 2009). A Matter of Degrees: Tomorrow’s Fastest Growing Jobs and Why Community College Graduates Will Get Them. The New Democratic Leadership Council
Kentucky’s Middle-Skill Jobs Source: U.S. Department of Labor, Career One Stop. http://www.careerinfonet.org Occupation Median Income (2007) % By Education Level (ages 25-44), 2007 Number of Total Jobs (in thousands) High School Some College 2006 2016 % Change Computer Support Specialists $34,700 13% 44% 5.1 6.1 20% Electrical & Electronic Engineering Technicians $52,800 27% 54% 1.0 1.2 12% Radiologic Technicians & Technologists $44,400 7% 68% 3.9 4.9 24% First-line Supervisors / Managers of Construction Trades $47,100 60% 30% 11.0 12.8 16% Civil Engineering Technicians $44,500 27% 54% 1.4 1.5 8% Registered Nurses $53,200 1% 43% 40.6 53.0 31%
America’s International Edge is Slipping Source: OECD, “Education at a Glance,” 2007 (All rates are self-reported)
America’s International Edge is Slipping Source: OECD Education at a Glance, 2007; National Center for Higher Education Management Systems analysis of 2007 American Community Survey. http://www.higheredinfo.org % of Citizens with Postsecondary Degrees Among OECD Countries, by Age Group (2006) 55-64 45-54 35-44 25-34 ALL (25-64) 1 U.S. (38%) Canada (43%) Canada (51%) Canada (55%) Canada (47%) 2 Canada (37%) U.S. (40%) Japan (46%) Japan (54%) Japan (40%) 3 N.Z. (30%) Japan (39%) Finland (41%) Korea (53%) U.S. (39%) 4 Denmark (28%) N.Z. (38%) U.S. (41%) N.Z. (44%) N.Z. (38%) 5 Finland (27%) Finland (34%) N.Z. (39%) Ireland (42%) Finland (35%) 6 Australia (26%) Denmark (33%) Korea (37%) Belgium (42%) Denmark (35%) 7 Sweden (25%) Australia (32%) Denmark (36%) Norway (42%) Australia (33%) 8 Norway (25%) Norway (30%) Belgium (35%) France (41%) Korea (33%) 9 Neth. (25%) Neth. (30%) Norway (35%) Denmark (41%) Norway (33%) 10 U.K. (24%) Switz. (29%) Iceland (34%) U.S. (39%) Belgium (32%) 11 Switz. (24%) Iceland (29%) Australia (33%) Spain (39%) Ireland (31%) 12 Japan (23%) U.K. (29%) Switz. (33%) Sweden (39%) Sweden (31%) 13 Germany (23%) Sweden (29%) Ireland (33%) Australia (39%) U.K. (30%) 14 Belgium (22%) Belgium (27%) Spain (31%) Finland (38%) Neth. (30%) 15 Iceland (21%) Germany (25%) U.K. (31%) U.K. (37%) Switz. (30%) Kentucky (27%) Kentucky (31%) Kentucky (30%) Kentucky (29%)
FAR TOO MANY STUDENTS DROP OUT OR GRADUATE FROM HIGH SCHOOL UNPREPARED FOR REAL WORLD CHALLENGES
Of Every 100 9 th Graders in Kentucky… Source: NCHEMS Information Center for Higher Education Policymaking and Analysis. Student Pipeline - Transition and Completion Rates from 9th Grade to College. www.higheredinfo.org/dbrowser/index.php?submeasure=119&year=2006&level=nation&mode=data&state=0
Achievement Remains Low: 8 th Grade Achievement Over Time Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress. Analysis of data downloaded from www.nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/ % at or Above Proficient on 8th Grade NAEP 8 th Grade Math 1992 2009 Kentucky 14% 27% U.S. 21% 32% 8 th Grade Reading 1998 2009 Kentucky 29% 33% U.S. 33% 30% 8 th Grade Science 1996 2005 Kentucky 23% 31% U.S. 29% 29%
And Gaps Persist: Kentucky’s 8 th Grade Achievement Gap Source: National Assessment of Educational Progress. Analysis of data downloaded from www.nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/ % at or Above Proficient on 8th Grade NAEP Subgroup 8 th Grade Math (2009) 8 th Grade Reading (2009) 8 th Grade Science (2005) All Students 27% 33% 31% White 29% 35% n/a Black 8% 15% n/a Hispanic 22% 30% n/a Asian n/a n/a n/a Native American n/a n/a n/a
Graduation Rates Remain Inequitable Source: Education Week, Education Counts. Developed through the Custom Table Builder, http://www.edweek.org/rc/2007/06/07/edcounts.html N/A
America’s International Edge is Slipping Source: OECD, “Education at a Glance,” 2007 (All rates are self-reported)
Enrollment in College Does NOT Equal College Readiness Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000, 2003. Percentage of U.S. first-year students in two-year and four-year institutions requiring remediation
Freshmen at Two-Year Colleges are More Likely to Require Remediation Source: National Center for Education Statistics, Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000, 2003.
Most U.S. College Students Who Take Remedial Courses Fail to Earn Degrees Source: National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education, 2004: % of 1992 12th graders who entered postsecondary education. Percentage earning degree by type of remedial coursework
Enrollment in College Does NOT Equal College Readiness Source: Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, Developmental Education Needs in the 2006 Entering Cohort . http://cpe.ky.gov/NR/rdonlyres/B42243CB-D19A-4EC4-AD34-ECF2900D51B1/0/Dev_needs_2006_20090605.pdf Percentage of Kentucky’s first-year students in two-year and four-year institutions requiring remediation
How Many College Students Return Their Sophomore Year – and Go On To Earn Degrees? Source: Measuring Up (2008). The National Report Card on Higher Education . http://measuringup2008.highereducation.org/index.php; National Center for Education Statistics (2003), Remedial Education at Degree-Granting Postsecondary Institutions in Fall 2000 .
Many College Students in Kentucky Fail to Earn a Degree Source: NCES, IPEDS Graduation Rate Survey, analyzed by National Center for Management of Higher Education Systems. Percent of students earning a bachelors’ degree within six years, 2006
The Majority of Graduates Would Have Taken Harder Courses, Particularly in Mathematics Source: Peter D. Hart Research Associates/Public Opinion Strategies. (2005) Rising to the Challenge: Are High School Graduates Prepared for College and Work? Washington, DC: Achieve. Would have taken more challenging courses in at least one area Math Science English Knowing what you know today about the expectations of college/work …
A MORE RIGOROUS & RELEVANT HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION WILL OPEN DOORS FOR STUDENTS – AND KEEP THEM OPEN
While there may be jobs available to high school drop outs and graduates, they often pay less and offer less security than jobs held by those with at least some postsecondary experience.
The link between educational attainment and gainful employment is clear:
More education is associated with higher earnings and higher rates of employment.
Personal Benefits of Education in Kentucky Source: U.S. Census Bureau (2008). “Current Population Survey, Annual Social and Economic Supplement.” Figures are based on total person within the civilian labor force UNEMPLOYMENT RATE LEVEL OF EDUCATION MEAN INCOME 6% TOTAL $28,392 16% HS Dropout $10,349 8% HS Graduate $23,492 4% Some College $28,087 2% Bachelor’s & Above $57,805
The Importance of Rigorous Course-Taking in Closing Gaps
Students who take challenging courses and meet high standards are much more likely to enter college ready to succeed.
87% of first-generation college-going students – who took a highly rigorous course of study in high school – persisted in college or earned a degree after 18 months.
Only 55% of first-generation students who took just a general curriculum persisted that long.
High school students who take advanced math double their chances of earning a postsecondary degree:
59% of low-income students who took advanced math in high school earned a bachelor’s degree.
36% of low-income students who did not complete the rigorous high school course of study earned a bachelor’s degree.
Source: Horn, L. and A.M. Nuñez (2000). Mapping the Road to College: First-generation Students' Math Track, Planning Strategies, and Context of Support. U.S. Department of Education. http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2001/2001153.pdf; Adelman, C. (2006). The Toolbox Revisited: Paths to Degree Completion from High School through College . U.S. Department of Education.
8 th Graders Taking Algebra I Source: Measuring Up, 2008:NCES, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2003, 2005 Mathematics Assessments.
Students Participating in Advanced Placement Source: College Board, “National Summary Reports, 2008.” http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/exgrd_sum/2008.html Percent of all 11th/12th Graders Participating in Advanced Placement (2008)
Kentucky’s Students Taking College Admissions Exams Source: ACT (2009), ACT 2009 Results . http://www.act.org/news/data/09/states.html; College Board, Mean SAT Critical Reading, Mathematics and Writing Scores by State. http://professionals.collegeboard.com/profdownload/cbs-2009-Table-3_Mean-SAT-CR-MATH-and-Writing-Scores-by-State.pdf 2009 Kentucky U.S. Participation in ACT 100% 45% Average ACT Score 19.4 21.1 Participation in SAT 7% 46% Average SAT Score 1707 1509
THE SOLUTION: STATE-LED EFFORTS TO CLOSE THE EXPECTATIONS GAP All students deserve a world-class education that prepares them for college, careers and life.