Achievement in america

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  • In addition, when Richard Ingersoll analyzed the SAS data, he found that these same schls are more likely to have a higher percentage of classes being taught by tchrs without a major or minor in the field for which they are teaching. The results are particularly striking in high poverty schls where there is a difference of 13 percentage points. Definitions High Poverty-A school where 50% or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch Low-poverty-A school where 15% or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch High-minority-A school where 50% or more of the students are nonwhite. Low-minority-A school where 15% or fewer of the students are nonwhite.
  • Schls with higher proportions of poor and minority students have more inexperienced tchrs. If we take a look at the graph, we see that in high poverty schls almost double the amount of tchrs have less than three years of experience. The same is also true for high minority schls. High poverty-top quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low poverty-bottom quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High minority-top quartile; those schools with the highest concentrations of minority students. Low minority-bottom quartile of schools with the lowest concentrations of minority students
  • In addition, when Richard Ingersoll analyzed the SAS data, he found that these same schls are more likely to have a higher percentage of classes being taught by tchrs without a major or minor in the field for which they are teaching. The results are particularly striking in high poverty schls where there is a difference of 13 percentage points. Definitions High Poverty-A school where 50% or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch Low-poverty-A school where 15% or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch High-minority-A school where 50% or more of the students are nonwhite. Low-minority-A school where 15% or fewer of the students are nonwhite.
  • Schls with higher proportions of poor and minority students have more inexperienced tchrs. If we take a look at the graph, we see that in high poverty schls almost double the amount of tchrs have less than three years of experience. The same is also true for high minority schls. High poverty-top quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low poverty-bottom quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High minority-top quartile; those schools with the highest concentrations of minority students. Low minority-bottom quartile of schools with the lowest concentrations of minority students

Transcript

  • 1. Champions for Education Northern Kentucky Community Summit Covington, KY November, 2007 ACHIEVEMENT IN AMERICA
  • 2. First, some good news. After more than a decade of stagnant or growing gaps, we appear to be turning the corner.
  • 3. NAEP Reading, 9 Year-Olds: Record Performance for All Groups Source : National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress Note: Long-Term Trends NAEP
  • 4. NAEP Math, 9 Year-Olds: Record Performance for All Groups Source : National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress Note: Long-Term Trends NAEP
  • 5. NAEP Reading, 13 Year-Olds
  • 6. NAEP Math, 13 Year-Olds: Increases and Record Performance for All Groups
  • 7. Next time somebody tells you that schools can’t make a difference…
  • 8. Tell them to take a look at the results of a decade of effort in mathematics…
  • 9. 1996 NAEP Grade 4 Math by Race/Ethnicity, Nation Source : National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
  • 10. 2007 NAEP Grade 4 Math by Race/Ethnicity, Nation Source : National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
  • 11. NAEP Grade 4 Math Low-Income Students, Nation 1996 compared to 2007 Source : National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/
  • 12. Kentucky? No exception to this pattern.
  • 13. NAEP Grade 8 Math, Kentucky Average Scale Scores Over Time, All Students Source: National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde/ * Accommodations for students with disabilities and English language learners not permitted. Proficient Scale Score: 299
  • 14. NAEP Grade 4 Math, Percent Below Basic Over Time, All Students, Kentucky Source : National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde * Accommodations for students with disabilities and English language learners not permitted.
  • 15. NAEP Grade 8 Math, Percent Below Basic Over Time, All Students, Kentucky Source : National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde * Accommodations for students with disabilities and English language learners not permitted.
  • 16. Bottom Line: When We Really Focus on Something, We Make Progress
  • 17. Clearly, much more remains to be done in elementary and middle school Too many youngsters still enter high school way behind.
  • 18. But at least we have some traction on these problems.
  • 19. The same is NOT true of our high schools.
  • 20. Achievement Flat or Declining in Reading, 17 year olds, NAEP Source : NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress. Note: Long-Term Trends NAEP
  • 21. Math and Science? At first blush, appear to be trending upwards.
  • 22. High School Achievement: Math and Science: NAEP Long-Term Trends Source: NAEP 1999 Trends in Academic Progress.
  • 23. But it turns out—at least in math-- that all of that growth is attributable to stronger math skills in students coming up from elementary school. Value Added in High School Math Actually Declined During the Nineties
  • 24. Value Added Declining in High School Math... Scale Score Growth, From Age 13 to Age 17 Source : NCES, 1999. Trends in Academic Progress. Data from Long Term Trend NAEP Note: Scale score gains reflect the difference between the scale scores of 17-year-olds and the scale scores of 13-year-olds four years prior.
  • 25. ... Still Scale Score Growth, From Grade 8 to Grade 12 Source : NAEP Data Explorer, http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/nde Note: Scale score gains reflect the difference between the scale scores of 12 th Graders and the scale scores of 8 th Graders four years prior.
  • 26. Reading: Students Entering High School Better Prepared, But Leaving Worse Total= 290 Total= 288 Source : NCES, 1999. Trends in Academic Progress. Data from Long Term Trend NAEP
  • 27. And gaps between groups wider today than in 1990
  • 28. NAEP Reading, 17 Year-Olds 21 29 Source : National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress Note: Long-Term Trends NAEP
  • 29. NAEP Math, 17 Year-Olds 20 28 Source : National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP 2004 Trends in Academic Progress Note: Long-Term Trends NAEP
  • 30. Northern Kentucky? Very much the same pattern.
  • 31. NKY: Students NOT Proficient in Reading
  • 32. NKY: Students NOT Proficient in Math
  • 33. Why so much less progress in our high schools? Hormones?
  • 34. If so, we’d see the same pattern in other countries. And we don’t.
  • 35. A few years ago, we got a wake up call when the 1999 PISA results were published.
  • 36. US 15 Year-Olds Rank Near Middle Of The Pack Among 32 Participating Countries: 1999
  • 37. The new ones?
  • 38. PISA 2003: US 15 Year-Olds Rank Near The End Of The Pack Among 29 OECD Countries Source : NCES, 2005, International Outcomes of Learning in Mathematics, Literacy and Problem Solving: 2003 PISA Results. NCES 2005-003
  • 39. A closer look at math?
  • 40. 2003: U.S. Ranked 24 th out of 29 OECD Countries in Mathematics Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results , data available at http://www.oecd.org/
  • 41. Problems are not limited to our high-poverty and high-minority schools . . .
  • 42. U.S. Ranks Low in the Percent of Students in the Highest Achievement Level (Level 6) in Math Source : Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results , data available at http://www.oecd.org/
  • 43. U.S. Ranks 23 rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of the Highest-Performing Students* * Students at the 95 th Percentile Source: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results , data available at http://www.oecd.org/
  • 44. U.S. Ranks 23 rd out of 29 OECD Countries in the Math Achievement of High-SES Students Source : Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results , data available at http://www.oecd.org/
  • 45. Problems not limited to math, either.
  • 46. PISA 2003: Problem-Solving, US Ranks 24 th Out of 29 OECD Countries Source : NCES, 2005, International Outcomes of Learning in Mathematics, Literacy and Problem Solving: 2003 PISA Results. NCES 2005-003
  • 47. One measure on which we rank high? Inequality!
  • 48. PISA 2003: Gaps in Performance Of U.S.15 Year-Olds Are Among the Largest of OECD Countries * Of 29 OECD countries, based on scores of students at the 5 th and 95 th percentiles. Source : Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), PISA 2003 Results , data available at http://www.oecd.org/
  • 49. These gaps begin before children arrive at the schoolhouse door. But, rather than organizing our educational system to ameliorate this problem, we organize it to exacerbate the problem.
  • 50. How? By giving students who arrive with less, less in school, too.
  • 51. Some of these “lesses” are a result of choices that policymakers make.
  • 52. Nation: Inequities in State and Local Revenue Per Student Source: The Education Trust, The Funding Gap 2005. Data are for 2003 Gap High Poverty vs. Low Poverty Districts -$907 per student High Minority vs. Low Minority Districts -$614 per student
  • 53. But some of the most devastating “lesses” are a function of choices that we educators make.
  • 54. Choices we make about what to expect of whom…
  • 55. Students in Poor Schools Receive ‘A’s for Work That Would Earn ‘Cs’ in Affluent Schools Source : Prospects (ABT Associates, 1993), in “Prospects: Final Report on Student Outcomes”, PES, DOE, 1997.
  • 56. Choices we make about what to teach whom…
  • 57. African American, Latino & Native American high school graduates are less likely to have been enrolled in a full college prep track percent in college prep Source : Jay P. Greene, Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates in the United States, Manhattan Institute, September 2003. Table 8. 2001 high school graduates with college-prep curriculum. Full College Prep track is defined as at least: 4 years of English, 3 years of math, 2 years of natural science, 2 years of social science and 2 years of foreign language
  • 58. And choices we make about Who teaches whom…
  • 59. More Classes in High-Poverty, High-Minority Schools Taught By Out-of-Field Teachers *Teachers lacking a college major or minor in the field. Data for secondary-level core academic classes. Source: Richard M. Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania. Original analysis for the Ed Trust of 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey . High poverty Low poverty High minority Low minority Note: High Poverty school-50% or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low-poverty school -15% or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High-minority school - 50% or more of the students are nonwhite. Low-minority school- 15% or fewer of the students are nonwhite.
  • 60. Poor and Minority Students Get More Inexperienced* Teachers Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators Report,” December 2000. *Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience. High poverty Low poverty High minority Low minority Note: High poverty refers to the top quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low poverty-bottom quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High minority-top quartile; those schools with the highest concentrations of minority students. Low minority-bottom quartile of schools with the lowest concentrations of minority students
  • 61. Results are devastating. Kids who come in a little behind, leave a lot behind. And those patterns continue into…and through higher education, as well.
  • 62. College Graduates by Age 24 Source: Tom Mortenson, Postsecondary Educational Opportunity..
  • 63. What Can We Do?
  • 64. An awful lot of people have decided that we can’t do much.
  • 65. What We Hear Many Adults Say:
    • They’re poor;
    • Their parents don’t care;
    • They come to schools without breakfast;
    • Not enough books
    • Not enough parents . . .
  • 66. But if they are right, why are low-income students and students of color performing so much higher in some schools…
  • 67. Frankford Elementary School
  • 68. Frankford Elementary Frankford, Delaware
    • 449 Students in Grades PreK-5
    • 29% African American
    • 34% Latino
    • 34% White
    • 76% Low-Income
    Source: Delaware Department of Education Online School Profiles, http://issm.doe.state.de.us/profiles/EntitySearch.ASPX
  • 69. Frankford Elementary Closing Gaps, Grade 5 Reading Source: Delaware Department of Education, DSTP Online Reports, http://dstp.doe.k12.de.us/DSTPmart/default.asp
  • 70. Frankford Elementary Closing Gaps, Grade 5 Math Source: Delaware Department of Education, DSTP Online Reports, http://dstp.doe.k12.de.us/DSTPmart/default.asp
  • 71. Frankford Elementary Higher Proficiency Rates than the State, 2005 Grade 3 Reading Source: Delaware Department of Education, DSTP Online Reports, http://dstp.doe.k12.de.us/DSTPmart/default.asp
  • 72. Frankford Elementary Higher Proficiency Rates than the State, 2005 Grade 3 Math Source: Delaware Department of Education, DSTP Online Reports, http://dstp.doe.k12.de.us/DSTPmart/default.asp
  • 73. Capitol View Elementary School Atlanta, Georgia
  • 74. Capitol View Elementary Atlanta, Georgia
    • 252 students in grades K-5
    • 95% African American
    • 88% Low-Income
    Source: Georgia Governor’s Office of Student Achievement, http://reportcard2006.gaosa.org/
  • 75. High Achievement at Capitol View 2006 Grade 5 Reading Source: Georgia Governor’s Office of Student Achievement, http://reportcard2006.gaosa.org/
  • 76. High Achievement at Capitol View 2006 Grade 5 Math Source: Georgia Governor’s Office of Student Achievement, http://reportcard2006.gaosa.org/
  • 77. Ware Elementary School Fort Riley, KS
  • 78. Ware Elementary School
  • 79. Ware Elementary School
  • 80. Ware Elementary School
  • 81. Elmont Memorial Junior-Senior High School
  • 82. Elmont Memorial Junior-Senior High School Elmont, New York
    • 1,966 Students in Grades 7-12
    • 75% African American
    • 12% Latino
    Source: New York State School Report Card, http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/irts/reportcard/
  • 83. Elmont Memorial Higher Percentage of Students Meeting Graduation Requirements than the State, Class of 2004 Regents English Source: New York State School Report Card, http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/irts/reportcard/
  • 84. Elmont Memorial Higher Percentage of Students Meeting Graduation Requirements than the State, Class of 2004 Regents Math Source: New York State School Report Card, http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/irts/reportcard/
  • 85. University Park Campus School
  • 86. University Park Campus School Worcester, Massachusetts
    • 220 Students in Grades 7-12
    • 9% African American
    • 18% Asian
    • 35% Latino
    • 39% White
    • 73% Low-Income
    Source: Massachusetts Department of Education School Profile, http://profiles.doe.mass.edu/
  • 87. University Park Results: 2004
    • 100% of 10 th graders passed MA high school exit exam on first attempt.
    • 87% passed at advanced or proficient level.
    • Fifth most successful school in the state, surpassing many schools serving wealthy students.
  • 88. Bottom Line: At Every Level of Education, What We Do Matters A Lot!
  • 89. What do we know about how to get results like this for all of our students? Seven powerful lessons
  • 90. #1. Start early.
  • 91. Some kids arrive at school already behind. Smart systems start early in developing vocabulary, learning skills.
  • 92. Quality—especially teacher quality—matters. Do it right and your investment will pay off big time.
  • 93. But education is NOT like immunization. Early success does not prevent later school failure. So…
  • 94. #2. We’ve got to get serious about our high schools. And that starts by getting clear about goals.
  • 95. Even when they start with high drop out rates, high impact high schools focus on preparing all kids for college and careers Education Trust 2005 study, “Gaining Traction, Gaining Ground.”
  • 96. That’s Good, Because Education Pays: Annual Earnings of 25-34 yr-olds by Attainment Source: US bureau of Labor Statistics and Bureau of the Census, Current Population Survey, March 2002
  • 97. Growing Need for Higher Levels of Education: Projections of Education Shortages and Surpluses in 2012 Associates Degree Some College Shortage Surplus Source: Analysis by Anthony Carnevale, 2006 of Current Population Survey (1992-2004) and Census Population Projection Estimates Bachelor’s Degree
  • 98. Even if you have your doubts, NEW STUDY FROM ACT: College ready, workforce training ready=same thing
  • 99. #3. Higher performing secondary schools put all kids—not just some—in a demanding high school core curriculum.
  • 100. Single biggest predictor post-high school success is QUALITY AND INTENSITY OF HIGH SCHOOL CURRICULUM Cliff Adelman, Answers in the Tool Box , U.S. Department of Education.
  • 101. College prep curriculum has benefits far beyond college.
  • 102. Students of all sorts will learn more...
  • 103. Low Quartile Students Gain More From College Prep Courses* Source: USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the United States: Toward the Year 2000, in Issue Brief: Students Who Prepare for College and Vocation *Grade 8-grade 12 test score gains based on 8th grade achievement.
  • 104. They will also fail less often...
  • 105. Challenging Curriculum Results in Lower Failure Rates, Even for Lowest Achievers Source : SREB, “Middle Grades to High School: Mending a Weak Link”. Unpublished Draft, 2002. Ninth-grade English performance, by high/low level course, and eighth-grade reading achievement quartiles
  • 106. And they’ll be better prepared for the workplace.
  • 107. Leading states making college prep the default curriculum. Texas, Indiana, Arkansas, Michigan, Oklahoma, Kentucky, Kansas…and 8 others.
  • 108. #4. Teachers need high quality curriculum!
  • 109. Putting students in courses with the right names is not enough. Orange juice or orange drink?
  • 110. Problem: US went from standards to tests without stopping at curriculum.
  • 111. Grade 10 Writing Assignment A frequent theme in literature is the conflict between the individual and society. From literature you have read, select a character who struggled with society. In a well-developed essay, identify the character and explain why this character’s conflict with society is important.
  • 112. Grade 10 Writing Assignment Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on Martin Luther King’s most important contribution to this society. Illustrate your work with a neat cover page. Neatness counts.
  • 113. High performing countries have strong core curriculum covering about 60% of school day.
  • 114. #5. Good schools know how much teachers matter, and they act on that knowledge.
  • 115. Students in Dallas Gain More in Math with Effective Teachers: One Year Growth From 3 rd -4 th Grade Source : Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement , 1997.
  • 116. LOW ACHIEVING STUDENTS IN TN GAIN MORE WITH EFFECTIVE TEACHERS: One Year Growth Sanders and Rivers, Cumulative and Residual Effects of Teachers on Future Academic Achievement, 1998.
  • 117. Cumulative Teacher Effects On Students’ Math Scores in Dallas (Grades 3-5) Source: Heather Jordan, Robert Mendro, and Dash Weerasinghe, The Effects of Teachers on Longitudinal Student Achievement , 1997. Beginning Grade 3 Percentile Rank= 55 Beginning Grade 3 Percentile Rank= 57
  • 118. 1998 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  • 119. Good teachers matter a lot. But some groups of kids don’t get their fair share of quality teachers.
  • 120. More Classes in High-Poverty, High-Minority Schools Taught By Out-of-Field Teachers *Teachers lacking a college major or minor in the field. Data for secondary-level core academic classes. Source: Richard M. Ingersoll, University of Pennsylvania. Original analysis for the Ed Trust of 1999-2000 Schools and Staffing Survey . High poverty Low poverty High minority Low minority Note: High Poverty school-50% or more of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low-poverty school -15% or fewer of the students are eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High-minority school - 50% or more of the students are nonwhite. Low-minority school- 15% or fewer of the students are nonwhite.
  • 121. Poor and Minority Students Get More Inexperienced* Teachers Source: National Center for Education Statistics, “Monitoring Quality: An Indicators Report,” December 2000. *Teachers with 3 or fewer years of experience. High poverty Low poverty High minority Low minority Note: High poverty refers to the top quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. Low poverty-bottom quartile of schools with students eligible for free/reduced price lunch. High minority-top quartile; those schools with the highest concentrations of minority students. Low minority-bottom quartile of schools with the lowest concentrations of minority students
  • 122. 1998 by The Education Trust, Inc.
  • 123. High performing schools and districts don’t let this happen.
    • They:
    • work hard to attract and hold good teachers;
    • make sure that their best are assigned to the students who most need them; and,
    • they chase out teachers who are not “good enough” for their kids.
  • 124. #6. Leadership matters Principals especially important.
  • 125. Elmont Memorial Junior-Senior High School
  • 126. Principals are very important, ever present but NOT the only leaders in the school.
  • 127. #7. Good leaders…need good advocates.
  • 128. Very hard to get good education on the cheap. Schools and districts need allies in making the case for strategic investments.
  • 129. But good advocates don’t just do that.
  • 130. They demand more of their systems.
  • 131. Gutsy school and district leaders do not need you to go fuzzy on them. They need—and use—the leverage that ambitious policy and aggressive advocacy provides to move change further, faster.
  • 132. The Education Trust Download this Presentation www.edtrust.org Washington, DC: 202-293-1217 Oakland, CA: 510-465-6444