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Conference presentation 25 august 2013

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Abstract …

Abstract
This presentation aims to inform stakeholders in Africa so they support instructors by meeting their online basic needs because online instruction cannot be carried out in isolation. The report is based on a piece of research which was carried out from 2010 to 2013 in Rwanda. It will focus on a teacher training institute in Rwanda, Central Africa, where instructors have been trained on how to create, develop, and manage online courses in Moodle.
Firstly, the study will lay down background information which, in addition to literature review, highlights a needs analysis that was carried out by the institution and which found out that there was a great need to raise the effectiveness of instruction through Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Also, the institution wanted to meet the professional development needs of a growing teaching and student population by developing and using online educational materials beyond the classroom. Afterwards, the paper will evaluate the training, based on the project’s expected outcomes i.e. development of training materials and introduction and use of online learning materials. It will draw on instructors’ own Moodle experience, including online courses they have created on the platform and challenges they have faced during the implementation process. It will then recommend Moodle because it’s an open source and is free to customise to any context. Furthermore, though there may be low hosting cost, it has a lot of potential to reach out and educate more people , develop learning and teaching beyond the classroom. Finally, it will make suggestions to stakeholders as to what needs to be done to support instructors and learners with a view to adopt Moodle, a growing online learning environment across the world.

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  • What is your preferred virtual learning environment and why? Moodle can help extend learning and teaching beyond the physical classroom, help people in remote areas access education they would not reach otherwise,free of charge or at a cheaper rate.
  • What is your preferred virtual learning environment and why? Moodle can help extend learning and teaching beyond the physical classroom, help people in remote areas access education they would not reach otherwise,free of charge or at a cheaper rate.
  • Transcript

    • 1. MoodleMoot Virtual Conference, 25 August 2013 “Can Moodle be used as a viable tool to educate the masses in Africa?” by Janvier Nkurunziza 1. Introduction 2. Background information 3. Data collection and analysis 4. Results presentation 5. Discussion of results 6. Recommendations to policy makers 7. Conclusion 8. Q & A session
    • 2. Introduction(Biography), • Presenter: Burundian and British national,lecturer (UK) • Moodle facilitator(2010- 2013) in 4 African universities • Burundi: National University of Burundi, 2 Moodle workshops (2010,2012, French) • Congo DR :Catholic University of Bukavu (1 workshop, 2010, French)
    • 3. Introduction(Biography), • Rwanda : National University of Rwanda (Butare, 2 Moodle workshops, 2010, 2012, English) • Rwanda: Kigali Institute of Education (Kigali, 5 Moodle workshops, 2010- 2013, English) • Rwanda: Kigali Independent University (Kigali, 1 workshop, 2012, English)
    • 4. Introduction Context of the research and purpose. Moodle introduction and implementation in Rwanda • Kigali Institute of Education • 5 Moodle workshops, 2010-2013 • Moodle installed • 30 instructors trained • 30 courses created • ICT staff trained Problem Instructors have not implemented i.e. further developed Moodle in the institution. Why?
    • 5. Literature review Boitshwarelo(2009) • Limited ICT infrastructure in Africa • low internet bandwidths, • limited telephone connections, • low computer ownership Aderinoye et al., 2009 „„Africa lacks high-speed Internet infrastructures, access to computers, and human resources with the expertise to effectively implement and support hi-tech delivery methods‟‟
    • 6. ICT in Rwanda • “the pace of development of a national ICT infrastructure is remarkable as is the progress within the education system on disseminating computers and providing connectivity and teacher training” ( Farrell ,2007:418). • Rwanda has developed a widely applauded ICT in education policy( ibid. p.422) • “a solid ICT platform, and implemented several innovative ideas”(World Bank ICT report) • Vision 2020: “transition from an agrarian economy to an information-rich, knowledge based society by 2020”(Ministry of ICT)
    • 7. Moodle • Free and open source (download/installation,etc. (Dougiamas, 2007) • Flexible: teach in one course, study in another (Dougiamas, 2007) • Static and interactive course materials activities (Rice,2008)
    • 8. Literature review Moodle • Social course materials (Cole & Foster, 2008) • Synchronous and asynchronous communication (Cole & Foster, 2008) • Collaborative activities (Dougiamas,2007 ) • Assessment activities (Rice,2010) • different operating systems • different African languages
    • 9. Pedagogical implications Sife, A., Lwoga, E., & Sanga, C. (2007) • New pedagogical methods(interaction, small group learning, etc) • Interactive learning (student-instructor; instructor to student(s), student to student(s) • Adapting, adding and reviewing content as course is progressing.
    • 10. Pedagogical implications Sife, A., Lwoga, E., & Sanga, C. (2007) • Adapt courses content. • Support multimedia course content. • Complex structuring of content. • Basic training required
    • 11. Teacher 1 Moodle experience
    • 12. Teacher 4 Moodle experience Peer interaction(teachers) Teacher-teacher interaction
    • 13. Teacher 5 Moodle experience Assessment in two courses
    • 14. Teacher 5 Moodle experience Assessment in two courses Bottom screen capture • teacher‟s profile(name & picture) • course FED 102, • Topic1 • Assignments( 1 in design, 2 submitted)
    • 15. Teacher 6 Moodle experience Discussions in groups
    • 16. Teacher 7 Moodle experience Collaboration
    • 17. Teacher 8 Moodle experience Grading assignments
    • 18. Teacher 8 Moodle experience Grading assignments
    • 19. Teacher 9 Moodle experience Survey
    • 20. Teacher Moodle experience Course Design
    • 21. Data collection sample questions Do you have experience using the Moodle ? I have much experience I have some experience I have no experience Other experience (please specify) .
    • 22. Q:What is your Moodle experience like? Tick the box as appropriate Data collection Specific Moodle questions I can connect to the Moodle platform, register for a course and create a course I can add/remove users (a teacher, a non-editing teacher, and a student) I can review the settings of a course (thematic, weekly, and informal format) I can enrol/remove students in/from my course I can enable / exit the ‘edit mode’ in the course I can add/remove and manage Moodle communication activities (forum, chat, and messages) I can add, publish, and manage course resources like text page, web page, link to a file (audio, video, text, image,etc) or link to a website, and add a label to my course. I can add and manage collaborative activities(Glossary and Wiki) I can add and manage assessment activities (Questionnaire: True/False Questions, Short Answer Question, Numerical Question, Multiple Choice Question) I can manage files of a course and offer participants a space for sharing documents
    • 23. Specific Moodle questions If you have experience with Moodle, how often have you used it in the past? Once a month once in three months once in six months once a year never Other experience (please specify)
    • 24. Data Analysis Participants‟ evaluation of the training • “Moodle is very interesting and enjoyable for teachers” • “I shared experiences with colleagues on forum.” • “I have learnt how to set different kinds of quizzes on Moodle” • “I have learnt how to use videos, pictures, labels etc. in my lessons”
    • 25. Data Analysis Participants‟ evaluation of the training • “The course was learner-centered; the teacher acted as a facilitator; learners were motivated and shared experiences”; • “The interaction between teacher and student and students-students was assured” • “Though everything about using Moodle is difficult, I was able to learn a lot ... for instance, organizing lessons, methodology such as scaffolding, assessment and grading of students”
    • 26. Data Analysis Participants‟ evaluation of the training • “Moodle is very interesting and enjoyable for teachers” • “I shared experiences with colleagues on forum.” • “I have learnt how to set different kinds of quizzes on Moodle” • “I have learnt how to use videos, pictures, labels etc. in my lessons”
    • 27. Data Analysis Participants‟ evaluation of the training Challenges • “very interesting course but there may be a problem of implementation due to poor connection to the net, time of the mastering, students are not introduced to Moodle software” • “I have, fears that I will not be able to use some of what I have learnt in Moodle in my lessons for several reasons: I have many students so it is difficult to cater for individual differences. Time is short to cover topics. In addition, few students have access to computers and internet connection. Also I feel I need a bit of training on how Moodle is used”
    • 28. Data Analysis Participants‟ plans and recommendations • “I intend to create my course online (on the Intranet). • “With the support of the institute technicians, my course will be followed by students …‟‟ • “Train more teachers to acquire knowledge and skills in Moodle” • “carry out a Moodle implementation in a given subject/department and implement it at the institution level”;
    • 29. Recommendations to policymakers Provide appropriate resources:Guide to Teaching Online Courses( 2006); Sife, A., Lwoga, E., & Sanga, C. (2007) • Server and computers with sound cards • Reliable Internet connection • Instructional designers; • programmer or author to use the authoring tools; • subject matter expert; • webmaster for maintaining the programme
    • 30. Recommendations to policymakers Provide appropriate resources (Guide to Teaching Online Courses (2006);Sife et al. (2007) For videoconferencing, provide equipment requirements • Sound proofing and lighting conditions; • Audio-visual peripherals – TV monitor or video projector, camera (s),microphone(s) ; • Multimedia PC with appropriate software • More bandwidth is needed for higher-quality images and video
    • 31. Recommendations to policymakers Sife et al (2007;Guide to Guide to Teaching Online Courses, 2006;Cole & Foster(2008) • Cost of infrastructure (hardware, software, etc.) • Hosting costs(internally or externally) • Cost of professional development(technical, teaching, and support staff)
    • 32. Recommendations to policymakers Sife et al (2007;Guide to Guide to Teaching Online Courses, 2006;Cole & Foster(2008) • Knowledge of Moodle(Instructional Design, Content Development, etc.) • Design learning content in standard formats(HTML,PDF, RTF, GIF, JPEG, etc. • Internet connection(cost, speed, etc.)
    • 33. Recommendations to policymakers Sife et al. (2007
    • 34. Recommendations to policymakers Prerequisites(Foster & Cole,2008;Guide to Teaching Online Courses,2006) • networks and bandwidths • administrative support i.e. grading and registration system, student handbook, policies; etc. • educational support, online and face-to-face(teachers and students) • release time for teachers(professional development) • mentoring, guidance, and peer coaching
    • 35. Conclusion • Free (download, installation,etc) • open source, • flexible • Static and interactive course materials activities (Rice,2008) • Staff trained(instructors and ICT) • courses created • different operating systems • different African languages
    • 36. Conclusion Challenges • ICT policy not implemented • heavy workload, • poor access to computers, • poor connection to the Internet Moodle is viable tool and can be used to educate masses in Africa Thank you for your attention ???
    • 37. References Aderinoye, R., Siaciwena, R., & Wright, C. R. (2009). A snapshot of distance education in Africa. The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 10(4). Cole, J. & Foster, H. (2008). Using Moodle: teaching with the popular open source course management system. O'Reilly. Dougiamas, M.(2007). Proceedings of the 2007 MIT LINC Conference Technology-Enabled Education: A Catalyst for Positive Change . http://linc.mit.edu/events/2007/2007LINCBook.pdf [viewed 19 July 2013]. Farrell, G., Isaacs, S., Trucano, M., Hamdy, A., Hare, H., Tetang Tchinda, J., & Fall, B. (2007). Survey of ICT in Education in Africa, Volume 2: 53 Country Reports. http://www.infodev.org/articles/survey-ict-and-education-africa-volume- 2 [viewed 19 July 2013]. Kesse, M. (2010). Planning the Implementation of Moodle eLearning system in some African institutions. Thesis, Savonia University of Applied Sciences, Finland
    • 38. References Mayer, R. E. (Ed.). (2005). The Cambridge handbook of multimedia learning. Cambridge University Press. Nash, S. S., & Rice, W. H. (2010). Moodle 1. 9 Teaching Techniques: Creative Ways to Build Powerful and Effective Online Courses. Packt Publishing. National Education Association (2006). Guide to teaching online courses. Washington, DC. http://www.nea.org/assets/docs/onlineteachguide.pdf[viewed 19 July 2013]. Rice, W. (2008). Moodle 1.9 E-Learning Course Development. Packt publishing. Sife, A., Lwoga, E., & Sanga, C. (2007). New technologies for teaching and learning: Challenges for higher learning institutions in developing countries. International Journal of Education and Development using ICT, 3(2). http://ijedict.dec.uwi.edu/viewarticle.php?id=246.&layout=html [viewed 25 August 2013]