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Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyPriamos: A Middleware A...
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, Germany• Introduction• Related...
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyIntroduction• The basic...
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyRelated Work• Manual an...
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyPriamos Architecture• P...
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyMessage Processing Cycle
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, Germany• Web Service Interfaci...
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, Germany• Trackers– They are th...
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyMessage to Ontology Map...
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanySemantic Rule Composition
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, Germany• Middleware Maintainer...
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyOffline SearchReal-Time...
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanySmart Room Scenario• La...
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyPerformance Measurements
Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, Germany• Maintenance Schedulin...
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Priamos: A Middleware Architecture for Real-Time Semantic Annotation of Context Features

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This paper proposes a middleware architecture for the automated, real-time, unsupervised annotation of low-level context features and their mapping to high-level semantics. The distinguishing characteristic of this architecture is that both low level components such as sensors, feature extraction algorithms and data sources, and high level components such as application-specific ontologies are pluggable to the middleware architecture thus facilitating application development and system configuration to different real-world scenarios. A prototype implementation based on Semantic Web tools is presented in depth, while the benefits and drawbacks of this approach are underlined. We argue that the use of Semantic Web provides powerful answers to context awareness challenges. Furthermore, it enables the composition of simple rules through human-centric interfaces, which may launch a context-aware system that will annotate content without the need for user technical expertise. A test case of system operation in a laboratory environment is presented. Emphasis is given, along with the theoretical justification, to practical issues that arise in real-world scenarios.

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Transcript of "Priamos: A Middleware Architecture for Real-Time Semantic Annotation of Context Features"

  1. 1. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyPriamos: A Middleware Architecture for Real-timeSemantic Annotation of Context FeaturesNikolaos Konstantinou, Emmanuel Solidakis, Stavroula Zoi, AnastasiosZafeiropoulos, Panagiotis Stathopoulos, Nikolas MitrouNational Technical University of AthensECE Faculty, Computer Network Laboratory
  2. 2. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, Germany• Introduction• Related Work• Priamos Architecture• Priamos Modules• Users – Hierarchy• Test Case Scenario• Performance MeasurementsOutline
  3. 3. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyIntroduction• The basic concept of the Semantic Web is content annotation– Time-Consuming task– Considered to be loss of resources in terms of time and money– Reuse of information is troublesome– Annotation easily becomes out-of-date• Context means situational information (time, location, ongoingactivities)– A system is context-aware if it can extract, interpret and use contextinformation and adapt its functionality to the current context of use– One of the most challenging issues of context aware applications is theinclusion of intelligence while processing the incoming information anddeducting meaning
  4. 4. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyRelated Work• Manual annotation (Vannotea, M-Ontomat Annotizer, COHSE, SMORE)• Supervised automated annotation (Mnm, Melita)• Unsupervised automated annotation (Armadillo, KnowItAll, SmartWeb)• Pattern-based and rule-based approaches– Cafetiere (rule-based system for generating XML annotations )– Ponder, Context Toolkit, HP’s CoolTown, Intelligent Room (do not use aformal model to represent context information)– CHIL, KaOS, Rei (limited to specific ontologies)
  5. 5. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyPriamos Architecture• Priamos focuses mostly in providing amiddleware environment that does not restrictthe users or developers to specific predefinedvocabularies for a world model description ora message syntax among the variouspluggable components. Emphasis is given inoffering an architecture that is independent ofontologies and sensors while in the same timeadopts a common formal representation ofcontext and facilitates applicationdevelopment.• The Priamos middleware architecturecomprises a set of core reusable distributedcomponents for the automated, real-timeannotation oflow-level context features and their mappingto high-level semantics.• The main idea is to launch a procedure thatannotates contextual information upon itsappearance by using specific sets of rules.The resulting Knowledge Base reflects aspherical perception of the world model.
  6. 6. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyMessage Processing Cycle
  7. 7. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, Germany• Web Service Interfacing Module– Messages expressed in any arbitrary well-formed XML document• Message Templates– The received messages can conform to any specifications wemight choose• Ontology Models– The database model is stored using Jena internal graph engine.• RulesSoftware Modules
  8. 8. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, Germany• Trackers– They are the first ones to process raw data– Apply special algorithms and techniques to the signal captured by thesensors• Ontology Manager• Message Template Manager• Message to Ontology Mapper• Semantic Rule Composition• Action Manager– Send Sms– Send Email– Send Web Service Message– Voice Message– Run an external ApplicationApplication Description
  9. 9. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyMessage to Ontology Mapper
  10. 10. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanySemantic Rule Composition
  11. 11. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, Germany• Middleware Maintainers– Domain Expert who defines the mapping rules from the incoming messages to theontology concepts– Keeps in mind to fully cover the the developers’ needs• Application Developers– Exploits the core middleware functionality– Can plug an ontology, form semantic rules on the ontology, define the actions that canbe taken• System Administrators– Has the overall supervision of the system’s functions– Can configure the system for different operations– Can define features of interest to be captured (e.g. when a security alert should betriggered)• End Users– They are not familiar with the technology– Monitor a system operation session (e.g. a guardian in a security-surveillance scenario)– Receive automated notifications in form of a sound, an email, a call, an alert in general(e.g. a security guard who receives alerts in his mobile)Priamos Users
  12. 12. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyOffline SearchReal-TimeDecision MakingPriamosConfigurationloadOntologyOntology Browsing,EditingPriamos InstallationAPPLICATIONDEVELOPERSSYSTEMADMINISTRATORTurnOnPriamosMiddlewareTurnOnTracker(FaceTracker)CameraZoom(Camera1)SendEmail,SoundAlert,SendSMS, …END USERSMIDDLEWAREMAINTAINERSTurnOffTracker(FaceTracker)Add/remove MessageTemplateAdd/remove MappingRulegetMappingRulesAlert!TurnOffPriamosMiddlewaregetActionsaskOntology (Query)Add/removeSemanticRulesgetSemanticRulessetActionsgetActionsThe Priamos API
  13. 13. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanySmart Room Scenario• Lab Environment – A camera is monitoring the room• Face Tracker using 2 algorithms:- Viola Jones for face detection- Camsift algorithm for face tracking• Produced Message<Event id="5712"><Tracker type="FaceTracker"><DataSource id="3" name="CeilingCamera" url="seq_000077" /><person id="1" certainty="100"><location2d datasourceId="3" x="429" y="46" /></person></Tracker></Event>• Mapping Ruleif exists /Event/Tracker/Datasource/Person then insertIndividualIn(Persons)• Semantic Ruleif hasIndividuals(Persons) then turn on the lights / send an email
  14. 14. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, GermanyPerformance Measurements
  15. 15. Architecture for Real-time Semantic Annotation of Context Features” – IE07, Ulm University, Germany• Maintenance Scheduling (Buffer Database, Replication)• Use of Semantic Web Services• Enhance the Semantic and Mapping Rules• Probabilistic Processing of information• Offline Semantic SearchFuture Work
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