0
FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA:
AN ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SECURITY
POLICIES IN GHANA
Justice Tei Mensah
Department of Economics
Unive...
WHAT IS FOOD SECURITY
 The World Food Summit of 1996 defined
food security as existing
• “when all people at all times ha...
WHY TALK OF FOOD SECURITY?
 "True individual freedom cannot exist without
economic security and independence. People
who ...
 The recurrent global food crises of depleting food
stocks and escalating prices especially in 2007 has
led to resurgence...
WORLD FOOD CRISES AND FOOD
SECURITY IN AFRICA
The main reasons for declining food
production in sub Saharan Africa can be
...
Policy Direction?
Focus of the paper
 This paper seeks to examine food security
in Ghana and the policies implemented to
ensure food securi...
FOOD SECURITY IN GHANA
 The first national food security survey in
Ghana known as the Comprehensive Food
Security and Vul...
FOOD SECURITY IN GHANA
Source: CFSVA, 2009
FOOD SECURITY IN GHANA
The CFSVA (2009) REPORT
 Over two (2) million Ghanaians are
vulnerable to food insecurity.
 5% of...
FOOD SECURITY IN GHANA
The CFSVA (2009) REPORT
 Malnutrition rates among children are below
emergency levels according to...
FOOD SECURITY IN GHANA
The CFSVA (2009) REPORT
 A close associate of food insecurity is
poverty, which according to recor...
FOOD SECURITY POLICIES IN GHANA
 Basically, policies to tackle food insecurity
in Ghana over the past decade can be
categ...
Emergency Food Security Instruments
 The global food crises in 2007 affected
greatly the food and nutrition needs of the
...
Emergency Food Security Instruments
 In May 2008, the government announced a
US$ 1 billion intervention package to mitiga...
Traditional Food Security Policies
 In partnership with donors and other food
agencies, the government has undertaken
som...
The Food and Agriculture Sector
Development Policy (FASDEP I &II)
 This policy was implemented in two stages:
• FASDEP I ...
The Food and Agriculture Sector
Development Policy (FASDEP I &II)
General Objective
To provide a framework for modernizin...
NATIONAL SOCIAL PROTECTION
STRATEGY (NSPS)
 In March 2007, Ghana launched the
National Social Protection Strategy
(NSPS) ...
NATIONAL SOCIAL PROTECTION
STRATEGY (NSPS)
 The strategy was composed of four main
programs namely:
The Livelihood Empow...
The Livelihood Empowerment Against
Poverty (LEAP)
 LEAP was a program introduced in 2008 to give
cash transfers to identi...
The Livelihood Empowerment Against
Poverty (LEAP)
 It must be emphasized that the amount to each
household depends on the...
The Livelihood Empowerment Against
Poverty (LEAP)
 Characteristics of households:
• malnourished pregnant and lactating w...
The National Health Insurance
Scheme (NHIS)
 The scheme was established in 2003 to replace
the existing “Cash and Carry” ...
The National Health Insurance Scheme
(NHIS)
 As a result, in 2008 the government granted
exemptions to children under the...
Capitation Grant
 To revive the ideals of the Free Compulsory
Universal Basic Education (fCUBE) program
implemented in th...
Ghana School Feeding Program (GSFP)
 To fully achieve the goal of a universal basic
education, the GSFP was implemented t...
Ghana School Feeding Program (GSFP)
 Impacts:
• By May 2008, 477,714 pupils in 987 schools across the
country had benefit...
Ghana School Feeding Program (GSFP)
 Challenges of the program
• Corruption: An audit commissioned by the Dutch
governmen...
Community Driven Initiaves For
Food Security (CIFS)
 Community-Driven Initiatives for Food Security
(CIFS) is being imple...
Research And Development
 The country's agric research institutions include
• The Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural ...
Other Micro Projects By International
Agencies
 Non governmental organizations have over the
years played a crucial role ...
Conclusion
 The foregoing gives insight of how various
government and non-governmental initiated
policies have contribute...
“A hungry man is an angry man”
THE END
QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS
ARE
WELCOME
REFERENCES:
 The World Food Program, (2009), “Comprehensive
Food Security And Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA)”
 Ministry ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Whatisfoodsecurity 101230065514-phpapp02

139

Published on

Presents an outline of food security policies in ghana

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
139
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
6
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Transcript of "Whatisfoodsecurity 101230065514-phpapp02"

  1. 1. FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA: AN ASSESSMENT OF FOOD SECURITY POLICIES IN GHANA Justice Tei Mensah Department of Economics University of Ghana Email: myjumens@gmail.com Presented at: Joint Facility For Electives (JFE-CMAP), 2010 African Economic Research Consortium Kenya School of Monetary Studies, Nairobi-Kenya
  2. 2. WHAT IS FOOD SECURITY  The World Food Summit of 1996 defined food security as existing • “when all people at all times have access to sufficient, safe, nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life”.
  3. 3. WHY TALK OF FOOD SECURITY?  "True individual freedom cannot exist without economic security and independence. People who are hungry and out of a job are the stuff of which dictatorships are made.” -Franklin Roosevelt
  4. 4.  The recurrent global food crises of depleting food stocks and escalating prices especially in 2007 has led to resurgence in concerns of food security particularly among many developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa.  Over the years trade liberalization has resulted in cheap food imports from the developed economies  Hence the issue of national food self-sufficiency was downplayed and many developing countries reduced food production, mostly upon the advice of the international financial institutions (Khor, 2008). WORLD FOOD CRISES AND FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA
  5. 5. WORLD FOOD CRISES AND FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA The main reasons for declining food production in sub Saharan Africa can be attributed to:  Climate change (drought and flooding of farmlands), Rising input cost Increasing diversion of farmland to the production of biofuels (eg. Jetropha farming in Ghana) Structural adjustment program
  6. 6. Policy Direction?
  7. 7. Focus of the paper  This paper seeks to examine food security in Ghana and the policies implemented to ensure food security over the past decade.
  8. 8. FOOD SECURITY IN GHANA  The first national food security survey in Ghana known as the Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA) was carried out within the period 2008-2009 by the World Food Program.  The survey indicates that the three northern regions: Upper East, Upper West and Northern regions are the most food insecure regions in Ghana, with 34%, 10% and 15% of the population in these regions respectively being food insecure.  These areas are the poorest and the most prone to adverse weather conditions, such as floods and droughts.
  9. 9. FOOD SECURITY IN GHANA Source: CFSVA, 2009
  10. 10. FOOD SECURITY IN GHANA The CFSVA (2009) REPORT  Over two (2) million Ghanaians are vulnerable to food insecurity.  5% of households (a total of 1.2 million people) in Ghana have limited access to sufficient and nutritious food for an active and healthy living. • This national average, however, obscures significant regional differences, with the most affected households being those in rural areas of the Northern Savannah zone.
  11. 11. FOOD SECURITY IN GHANA The CFSVA (2009) REPORT  Malnutrition rates among children are below emergency levels according to internationally set thresholds. Wasting, a manifestation of acute malnutrition stands at 7%. Stunting, a reflection of chronic deficiencies, was 22%. Underweight, a composite measure of acute and chronic deficiency, was seen amongst 11% of the children.
  12. 12. FOOD SECURITY IN GHANA The CFSVA (2009) REPORT  A close associate of food insecurity is poverty, which according to records is still high in Ghana despite decreasing over the years. The two tend to be intertwined and create a trap out of which it is difficult to be freed without the help of others  Data from the Ghana health service shows that malnutrition is the underlying cause of 55% of child mortality in Ghana.
  13. 13. FOOD SECURITY POLICIES IN GHANA  Basically, policies to tackle food insecurity in Ghana over the past decade can be categorized into two main groups: Emergency Food Security Instruments Traditional Food Security Policy
  14. 14. Emergency Food Security Instruments  The global food crises in 2007 affected greatly the food and nutrition needs of the populace.  In the same period crude oil prices escalated to a record high of US$137 per barrel, increasing fiscal deficit and balance of payment problems, thereby destabilizing the macroeconomy.  At the micro level, cost of living became high (resulting from high transportation and food prices) and the poor were greatly affected.
  15. 15. Emergency Food Security Instruments  In May 2008, the government announced a US$ 1 billion intervention package to mitigate the effect of these crises on the people. The focus of the intervention package was: The removal of import duties on rice, yellow corn and wheat Input subsidies for fertilizer and tractor services for farmers in the northern regions Removal of taxes on crude oil and a further subsidy on the pre-mix fuel used by fishermen.
  16. 16. Traditional Food Security Policies  In partnership with donors and other food agencies, the government has undertaken some key policy measures to ensure that the nation achieve food security in line with the objective of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) by 2015.  Some of these policies are discussed below.
  17. 17. The Food and Agriculture Sector Development Policy (FASDEP I &II)  This policy was implemented in two stages: • FASDEP I (2002-2004) • FASDEP II (2007-)  The development of FASDEP was necessitated by the urgent need to modernize the agriculture sector in fulfillment government’s vision of Ghana becoming a leading agro-industrial country in Africa by the year 2010.
  18. 18. The Food and Agriculture Sector Development Policy (FASDEP I &II) General Objective To provide a framework for modernizing the agricultural sector and making it a catalyst for rural transformation, in line with the goal set for the sector in the Ghana Poverty Reduction Strategy (GPRS I). Specific Objectives To enhance human resource development and institutional capacity building Improved financial services delivery to the agriculture sector Development, dissemination and adoption of appropriate technology Infrastructure development Promote selected commodities and improved markets access.
  19. 19. NATIONAL SOCIAL PROTECTION STRATEGY (NSPS)  In March 2007, Ghana launched the National Social Protection Strategy (NSPS) with a mandate of providing policy direction regarding the wellbeing of the people living in extreme poverty and vulnerable to both expected and unexpected threats to their livelihoods in order to reduce the incidence of poverty in the country.
  20. 20. NATIONAL SOCIAL PROTECTION STRATEGY (NSPS)  The strategy was composed of four main programs namely: The Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) The Ghana School Feeding Program  The Capitation Grant Exemptions for the poor under the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS)
  21. 21. The Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP)  LEAP was a program introduced in 2008 to give cash transfers to identifiable poor and vulnerable households as a form of economic empowerment to meet their basic needs of food and water.  It was meant to be a safety net for the 20% of the population identified as extremely poor (GLSSV 2005/6; CSFVA 2009).  The program provided cash transfers of between GHC8 – GHC15 per household to 8,200 households in 54 districts.
  22. 22. The Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP)  It must be emphasized that the amount to each household depends on the number of vulnerable household members.  To end the cycle of poverty and vulnerability the grants were given on the condition that households: • Sends their children to school • Not allowing child labor • Registering family members in the NHIS and provision of birth certificates.  Following the effects of the food crises coupled with droughts and floods in the northern regions, a further 15,000 households were selected for an emergency LEAP (E-LEAP).
  23. 23. The Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP)  Characteristics of households: • malnourished pregnant and lactating women, families with malnourished children under five years • female headed households without productive income and small scale crop producers with few productive assets. • The World Food Program also complemented the E-LEAP by providing emergency social cash transfer with a monthly household food ration to 3,000 households. • LEAP was indeed a crucial social intervention package for the poor that reduced their extent of vulnerability to the food crises.
  24. 24. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS)  The scheme was established in 2003 to replace the existing “Cash and Carry” system with the aim of providing affordable health care delivery particularly to the poor and vulnerable in society.  After five years of implementation, about 50% of the populace were enrolled on the scheme.  However, the proportion of extremely poor individuals registered under the scheme was minimal.
  25. 25. The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS)  As a result, in 2008 the government granted exemptions to children under the age of 18 from paying the insurance premium  Also free maternal health care for pregnant women was also implemented to help mitigate the rising maternal mortality rate in the country.  This in a way improved the health status of the poor and also freed up the income of the poor for consumption.
  26. 26. Capitation Grant  To revive the ideals of the Free Compulsory Universal Basic Education (fCUBE) program implemented in the early 1990’s and achieving the MDG of universal access to basic education, the government in 2004 implemented the Capitation Grant which sought to provide free basic education to children in poverty endemic communities in the country.
  27. 27. Ghana School Feeding Program (GSFP)  To fully achieve the goal of a universal basic education, the GSFP was implemented to provide a free balanced meal to pupils in some selected schools.  Objectives • enhance school enrollment • encourage attendance • ensure retention and improve the nutritional and health status of children • boosting domestic food production.  Funding by the Dutch, NEPAD and GOG
  28. 28. Ghana School Feeding Program (GSFP)  Impacts: • By May 2008, 477,714 pupils in 987 schools across the country had benefited from the program. • Increased School enrolment by 40% within the same period • Reduction in hunger and malnutrition among children. • As at July, 2009 about 640,000 pupils were fed in 1,700 schools throughout the country. • It is expected that 1,040,000 pupils would have benefited from the Program by the end of the first phase this year (2010).
  29. 29. Ghana School Feeding Program (GSFP)  Challenges of the program • Corruption: An audit commissioned by the Dutch government and undertaken in 2009 by the international accountancy firm „Price WaterHouseCoopers‟, found that after two years of implementation there was “widespread corruption” at the program secretariat. • Funding to expand the scope of the program to other communities is not forthcoming.
  30. 30. Community Driven Initiaves For Food Security (CIFS)  Community-Driven Initiatives for Food Security (CIFS) is being implemented jointly by the Government of Canada and the Government of Ghana within the period 2004-2011.  It focuses on addressing three aspects of Food Security: availability of food, access to food and utilization of food.  Results indicate CIFS is improving household food security in 250 communities in 10 districts of the Eastern Corridor of the Northern Region of Ghana by supporting community-based and district-wide food security initiatives.
  31. 31. Research And Development  The country's agric research institutions include • The Biotechnology and Nuclear Agricultural Research Institute (BNARI) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission • Crops Research Institute • Botany Departments of the universities  These have contributed in developing high yielding and disease resistant varieties of crops to increase domestic food production.  The challenge to them however, is the provision of adequate funding for their projects.
  32. 32. Other Micro Projects By International Agencies  Non governmental organizations have over the years played a crucial role in boosting domestic food production and food aid to ensure food security in Ghana.  Notable among such organizations include FAO, World Food Program (WFP), USAID, PLAN- GHANA, UNDP among others.
  33. 33. Conclusion  The foregoing gives insight of how various government and non-governmental initiated policies have contributed to ensuring food security in the country.  However, I am of the view that these policies have not fully achieved their objectives and thus there is still the need for government and donor agencies to implement policies that will increase food production and distribution in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.
  34. 34. “A hungry man is an angry man” THE END QUESTIONS AND COMMENTS ARE WELCOME
  35. 35. REFERENCES:  The World Food Program, (2009), “Comprehensive Food Security And Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA)”  Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA) Ghana, (2002), “The Food and Agriculture Sector Development Policy (FASDEP I )”  Ministry of Food and Agriculture (MOFA) Ghana, (2002), “The Food and Agriculture Sector Development Policy (FASDEP II )”  Khor, M. 2008. Food crisis, climate change and the importance of sustainable agriculture. Presentation at FAO Food Security Summit, Rome, 4 June 2008.
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×