Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers, oceans and groundwater). Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water; and, in almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities. Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.
CAUSES 1. Dumping of industrial wastes, containing heavy metals, harmful chemicals, by-products, organic toxins and oils, into the nearby source of water is one of the visible causes of water pollution. 2. Another cause for the contamination of water is the improper disposal of human and animal wastes. 3. Effluents from factories, refineries, injection wells and sewage treatment plants are dumped into urban water supplies, leading to water pollution. 4. A number of pollutants, both harmful and poisonous, enter the groundwater systems through rain water.
5. The residue of agricultural practices, including fertilizers and pesticides, are some of the major sources of water pollution. 6. Untreated pollutants are drained into the nearest water body, such as stream, lake or harbor, causing water pollution. 7. Another major source of water pollution comprises of organic farm wastes. When farm land, treated with pesticides and fertilizers, is irrigated, the excess nitrogen and poisons get mixed into the water supply, thereby contaminating it. 8. Pathogens, sediments and chemical pollutants are other sources of water pollution. 9. The corporeal wastes produced by humans and farmed organisms pollute rivers, lakes, oceans and other surface waters.
EFFECTS 1. A number of waterborne diseases are produced by the pathogens present in polluted water, affecting humans and animals alike. 2. Pollution affects the chemistry of water. The pollutants, including toxic chemicals, can alter the acidity, conductivity and temperature of water. 3. Polluted municipal water supplies are found to pose a threat to the health of people using them. 4. As per the records, about 14000 people perish or incur various communicable diseases due to the consumption of contaminated drinking water. 5. The concentration of bacteria and viruses in polluted water causes increase in solids suspended in the water body, which, in turn, leads to health problems.
6. Marine life becomes deteriorated due to water pollution. Lethal killing of fish and aquatic plants in rivers, oceans and seas is an aftereffect of water contamination only. 7. Diseases affecting the heart, poor circulation of blood and the nervous system and ailments like skin lesion, cholera and diarrhea are often linked to the harmful effects of water pollution. 8. Carcinogenic pollutants found in polluted water might cause cancer. Alteration in the chromosomal makeup of the future generation is foreseen, as a result of water pollution. 9. Discharges from power stations reduce the availability of oxygen in the water body, in which they are dumped . 10. The flora and fauna of rivers, sea and oceans is adversely affected by water pollution.
PREVENTION OF WATER POLLUTION 1. Bringing Awareness Measure 1 is bringing awareness among people. So people must be against of dumping wastes and sewage in to fresh water. They must force the government to go for an alternate way like treating the sewage before dumping. And people who dump wastes must be penalised 2. Leakages from Drainage Pipe Lines Leakages from drainage pipe lines must be avoided. If this enters fresh water it causes water pollution. So leakages must be avoided by repairing immediately. 3. Industrial Wastes Industrial wastes are the main cause of water pollution. They often dump all these wastes in to near by lakes or rivers. So government must pass strict orders not to dump wastes in to rivers. They must be provided with other options like treatment of that wastes before dumping.
4. DON’T Use too much Pesticides Farmers must take care and see that they don't use too much pesticides. This will prevent runoffs of the material into nearby water sources. 5. Avoid Paint and Petroleum to Sinks Do not throw paints or petroleum products in to your toilets or sinks. Since paints and petroleum products cannot be treated they should not be dumped i to sewage water as it results in long lasting effects. 6. Avoid Oil Spills in Oceans Oil spills in ocean are one of the major contributors of water pollution. So ships must transport oil only when weather conditions are good. During storms ships must not be allowed to transport oil which might result in shipwrecks and eventually oil spills.