United nations, Olympism and International Understanding in Sports
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

United nations, Olympism and International Understanding in Sports

on

  • 829 views

Due to typographical error it is written that I am working with Department of Physical Education ,University of Delhi which needs to be read as Department of Pre Service Teacher Education,District ...

Due to typographical error it is written that I am working with Department of Physical Education ,University of Delhi which needs to be read as Department of Pre Service Teacher Education,District Institute of Education & Training,Daryaganj.

Statistics

Views

Total Views
829
Views on SlideShare
829
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

United nations, Olympism and International Understanding in Sports United nations, Olympism and International Understanding in Sports Document Transcript

  • al Refereed Internation P ramana Research Journal (Art, Literature, Humanity, Social Science, Law, Commerce, Management & Science Subjects) (Indexed & Listed at : Ulrich's Periodicals Directory ©, ProQuest. U.S.A.) (Indexed & Listed at : Copernieus Poland) Year : 3 Issue : 9 (Vol.-III) Jul-Sep 2013 www.chintanresearchjournal.com Editor-in-Chief Acharya (Dr.) Shilak Ram Assistant-Editor Dr. Suresh Kumar Dr. Aruna Devi
  • • • • flrkj dk bfrgkl vkSj vkfo"dkjd &iq#"kksÙke dqekj xk;u] oknu ,oa u`R; esa ikjLifjd lkeatL; &fiz;k ukenso 97&99 Micro Insurance Sector in India – Problems and Prospects &Jyoti Chahal • 93&96 100&104 Role of SMES for Sustainable Growth &Rekha Rani Social Status of Women in Pre-Independence Period &Sh. Umesh Kumar Advertising – How good a tool &Rahul Dull Dynamics of Distribution in FMCG industry &Anil Kumar Relevance of Ambedkar as an Economist &Dr. Surender Singh, Om Parkash United Nations, Olympism & International Understanding in Sports &Neeraj Kumar Mehra, Manish Kumar Vats Problem of Unemployment among Youths : A Sociological Study &Vikas Nandal Law Relating to Mental Health in India : An Analysis &Ashwini Siwal A Great Freedom with A Greater Responsibility &Sumit Dalal 156&165 • 'kkUrkeaxye~ esa vyadkj ;kstuk &dfork 166&173 • Honour Killing In Present Time In India &Dr.Jogender Mor 174&177 Swarnjayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana and its Financial Status in Rohtak District : An Analysis &Mrs. Anju 178&184 • • • • • • • • • 105&110 111&117 118&121 122&127 128&134 135&139 140&145 146&155
  • Misc. International Refereed Pramana Research Journal (ISSN : 2249-2976) Year : 3, Issue : 9 (Vol. III), Jul-Sep. 2013 (Page No. 135-139) United Nations, Olympism & International Understanding in Sports Neeraj Kumar Mehra Department of Physical Education Delhi University, Delhi Manish Kumar Vats Department of Physical Education Delhi University, Delhi Abstract Sport is used in an extremely wide range of situations – whether as an integrated tool in short-term emergency humanitarian aid activities, or in long-term development cooperation projects, on a local, regional or global scale. Sport plays a significant role as a promoter of social integration and economic development in different geographical, cultural and political contexts. Sport is a powerful tool to strengthen social ties and networks, and to promote ideals of peace, fraternity, solidarity, nonviolence, tolerance and justice. From a development perspective, the focus is always on mass sport and not elite sport. Sport is used to reach out to those most in need including refugees, child soldiers, victims of conflict and natural catastrophes, the impoverished, persons with disabilities, victims of racism, stigmatization and discrimination, persons living with HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. The right of access to and participation in sport and play has long been recognised in a number of international conventions. Key-Words : Individual Development, Promotion of Gender Equality, Economic Development, Frantastic Progress. United Nations and Sports Sport has historically played an important role in all societies, be it in the form of competitive, physical activity or play. But, one may wonder: what does a sport have to do with the United Nations? In fact, sport presents a neutral partnership for the United Nations (UN) system: sports and play are human rights that must be respected and enforced worldwide; sport has been increasingly recognized as used as low-cost and high-impact tool in humanitarian development and peace-building efforts, not only by the UN system but also by non-governmental organizations (NGOs), governments, development agencies, sport federations, armed forces and the media. Sport can no longer be considered a luxury within any society but is rather an important investment in the present and future, particularly in developing countries. Sport is used in an extremely wide range of situations – whether as an integrated tool in short-term emergency humanitarian aid activities, or in long-term development cooperation projects, on a local, regional or global scale. Sport plays a significant role as a promoter of social integration and economic development in different geographical, cultural and political contexts. Sport is a powerful tool to strengthen social ties and networks, and to promote ideals of peace, fraternity, solidarity, non-violence, tolerance and justice. From a development perspective, the focus is always on mass sport and not elite sport. Sport is used to reach out to Pramâna Quarterly Research Journal July-September (2013) 135
  • those most in need including refugees, child soldiers, victims of conflict and natural catastrophes, the impoverished, persons with disabilities, victims of racism, stigmatization and discrimination, persons living with HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases. The right of access to and participation in sport and play has long been recognised in a number of international conventions. In 1978, UNESCO described sport and physical education as a “fundamental right for all” In a development context the definition of sport usually includes a broad and inclusive spectrum of activities suitable to people of all ages and abilities, with an emphasis on the positive values of sport. In 2003, the UN Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace defined sport, for the purposes of development, as “all forms of physical activity that contribute to physical fitness, mental well-being and social interaction, such as play, recreation, organized or competitive sport, and indigenous sports and games.” This definition has been accepted by many proponents of Sport for Development and Peace and is the working definition of sport for the purposes of this report. According to the Sport for Development and Peace International Working Group, sport is seen to have the most benefits in: • Individual development • Health promotion and disease prevention • Promotion of gender equality • Social integration and the development of social capital • Peace building and conflict prevention/resolution • Post-disaster/trauma relief and normalisation of life • Economic development • Communication and social mobilisation.1 Olympism Olympism is a movement that has been described in variety of ways. Broadly speaking, it has been referred to as “Sport in the service of man everywhere.”(Lekarska,1988.p.73)and more narrowly it has been spoken of as “the pursuit of excellence in a chivalrous manner”(Clarke,1988,p.99)According to Lowland(1994,p36-39),however the ideology of Olympism from the perspective of the history of ideas in connected with four main goals;(a)to educate and cultivate the individual through sport;(b)to cultivate the relation of man in society(c)to promote international understanding and peace; and(d)to worship human gesture and possibility. In so far Olympism as a movement in the world can be universally understood and promoted, it should in the view of Parry (1988, p.93), be associated with such values as equality, fairness, justice, respect for persons, rationally and understanding, autonomy and excellance.Together these values represents what might be called a liberal philosophy and are embodied in those communities that are said to be in democratic. They may admit different forms of international and cultural expressions, but when taken together they under grid and constitute the spirit of Olympism.2 International Understanding International Understanding, which rests on the unfettered expansion and deployment of communication amongst men and amongst people, is recognized more than ever as the indispensable foundation of the will and capacity of all nations to live in peace, to rise above the ever more threatening factors of dimension and dissension. Its aim is the setting up of open, confident and cooperative relationship, amongst them which are of benefit to all.3 Article 11 of International Charter of Physical Education and Sport clearly says “It is essential that States and those international and regional intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in which interested countries are represented and which are responsible for physical education and sport give physical education and sport greater prominence in international bilateral and 136 Pramâna Quarterly Research Journal July-September (2013)
  • multilateral co-operation. International co-operation must be prompted by wholly disinterested motives in order to promote and stimulate endogenous development in this field. Through cooperation and the pursuit of mutual interests in the universal language of physical education and sport, all peoples will contribute to the preservation of lasting peace, mutual respect and friendship and will thus create a propitious climate for solving international problems. Close collaboration between all interested national and international governmental and nongovernmental agencies, based on respect for the specific competence of each, will necessarily encourage the development of physical education and sport throughout the world”4 There can be understanding without acceptance of and respect for the other’s differences. The promotion of international understanding therefore seeks to reduce ignorance and fear of the unknown. It struggles against intolerance, the many forms of discrimination and notably racism, chauvinism and scorn of other nations. It rejects violence as a privileged solution to social problems. This notion of understanding has evolved since the magnanimous but vague internationalism, European in outlook of the turn of the 19th century towards a more realistic attitude that of the recognition and acceptance of the cultural; and social diversions which characterize the modern world. Need it be recalled that International Understanding practiced individually or collectively, calls for patience and attention, sensitivity and enthusiasm, all things which are learnt reinforced and made stronger only by practice.5 Olympic Education and International Understanding With the fantastic progress science has been making, we tend to forget that the development of society depends more than anything else, on the development of man himself.Fot it is to man that the decision returns ,And in the development of man the most important factor is his educational and mental evolution. The acquisition of knowledge, or of any other capital for that matter, should be of necessity be accompanied by moral training. Moral and mental under-development is the word of all other kinds of under-development and presents a real danger to man. The whole world may suffer from its very serious consequences, especially when one knows that power is not always acquired by the wise. And the reason why we should support the idea which places the greater emphasis on education in human evolution and especially in the especially in the evolution of moral values.6 Article 2 of International Charter of Physical Education and Sport clearly says “Physical education and sport, as an essential dimension of education and culture, must develop the abilities, willpower and self-discipline of every human being as a fully integrated member of society. The continuity of physical activity and the practice of sports must be ensured throughout life by means of a global, lifelong and democratized education. At the individual level, physical education and sport contribute to the maintenance and improvement of health, provide a wholesome leisure-time occupation and enable man to overcome the drawbacks of modern living. At the community level, they enrich social relations and develop fair play which is essential not only to sport itself but also to life in society. Every overall education system must assign the requisite place and importance to physical education and sport in order to establish a balance and strengthen links between physical activities and other components of education.”7In this context and within the frame work of international relations, Olympic Education is a dimension in thought which is both greater and more unified then all other sorts of human education.8 Landmarks in the history of UN sport (2000-2008) 2000 United Nations Millennium Summit recognizes the power of sport and its values. Pramâna Quarterly Research Journal July-September (2013) 137
  • 2001 Adolf Ogi is appointed the first Special Adviser to the United Nations Secretary-General on Sport for Development and Peace. 2002 Following the United Nations Special Session on Children, Secretary-General Kofi A. Annan convenes an Inter-Agency Task Force on Sport for Development and Peace to review activities involving sport within the United Nations system. The non-governmental organization Right to Play, headed by then UNICEF Goodwill Ambassador and Olympic medalist Johann Olav Koss, becomes the Secretariat of the Task Force. 2003 The book Sport for Development and Peace: Towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals is published by the Task Force. It underlines the power of sport for advancing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).A global conference on sport for development is held at Magglingen (Switzerland), hosted by the Governments of Switzerland and the Netherlands, bringing together delegates from a wide range of organizations in the private, public and not-for-profit sectors. The Magglingen Declaration 2003 is adopted. The United Nations General Assembly adopts a Resolution on the role of sport as a means t o promote health, education, development and peace. The Resolution designates 2005as the International Year for Sport and Physical Education. 2004 The United Nations Office of Sport for Development and Peace opens to support the work of the Special Adviser for a two-year period 2005 The organization Right to Play and the New York Office of Sport for Development and Peace launch the Sport For Development and Peace International Working Group, a four-year initiative designed to engage governments, United Nations agencies and civil society in developing practical recommendations for integrating Sport for Development and Peace into domestic and international development policies and programmes linked to the pursuit of the MDGs. Young men and women leaders from more than 40 African countries unanimously endorse the International Year of Sport and Physical Education 2005 at the second Pan-African Youth Leadership Summit in Ifrane (Morocco). The United Nations 2005World Summit underlines the role of sport in peace and development and an International Conference on Sport and Peace is held in Moscow under the aegis of the United Nations, with the backing of the International Olympic Committee (IOC).The International Year of Sport and Physical Education culminates in the 2nd Magglingen Conference on Sport and Development that endorses the Magglingen Call to Action 2005.This sets out 10 practical sportrelated actions t o help achieve the MDGs. 2007 In December, the term of Adolf Ogi, the first Special Adviser on Sport for Development and Peace, ends. 2008 On 18 March, Wilfried Lemke of Germany is appointed the second Special Adviser on Sport for Development and Peace.9 Conclusion Though, It has been recognized sport as an important tool to achieve millennium development goals as to end poverty and hunger, universal education, gender equality, child health, maternal health, combat HIV/AIDS, environment sustainability and global partnership and United Nations is undoubtly,playing an important role and utilizing sport as an important mean in promotion of international understanding among nations through its important various projects in collaboration with International Olympic Committee throughout the world. 138 Pramâna Quarterly Research Journal July-September (2013)
  • &&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&References&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&&& 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 http://www.un.org/wcm/content/site/sport/home/sport (accessed on 25.02.2011) Arnold.Peter.J.Olympism,Sport,and Education Quest,1996,48.Chicago,1996,p.93. Dieuzeide.Henri, UNESCO’s Contribution to International Understanding, 25th IOA Session 1985, Athens, p.167. UNESCO: International Charter of Physical Education Dieuzeide.Henri, UNESCO’s Contribution to International Undersatnding, 25th IOA Session 1985, Athens, p.167. ZerguinI .Mohammed, Olympic Education as a Contributing factor to International Understanding, 25th IOA Session, 1985 Athens, p.128. UNESCO International Charter of Physical Education ZerguinI .Mohammed, Olympic Education as a Contributing factor to International Understanding, 25th IOA Session, 1985 Athens, p.128. UNICEF and Sport: The mixed blessings of success’, unpublished report on sport and international development, UNICEF IRC, Florence, 2007 Pramâna Quarterly Research Journal July-September (2013) 139