Challenges in Access and Delivery of Proprietary Technologies


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Facilitating Access and Delivery of Proprietary technologies for smallholder farmers in Africa - progress by AATF and challenges

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Challenges in Access and Delivery of Proprietary Technologies

  1. 1. AATF Facilitating Access and Delivery of Proprietary technologies for smallholder farmers in Africa Dr. Jacob Mignouna Acting Executive Director , AATF April 2011
  2. 2. African Agriculture: Under-Performing <ul><li>Yields are stationary or declining </li></ul><ul><li>Yet population has continued to increase </li></ul><ul><li>Production per capita is declining </li></ul>Source: FAOSTAT (2001) Cereal yields, 1961-2001 (MT/ha) 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 0 2 4 6 China Sub Saharan Africa South Asia
  3. 3. The Reasons <ul><li>Low farm productivity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor quality soils/lack of access to fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of appropriate technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pests and diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of access to credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The HIV/AIDS Pandemic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Need for Advanced Agricultural Technologies <ul><li>African governments and institutions have recognised Africa’s need to access new and better agricultural technologies (PRSP’s, NEPAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural science & technology can improve food security and reduce poverty in SSA </li></ul><ul><li>Unfortunately some of these technologies are proprietary </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge – Cost & IP management </li></ul>
  5. 5. Why AATF? <ul><ul><li>Effective mechanisms to negotiate the access and transfer - on humanitarian grounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnerships to manage the development & deployment of these technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore AATF’s creation </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Vision - Prosperous farmers and a food secure Africa Mission - Access and deliver proprietary agricultural technologies for sustainable use by smallholder farmers in SSA AATF Vision & Mission
  7. 7. AATF Strategic Thrusts <ul><li>Negotiating access to and ensuring stewardship of proprietary technologies that enhance the productivity of agriculture in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Managing partnerships for project formulation, product development and deployment to introduce innovative agricultural technologies to African farming systems </li></ul><ul><li>Managing information and knowledge to support technology identification, product development and deployment, and a conducive policy environment </li></ul>
  8. 8. AATF Partners <ul><li>African Countries’ Governments </li></ul><ul><li>Regional and National Institutions/Agencies (AU/NEPAD/ECA/FARA/SROs/NARs) </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural Producers/Consumers </li></ul><ul><li>International Institutions/Agencies (CGIAR/ARIs) </li></ul><ul><li>Local/International NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Industry IP holders (Monsanto; DowAgro; Pioneer/DuPont; Syngenta; BASF) </li></ul><ul><li>African trade and agribusiness organizations; </li></ul>
  9. 9. AATF Investors <ul><li>Rockefeller Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>US Agency for International Development </li></ul><ul><li>UK Dept for International Development </li></ul><ul><li>Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation </li></ul><ul><li>Howard Buffet Foundation </li></ul>
  10. 10. Legal Status <ul><li>Incorporated in UK January 2003 and in Kenya in April 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Registered as charity under the laws of England & Wales in January 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Granted host country status by Government of Kenya in June 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Granted tax-exempt status in the US in May 2006 </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Effective mechanisms to negotiate the access and transfer of proprietary technologies </li></ul><ul><li>cry1Ab license obtained from Monsanto and sub-licensed to CSIRO, IITA </li></ul><ul><li>pflp license obtained from Academia Sinica </li></ul><ul><li>NUE and SAL genes being negotiated with Arcadia Biosciences </li></ul><ul><li>Drought tolerance technology – Monsanto & CIMMYT </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate partnerships to manage the development & deployment of these technologies until they reach farmers - Cowpea </li></ul>Does the AATF ‘Idea’ Work? IP Provider AATF Gene Introgression F F F F F F Transfor- mation Seed Multiplication and Distribution Licensing Negotiations Regulatory Compliance Field testing Consumer acceptance Seed distribution systems Insect resistance management Product stewardship NGICA Monsanto CSIRO-Australia IITA NARS NGOs, Seed Co., CBO Kirkhouse Trust
  13. 13. Approach to Technology Transfer <ul><li>Criteria for technology selection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted priority agricultural problems (SRO’s etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessible, transferable, adaptable & proven technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Food and high value crops produced by smallholder farmers in SSA </li></ul><ul><li>AATF Role - </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Responsible party’ & Stewardship – ensuring technologies are appropriately and responsibly used across the value chain </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Smallholder defined as </li></ul><ul><li>Scope of activities </li></ul><ul><li>Across Full Value Chain </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Through PPP </li></ul><ul><li>Area of Operation </li></ul><ul><li>SSA </li></ul>
  14. 14. Working Across Value Chain <ul><li>Steps in the value chain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology identification and access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research & Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proof of concept </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Field testing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of inputs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surplus marketing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AATF Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>R&D management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and facilitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stewardship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Impact assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partnership Management </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. AATF Project Specific Activities <ul><li>Technology licensing and regulatory approval </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom to operate (FTO) assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Licensing for regional distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Liability protection </li></ul><ul><li>Product Development and testing </li></ul><ul><li>Stewardship & Commercialisation </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships Management </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and public awareness </li></ul>
  16. 16. 15. Exit Strategy AATF Project Ladder Phase 0 Business Plan Preparation Product Deployment Product Development 0. Problem-Solution Intelligence Gathering 14. Wide Scale Product Deployment 13. Planning Deployment Expansion 11. Pilot Product Deployment 12. Impact Assessment 10. Baseline Study 3. Scientific/Technical/Legal Review 4. Feasibility Assessment 5. Project Business Plan Development 6. Board Recommendation 7. Product Development 8. Risk Management Strategy Development 9. Communication Strategy Development 1. Product Idea Identification 2. Product Concept Note Development Product Ideas Go/No Go Decision Go/No Go Decision Go/No Go Decision
  17. 17. Product Development and Deployment Agricultural Innovation Platform Product Development and Deployment Proof of Concept Deployment Product Devt. II Product Devt. I Efficacy testing Elite event selection Agronomic trials Protocol optimization Event generation Molecular characterization Trait integration Variety development Field production Market access Seed production Seed Sales Enabling Functions R&D Management and Coordination Product Profiling and Impact Assessment Communication and Issue Management Regulatory Science and Management of Regulatory Affairs IP Management, Licensing and Technology Stewardship
  18. 18. Strategic Positioning
  19. 19. AATF Technology Licensors How AATF Operates Funding Agencies License Technology/Know-how Support in Kind 1 2 3 4 Contracts Research Institute Research Institute Production & Distribution Company NGO/Private Stockists Partners Basic/Strategic/ Adaptive Research Regulatory Approvals Production & Distribution Demonstration & Market Development Farmers Activities Sub-license
  20. 20. Priority Areas for AATF <ul><li>Impact of climate change on agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Pest Management </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Management </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient enhancement in foods </li></ul><ul><li>Improved breeding Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Mechanization </li></ul>
  21. 21. Current AATF Activities <ul><li>Striga control in smallholder maize field </li></ul><ul><li>Insect-resistant cowpea </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement of banana for resistance against banana bacterial wilt </li></ul><ul><li>Biological Control of Aflatoxin </li></ul><ul><li>Drought-tolerance in maize </li></ul><ul><li>Improving Rice Productivity in Nitrogen-Deficient and Saline Environments of Sub-Saharan Africa </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>In Kenya, Striga infests 200,000 ha (2.4m ha in SSA; loss of over US$1b) </li></ul><ul><li>Yield losses range from 20 – 80% but can reach 100% </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive mono-cropping and declining soil fertility aggravate the situation </li></ul><ul><li>If addressed, this will lead to an extra 300,000mt of maize (3.3M bags) </li></ul><ul><li>AATF has spent about KSh.190M </li></ul>Striga Control in African Maize Fields
  24. 24. Photo courtesy of CIMMYT Twin technology: herbicide resistance and seed coating with herbicide Product: Seed of herbicide-resistant maize coated with an herbicide for control of Striga
  25. 25. Progress & Developments <ul><li>Four (4) hybrids and 2 OPV released for certified seed production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commercialised in Kenya; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 OPV released in Tanzania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NPTs underway in Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 2010, about 30 tons of certified seed will be made available to farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Over 60,000 farmers trained on use </li></ul><ul><li>Over 40 agro-dealers trained in handling and use </li></ul><ul><li>Ongoing awareness & education on threat posed by striga & control options </li></ul>
  26. 26. Developing high quality Maruca -resistant cowpea varieties Constraint: Maruca Pod Borer Product: Maruca-Resistant Cowpea Figure 7. Pod damage by M. vitrata
  27. 27. Developing high quality Maruca -resistant cowpea varieties <ul><li>Problem </li></ul><ul><li>Insect damage in the field and in storage </li></ul><ul><li>Losses can be up to 80%. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent insecticide sprays required – health hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Nigeria alone Revenue loss at 400kg/ha-35.52 billion naira (USD 233m) </li></ul><ul><li>Technological Intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Host plant resistance is a low-cost and environmentally friendly control measure for the farmer </li></ul><ul><li>Product </li></ul><ul><li>High yielding cowpea varieties with increased resistance to insect pests - Bt-Cowpea </li></ul><ul><li>(Marucca- Resistant Cowpea) </li></ul>
  28. 28. IP Provider AATF Gene Introgression Transfor- mation Seed Multiplication and Distribution Licensing Negotiations Regulatory Compliance Field testing Consumer acceptance Seed distribution systems Insect resistance management Product stewardship PPPs in the Maruca-resistant Cowpea Project NGICA Monsanto CSIRO-Australia IITA NARS NGOs, Seed Co., CBO Kirkhouse Trust F F F F F F
  29. 29. Progress & Developments <ul><li>Product development on going at CSIRO - Australia </li></ul><ul><li>Confined Field Trials - Puerto Rico & Nigeria </li></ul>
  30. 30. Expected Benefits <ul><li>Availability of Maruca-Resistan cowpeas will contribute significantly to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) increased production and incomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) improved nutrition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(3) enhanced soil fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(4) increase storability, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(5) Improved human & environmental health (decreased pesticide use). </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Resistance to Banana Bacterial Wilt for East African Highland Bananas Constraint: banana bacterial wilt (BBW) disease caused by the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris pv. musacearum ( Xcm )
  32. 32. Development of a BBW-Resistant Banana IP Provider AATF Lab/Field Testing F F F F F F Transfor- mation Propagule Multiplication and Distribution Regulatory Compliance Consumer acceptance Propagule distribution systems Product stewardship IITA Academia Sinica IITA, NARO IITA IRAZ NARS NGOs, Seed Co., CBO Licensing Negotiations
  33. 33. Improving Rice Productivity in Saline Environments of Sub-Saharan Africa Constraint: Low productivity of upland rice under low soil nitrogen and irrigated rice constrained by saline environments
  34. 34. NUE –ST-WUE Rice project Partners <ul><li>AATF </li></ul><ul><li>PIPPRA </li></ul><ul><li>Arcadia Biosciences </li></ul><ul><li>NARS- Ghana </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uganda </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nigeria </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Progress & Developments <ul><li>Product Development on-going: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upland ST: 1 st transgenic events generated transferred to the green house in October 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lowland (NUE & ST) events were transferred from tissue culture to the soil in the greenhouse in Jan 2010. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CFT sites identified & prepared </li></ul><ul><li>Project to include Water Use Efficiency (WUE) </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>Africa drought-prone </li></ul><ul><li>Maize is the most widely grown staple crop in Africa – affected by drought </li></ul><ul><li>In 2003 WFP spent $0.57b on food emergency due to drought in Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Risk of drought prevents investment in BMP </li></ul><ul><li>Yield stability is key to unlock the value of basic inputs for Africa GR </li></ul>Water Efficient Maize for Africa (WEMA) Recorded droughts between 1971 and 2000, and the number of people affected
  37. 37. Drought Stress in Maize, Kenya Source: James Gethi, 2009
  38. 38. WEMA Partners <ul><li>The African Agricultural Technology Foundation (AATF) leading the project. </li></ul><ul><li>CIMMYT and Monsanto providing germplasm, breeding, and biotechnology. </li></ul><ul><li>National Ag. Research System (NARS) testing products and bringing WEMA to farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mozambique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanzania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and Howard G. Buffett Foundation providing R&D funding. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Progress & Developments <ul><li>Partnership established </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contracts signed, teams assembled, workplans developed and initiated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Breeding programs underway </li></ul><ul><li>Field trials initiated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sites identified for development of irrigated regulated drought testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training workshops conducted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DT trials planted in South Africa with Monsanto’s lead commercial event </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CIMMYT and Monsanto African adapted inbreds undergoing trait integration </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Expected Benefits & Outputs <ul><li>Improved yield stability under moderate drought </li></ul><ul><li>The conventionally bred seed available to small-scale farmers in SSA royalty-free in the next 3–4 years. </li></ul><ul><li>More reliable harvests for small scale farmers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced risk of crop failure during moderate drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adoption of improved farming practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Increased maize yields by 20–35% over current varieties under moderate drought </li></ul><ul><li>Additional 2 million MT maize during drought years to feed about 14 to 21 M people </li></ul>
  41. 41. Challenges & Lessons <ul><li>Accessing technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Negotiation for best arrangement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confidentiality arrangements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Establishing effective partnerships </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing expectations within overall goals of project </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenging regulatory environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory frameworks to support activities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communicating biotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptable communication practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seed Deployment systems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Quality control, production capacity & micro-credit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Funding – Core and project funding </li></ul>