• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Staircases gnk(1)
 

Staircases gnk(1)

on

  • 8,932 views

Types of Staircases

Types of Staircases

Statistics

Views

Total Views
8,932
Views on SlideShare
7,655
Embed Views
1,277

Actions

Likes
11
Downloads
594
Comments
4

4 Embeds 1,277

http://www.ustudy.in 1266
http://ustudy.in 8
http://translate.googleusercontent.com 2
http://www.slideshare.net 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel

14 of 4 previous next Post a comment

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Staircases gnk(1) Staircases gnk(1) Presentation Transcript

    • STAIRCASES
      G.NAGESH KUMAR
      Sr. Asst. Prof.
    • Stairs are the medium through which a person can travel from one horizontal level to another horizontal level although it connects two different horizontal levels.
      STAIRS
    • STAIRCASE: A stair is a set of steps leading from one floor to the other. It is provided to afford the means of ascent and descent between various floors of the building. The room or enclosure of the building, in which the stair is located, is known as staircase.The opening or space occupied by the stair is known as a stairway. In a domestic building the stairs should be centrally located to provide easy access to all rooms. In public buildings, stairs should be located near the entrance. Stairs may be constructed by timber, bricks, stone, steel or reinforced cement concrete.
    • Staircases provide access and communication between floors in multi-storey buildings, and are a path by which fire can spread from one floor to another.
      Staircase, therefore, must be enclosed by fire resisting walls, floors, ceiling and doors. It is desirable that the linings to the walls and the ceilings are non- combustible and of low flame spread.
      Another important aspect in the design of stairs is the strength aspect. It must be designed to carry certain loads, which are similar to those used for the design of floor.
    • STAIRS AND ITS TYPES
      • Single flight straight stairs
      • Double flight straight stairs
      • Quarter turn newel
      • Half turn newel
      • Open well stairs
      • Dog legged stairs
      • Bifurcated stairs
      • Circular stairs
      • Spiral stairs
      • Geometrical stairs
    • DOUBLE FLIGHT STRAIGHT STAIRS
      Here the stairs posses two landings while running straight in the complete flight.
      QUARTER TURN NEWEL
      In quarter turn newel the stairs run straight in a flight and after reaching the landing the stairs it turns to either left or right at ninety degree and its runs again till it reaches the consecutive horizontal level.
    • Types of Stairs
      Quarter Turn
    • HALF TURN NEWEL
      In half turn newel stairs the stairs runs straight and after reaching the landing it turns to left or right and then climbs up to next two to three steps and reaches a landing and these steps again turns in the direction from where the user was approaching reaching finally to the consecutive horizontal level.
      OPEN WELL STAIRS
      These are like normal doglegged stairs but the only difference is that after reaching the landing the stairs ends up with a railing instead of the wall.
      .
    • Stair Types
    • DOG LEGGED STAIRS
      Dog legged stairs are the stairs in which the user climbs up to a flight turns at one eighty degree and then climb stairs in opposite direction
      BIFURCATED STAIRS
      In bifurcated stairs the stairs runs at a flight an as it reaches the landing the stairs runs from left and right side reaching the same horizontal level these stairs are provided generally in atrium of a building.
    • CIRCULAR STAIRS
      The stairs made in in a circular form are known as the circular staircase.
    • SPIRAL STAIRSThose stairs which are in spiral form is known as spiral staircase.
      Spiral
    • GEOMETRIC STAIRS
      Geometric
    • The technical terms associated with the design and constructions of stairs are:TREAD: it is the upper horizontal portion of a step upon which the foot is placed while ascending or descending.RISER: it is the vertical portion of a step providing a support to the tread. FLIGHT: this is defined as an unbroken series of steps between landings.LANDING: it is the level platform at the top or bottom of a flight between the floors. A landing facilitates change of direction and provides an opportunity for taking rest during the use of the stair. 
    • 2 Flights
      1 Flight
      Definition – Flights Between Landings
      Dogleg Closed Riser
      Straight Open Riser
    • Half Space Landing
      • Change stair direction 180⁰
      • Landing width = width of stair (min 750mm)
      • Used in Dogleg Stairs
    • Quarter Space Landing
      • Change Stair Direction 90⁰
      • Landing Width & Length = Stair Width
      • Forms Quarter Turn Stair (min 750mm)
    • Intermediate Landing
      • Allows the Stair to continue in same direction
      • Required where more than 18 Risers
      • May be used to give a rest
      • Width = Stair Width
      • Length = Stair Width or greater
    • Quarter Space Landing
    • RISE: it is the vertical distance between two successive tread faces.GOING: it is the horizontal distance between two successive riser faces. STRINGS AND STRINGERS: these are the slopping members which support the steps in a stair. They run along the slope of the stair.NEWEL POST: newel post is a vertical member which is placed at the ends of flights to connect the ends of strings and hand rail.
    • BALUSTER: it is vertical member of wood or metal, supporting the hand rail.HAND RAIL: it is the surrounded or moulded member of wood or metal following generally the contour of the nosing line, and fixed on the top of balusters.
    • STAIRS OF DIFFERENT MATERIALS
      TIMBER STAIRS: these stairs are light in weight and easy to construct, but they have very poor fire resistance. They are used only for small rise residential buildings. Sometimes, fire resisting hard wood of proper thickness may be used.
      STONE STAIRS: these are widely used at places where ashlar stone is readily available. Stone stairs are quite strong and rigid, though they are very heavy. Stone used for construction of stairs should be hard, strong and resistant to wear. The simplest form of stone stairs is those supported on both the ends, though an open well stair case can also be built.
      BRICK STAIRS: these are not very common, except at the entrance. However, brick stairs of single straight flight are often made in village houses. The stairs consist of either solid wall, or also, arched openings may be left for obtaining storage space.
    • METAL STAIRS: stairs of mild steel or cast iron are used only as emergency stairs. They are not common in residential and public buildings, though they are strong and fire resistant. These are commonly used in factories, godowns, workshops, etc.
      R.C.C: these are the stairs widely used for residential, public and industrial buildings. They are strong, hard wearing and fire resisting. These are usually cast- in – situ and a wide variety of finishes can be used on these.
    • Timber Stairs
    • Metal Stairs
    • Concrete Stairs
    • Stone Stairs
    • Glass Stair
    • Combination of Materials
    • Parts of Stairs
    • Parts of Stairs
    • Parts of Stairs
    • Parts of Stairs
    • Parts of Stairs
    • Parts of Stairs
    • Parts of Stairs
    • Parts of Stairs
    • Parts of Stairs
    • Parts of Stairs
    • Parts of Stairs
    • Winders
      Treads that are tapered
      Must have same rise as the flights
      Maximum of 3 treads per quarter turn
      Must be same width at centre on widths < 1m
      If stair > 1m same width 400mm from inside handrail
    • Winders
    • MODELS OF STAIRS
    • Stair Types
    • Stair Types
      Double Closed Stair
    • Stair Types
    • Stair Types
    • Double Open Sided Stairs
    • In this case one side is closed while the other is open
    • The Bracketed Stairs refers to decoration & Cut String
      Also Known as Cut String
    • Quarter Turn StairOpen Newel Stair
    • Spine String Stair
    • GEOMETRICAL STAIRS
    • Definitions
    • Rise & Going must stay the same within flight
    • THANK YOU
    • Quarter Turn Stair
    • BCA Requirements
    • Stair Requirements
    • Calculate StairNo Restriction on Going
      Best Going
      2R + G Between 550 to 700
      Midpoint = 625
      Determine Total Rise
      = 2700
      Say 175mm
      Select suitable Rise
      = 2700/175 = 15.429
      Divide Total Rise by Rise
      Either 15 or 16 Risers = 2700/15 = 180mm
      2700/16 = 168.75mm
      Use 180mm is closer to 175mm
    • Determine Best Going
      BCA states that going must be within the range
      2 x Rise (R) + Going(G) = 550 to 700
      We can assume that the best answer is the Midpoint (550 + 700)/2 = 625
      Best Going 2R + G = 625
      Best Going G = 625 – 2R
    • Calculate StairNo Restriction on Going
      Best Going
      2R + G Between 550 to 700
      Midpoint = 625
      Determine Total Rise
      = 2700
      Say 175mm
      Select suitable Rise
      = 2700/175 = 15.429
      Divide Total Rise by Rise
      Either 15 or 16 Risers = 2700/15 = 180mm (Use)
      2700/16 = 168.75mm
      Determine Best Going 2R + G = 625
      G = 625 – 2R
      Best Going for180 Riser 265 = 625 – 2 x 180
      Either
      Rise 180
      Going 265
    • Calculate StairNo Restriction on Going
      Use
      Rise 180
      Going 265
      15 Risers
      14 Goings
    • Calculate StairRestriction on Going
      Best Going
      2R + G Between 550 to 700
      Midpoint = 625
      Preferred Rise 175mm
      Divide Total Rise by Rise = 2700/175 = 15.429
      Either 15 or 16 Risers = 2700/15 = 180mm
      2700/16 = 168.75
      Use 180mm
      Determine Best Going
      3800/14 = 271.43 + 2 x 180 = 631. 43 (Closest)
      3800/15 = 253.33 + 2 x 168.75 = 591
      15 Risers
      14 Goings
      Use
      Rise 180
      Going 271.43
    • Calculate Stair Flight with Quarter Turn
      Stair width 900mm
      Once an Intermediate Landing is introduced the top flight becomes constrained
    • Calculate Stair Flight with Quarter Turn
      Best Going
      2R + G Between 550 to 700
      Midpoint = 625
      G = 625 – 2R
      Stair width 900mm
      Preferred Rise = 165mm
      2700/165 = 16 .364
      16 2700/16= 168.75 (3.75 Diff)
      2700/17= 158.824 (6.176 Diff)
      Use Rise = 168.75
      Best Going = 625 – 2R
      = 625 – 2 x 168.75
      = 287.5
      1800/287.5 = 6.261
      6 1800/6 = 300 (12.5 Diff)
      1800/7 = 257.143 (30.357 Diff)
      Rise = 168.364
      Going = 300
    • Calculate Stair Flight with Quarter Turn
      Best Going
      2R + G Between 550 to 700
      Midpoint = 625
      G = 625 – 2R
      Stair width 900mm
      Preferred Rise = 165mm
      2700/165 = 16 .364
      16 2700/16= 168.75 (3.75 Diff)
      2700/17= 158.824 (6.176 Diff)
      Use Rise = 168.75
      Best Going = 625 – 2R
      = 625 – 2 x 168.75
      = 287.5
      1800/287.5 = 6.261
      6 1800/6 = 300 (12.5 Diff)
      1800/7 = 257.143 (30.357 Diff)
      Rise = 168.364
      Going = 300
    • Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Quarter Turn
      Best Going
      2R + G Between 550 to 700
      Midpoint = 625
      625- 2 x 180 = 265
      Stair width 900mm
      From Previous we know
      15 Risers at 180
      Length of 1st Flight = 2700 - 900
      Divide by Best Going = 1800/265
      = 6.79
      Going Either 1800 /6 = 300mm
      1800/7 = 257mm
      257.14 is Closest to 265
    • Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Half Space Landing
      Preferred Riser 170mm
      3600/170 = 21.176
      21 3600/21 = 171.429
      3600/22 = 163.636
      Use 171.429mm
      Best Going = 625 – 2R
      = 625 – 2 x 171.429
      = 282.142
      Length of 1st Flight = 4050 – 900
      = 3150
      Divide by Best Going = 3150/282.142
      = 11.16
      11 3150/11 = 286.364
      - 3150/12 = 262.500
      Use 286.364
      Stair width 900mm
    • Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Half Space Landing
      Preferred Riser 170mm
      Rise 171.429mm
      Going 286.364
      Stair width 900mm
    • Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Quarter Turn Winders
      Preferred Riser 170mm
      4100/170 = 24.118
      24 4100/24 = 170.833
      25 4100/24 = 164
      Use Rise 170.833
      Best Going
      625 – 2R = BG
      625 – 2 x 170.833 = 283.334
      2650/ 283.334 = 9.353
      2650/9 = 294.444 (USE)
      2650/10 = 265
      Rise 170.833
      Going 268.75
      Stair width 900mm
    • Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Quarter Turn Winders
      Preferred Riser 170mm
      4100/170 = 24.118
      24 4100/24 = 170.833
      25 4100/24 = 164
      Use Rise 170.833
      Best Going
      625 – 2R = BG
      625 – 2 x 170.833 = 283.334
      2650/ 283.334 = 9.353
      2650/9 = 294.444 (USE)
      2650/10 = 265
      Rise 170.833
      Going 294.444
      Stair width 900mm
    • Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Half Space Landing
      Stair width 950mm
      Preferred Riser 170mm
      3400/170 = 20
      3400/20 = 170 Rise
      Best Going = 625 – 2R
      = 625 – 2 x 170
      = 285
      2400/285 = 8.421
      8 2400/8 = 300 (15 Diff)
      2400/9 = 266.667 (18.3 Diff)
      Rise 170
      Going 300
    • Calculate StairConstrained Flight with Half Space Landing
      Stair width 950mm
      Preferred Riser 170mm
      3400/170 = 20
      3400/20 = 170 Rise
      Best Going = 625 – 2R
      = 625 – 2 x 170
      = 285
      2400/285 = 8.421
      8 2400/8 = 300 (15 Diff)
      2400/9 = 266.667 (18.3 Diff)
      Rise 170
      Going 300
      With all examples either answer will comply and you should consult with your client and/or Architect
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
      40mm Margin
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
      Stair Pitch = 29.54⁰
      Zoom In
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
      Stair Pitch = 29.54⁰
      Margin Line
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
      This angle must be the same Stair Pitch = 29.54⁰
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
      This angle must be the same Stair Pitch = 29.54⁰
      Sin Ѳ = Adjacent / Hypotenuse
      = 40 ÷ X
      X = 40 ÷ Sin 29.54
      X = 81.131
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
      This angle must be the same Stair Pitch = 29.54⁰
      Sin Ѳ = Adjacent / Hypotenuse
      = 40 ÷ X
      X = 40 ÷ Sin 29.54
      X = 81.13
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
      Set Out For Steel Square Going
      Going + Margin ÷ Sin Ѳ
      = 300 + 40 ÷ Sin 29.54⁰
      = 381.13mm
      Ѳ
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
      Set Out For Steel Square Rise
      Ѳ
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
      Set Out For Steel Square Rise
      This Angle must = 90 - 29.54
      Ѳ
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
      Set Out For Steel Square Rise
      This Angle must = 90 - 29.54
      This Angle must = 29.54⁰
      Y = 40 ÷ Cos 29.54⁰
      Y = 45.9763
      Ѳ
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
      Set Out For Steel Square Rise
      This Angle must = 90 - 29.54
      This Angle must = 29.54⁰
      Y = 40 ÷ Cos 29.54⁰
      Y = 45.9763
      Ѳ
    • Determine Steel Square Mathematically
      Set Out For Steel Square Rise
      Rise + Margin ÷ Sin Ѳ
      = 170 + 40 ÷ Sin 29.54⁰
      = 170 + 45.98
      = 215.98
      Ѳ