Quintel - David Barker CTO Base Station Antenna Evolution and Revolution

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Base Station Antenna Evolution and Revolution

Base Station Antenna Evolution and Revolution

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  • 1. Telefónica 2021 Networking SummitBase Station Antenna Evolution and RevolutionDavid Barker, CTOQuintel Technology 16 December 2011
  • 2. The Capacity Crunch • The Capacity crunch • We are all aware of it • By 2025 there may be 50x, 500x increase? How do we close the gap? • How is it solved? – More Spectrum (~3x increase by 2025) – More Spectral Efficient access tech (~3x increase by 2025) – More Spectral re-use/denser topologies (~?x increase) – Pricing mechanisms • Small Cells are the acknowledged answer in the form of Femtos, Picos, etc and part of a HetNet. Source: Verizon • But the Macro Layer won’t be replaced by Femto Layer, so how can the Macro layer evolve and be prepared for the Capacity crunch? Shannon’s Limit has essentially been reached; this is all Spatial Multiplexing/MIMOCopyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 3. Spectrum Evolution 2500 2600 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2700 1000 1700 1800 1900 1400 1600 500 400 600 700 800 900 GSM/GPRS/EDGE 1990 1998 Receive Div. Only UMTS/HSPA/HSPA+ DD2 2004 LTE FDD Rel 8/9/10/11 2012 2x2 MIMO and Tx Div. TD-LTE Rel 8/9/10/11 4x4 MIMO, CoMP. 2016 Azimuth Beamforming White Space/Interleaved Spectrum 8x8 MIMO, CoMP, ICIC. 2020 Elevation Beamforming Azimuth Beamforming• FCC, UK, India promise another 500MHz by 2020; and with “hands-off” approaches, incentive auctions and trading of spectrum.• LTE-A is aligned with this multi-band concept to achieve 1Gbps and beyond.• Results in more Spectrum Neighbours = more Inter-System interference scenarios (GPS, DTV, Public Safety, PMR/SMR)• Results in more Intra-System PIM Issues, especially with higher power Tx• Logic could be to eventually migrate to cognitive radio systems, as per White Space model?Copyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 4. How the Base Station Antenna has evolved Maxwell’s Laws not Moore’s Law Source: 3G Americas; 3G & 4G Antenna Deployment 2012? Point of Flux: Reconfigurable? Active? Adaptive? More Bands? Multi-Port Spectral and Space Efficiency Mutually Exclusive Combiners Multi-array Spectral Efficiency Techniques Space Efficiency TechniquesCopyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 5. MIMO Spectral Efficiency Evolution in LTE 2x2 Single User MIMO 1.4 Spectral Efficiency (bps/Hz) JT: Joint Transmission (Multi-Cell Tx) CS/CB: Co-ordinated Scheduling & BeamformingR8 number of average relative small relativ cross-polarized antenna sources gain gain CS/CB SU-MIMO 2x2 vs. SU-MIMO 2x2 1 Cell avg 1.46% 1. Cell-edge 2.86% 2. CS/CB SU-MIMO 4x2 vs. SU-MIMO 4x2 5 Cell avg 5.65% 1.2012 2x2 Multi User MIMO 1.8 2.3 Cell-edge 16.68% 3. CS/CB MU-MIMO 2x2 vs. MU-MIMO 2x2 9 cells 3 Cell avg 3.71% 1. Cell-edge 5.17% 4. > 9 cells 2 Cell avg 0.86% -0. Dual Layer Beamforming (R9) Cell-edge 15.21% 13. Azimuth Plane Coherent CS/CB MU-MIMO 4x2 vs. MU-MIMO 4x2 9 cells 7 Cell avg 3.63% -0.R9 Beamforming > 9 cells Cell-edge 2 Cell avg 11.66% 1.09% 2. -1. Cell-edge 17.32% 13. JT SU-MIMO 2x2 vs. SU-MIMO 2x2 9 cells 2 Cell avg 2.19% 0. Cell-edge 14.80% 11. JT SU-MIMO 4x2 vs. SU-MIMO 4x2 9 cells 5 Cell avg 3.57% -3. 4x2 Single User/Multi Cell MIMO (CoMP) Cell-edge 21.78% 6.2015 2.5 2.7 3.5 JT MU-MIMO 2x2 vs. MU-MIMO 2x2 9 cells 7 Cell avg 4.07% -5. Cell-edge 40.72% 9. > 9 cells 1 Cell avg 3.57% 3. Tx1 Cell-edge 18.57% 18. Higher-order JT MU-MIMO 4x2 vs. MU-MIMO 4x2 9 cells 7 Cell avg 8.70% -8. Tx2 Azimuth Plane 3GPP Study item in release 11 LTE Cell-edge 31.35% 10. > 9 cells 1 Cell avg 6.86% 6.R10 Coherent Cell-edge 18.18% 18. Beamforming 3GPP TR 36.819 V11.0.0 (2011-09) DCS SU-MIMO 2x2 vs. SU-MIMO 2x2 9 cells 2 Cell avg 1.69% 0. number Cell-edge average 2.01% smal0. captures these9simulation results. DCS SU-MIMO 4x2 vs. SU-MIMO 4x2 cells of 1 Cell avg 18.33% relati relative 18. ULA sources Cell-edge gain41.04% gain 41. CS/CB SU-MIMO 2x2 vs. SU-MIMO 2x2 9 cells 2 Cell avg 4.03% 2 CoMP/ICIC techniques in particular Cell-edge 4.42% 22018 4x2 Multi User/Multi Cell MIMO (CoMP) CS/CB SU-MIMO 4x2 vs. SU-MIMO 4x2edge performances. improve cell 9 cells 4 Cell avg 5.32% 2 Cell-edge 20.64% 5 CS/CB MU-MIMO 2x2 vs. MU-MIMO 2x2 9 cells 2 Cell avg 4.07% 2 3.0 3.4 4.0 Slow but steady evolution in Spectral Cell-edge 8.93% 4 > 9 cells 1 Cell avg 5.66% 5 Tx1 Efficiencies, at the expense of Cell-edge 25.08% 25 CS/CB MU-MIMO 4x2 vs. MU-MIMO 4x2 9 cells complexity. 6 Cell avg 4.12% 1 Cell-edge 12.22% 5R11 Tx2 > 9 cells 2 Cell avg 2.29% -0 Cell-edge 21.76% 21 JT SU-MIMO 2x2 vs. SU-MIMO 2x2 9 cells 3 Cell avg 1.55% -1 Cell-edge 19.84% 12 Emphasis on UE JT SU-MIMO 4x2 vs. SU-MIMO 4x2 9 cells 3 Cell avg 1.12% -1 Cell-edge 13.49% 9 only having 2x JT MU-MIMO 2x2 vs. MU-MIMO 2x2 9 cells 3 Cell avg 13.53% 3 Antennas Cell-edge 40.50% 20 JT MU-MIMO 4x2 vs. MU-MIMO 4x2 9 cells 5 Cell avg 11.40% -1 Cell-edge 28.87% 9Copyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved. > 9 cells 1 Cell avg -9.15% -9Quintel Confidential. Cell-edge 34.34% 34
  • 6. MIMO Spectral Efficiency Evolution in LTE Dual Layer Beamforming in LTE Release 9 Base Pattern • With 3GPP Release 9 (TD-LTE) and Release 10 (FDD), a of each array feature called “Dual Layer Beamforming” allows the LTE Downlink shared traffic channel to use 2x2 Spatial Multiplexing MIMO plus Adaptive Beamforming. • With 4xPA’s (i.e. a 4T4R Base Station) you can transmit a signal on two feeders; each signal carrying the same information but having different phase weights. • Example shown left, where different LTE Physical resource Blocks (i.e. different groups of LTE OFDM Sub-Tones) are +45 +45 delivered with different Azimuthally Beamformed patterns. -45 -45 • Each user receives their respective signals via individual optimal Beamformed patterns. • Beamforming in this way improves overall C/I which in turns ensures that Spatial Multiplexing occurs more often. Azimuthal Beamformed Patterns created for different users (using different Physical Resource Blocks in Time & Frequency) 4T4R Base StationCopyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 7. Quintel Product Application Families MultiServTM Product Family MultiWavTM Product Family Multiband/Multi-Port Products Adaptive Elevation Beamforming Products • >2x more ports than standard antennas • Same benefits as MultiServ plus • Maintains standard form factor • Complement or alternative to fully active antenna deployments • Delivers Quad and Penta bands • The answer to delivering “smart” antenna • Enables LTE deployment in new and features, whilst supporting legacy services, existing frequency bands and across multiple bands. • Max ports & tilts enables high order MIMO capabilities and mitigates PIM Space Efficient Mast Solutions Spectrum Efficient Mast SolutionsCopyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 8. How Quintel QTiltTM Technology Works Standard VET Antenna Quintel VET Principle Quintel VET Principle (2x Tilts) Power Dividing Network Quintel Corporate Feed Quintel Corporate Feed +45 Network (+45o) Network (+45o) 1800 18 21 +45 2100 18 21 Phase slope Single Phase Phase slope Actuator across array Difference across array (–q to +q ) (–f to +f ) (–q to +q ) UMTS2100 Min Tilt Min Tilt GSM1800 Mid Tilt Mid Tilt Max Tilt Max Tilt Tx/Rx Tx/Rx Tx/Rx Tx/Rx Base Station Base Station GSM1800 UMTS2100Copyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 9. Solutions for Space Efficiency Quintel MultiServTM PCS1900 AWS UMTS2100 GSM1800 800/850 Service 2m 2m LTE2600 LTE700 4T4R LTE(AWS) Remote Head GSM900/ Solution shown LTE800 Optional TMAs 700/850/1900 700/850/1900 Optional Band Combiners 8-9/18 Combiners Combiners LTE-AWS 8x Ports: LTE2600 (4T4R) 2x 698-894MHz 10x Ports: 2x 1850-1990MHz 2x 790-960MHz 2x 1710-1770/2110-2180MHz Space Efficiency 4x 1710-2170MHz 700/850/1900 700/850/1900 Techniques 4x 2490-2690MHz Combiners Combiners Optional 8-900/1800 Combiners Tx/Rx Tx/Rx Tx/Rx Tx/Rx Tx/Rx Tx/Rx Tx/Rx Tx/Rx GSM850 GSM1900 LTE700 GSM1800 GSM900 LTE800 UMTS2100Copyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 10. More Spectrum Example of Intra System Interference Problem “Back to the Future” Quintel Solution Quintel MultiServ MultiServ Antenna Antenna (Tx) (Rx) 700/850 700/850 700/850 700/850 Combiners Combiners Combiners Combiners Tx: 700DEBC 700/850 700/850 700/850 700/850 Combiners Combiners Combiners Combiners T R T R Rx: 700BC Either Un-duplex or All Tx Sub-Bands are break out at native Transmitted (30MHz) Tx, Rx ports GSM/UMTS LTE 850AB 700Copyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved. A Spectral Efficiency TechniqueQuintel Confidential.
  • 11. MIMO Engineering & Innovation Back to the Future: Space Diversity for Spectral Efficiency? • For 2x Antennas per sector. Quintel Dualband 8 Port Antennas (698-894MHz/1710-2170MHz) • Quintel solution allows initial 2x2 MIMO with Quintel Quintel either: 6x Independent Tilts MultiServ MultiServ Antenna Antenna – Conventional X-Polar only, or Hybrid Space+Polz Diversity For all services – Spatially Separated orthogonal Polarisations “Back to the Future” Modeling and capacity of polarized Solution MIMO channels Mikael Coldrey Ericsson Research, Ericsson AB, SWEDEN 2x2 MIMO LTE(AWS) Remote Head Solution shown 1dB Spectral Efficiency Gains 700/850/1900 700/850/1900 700/850/1900 700/850/1900 Combiners Combiners Combiners Combiners LTE-AWS 700/850/1900 700/850/1900 700/850/1900 700/850/1900 Combiners Combiners Combiners Combiners 2x2 MIMO LTE700 1998 IEEE Paper 1dB Diversity Gains • Upgrade to 4x4 MIMO on 700 and AWS bands LTE GSM 850 GSM 1900 700 UMTS 1900 UMTS 850 • Patented technique and application. A Spectral Efficiency TechniqueCopyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 12. What is an Active Antenna? Integrated RRH/ Distributed Distributed Transceivers Passive Antenna Amplifiers with Sub-Array Distribution Network Distribution Network What is an Active Antenna? • Integrated RRH/Passive Antenna (Not strictly an Active Antenna) • Distributed Amplifiers • Distributed Amplifiers feeding Sub-ArraysCopyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 13. Quintel Alternative/Compliment to Active Antenna Quintel MultiWav Passive Antenna Part Quintel Corporate Feed Quintel Corporate Feed Quintel Corporate Feed Quintel Corporate Feed Quintel Corporate Feed Quintel Corporate Feed RRH • Quintel offers deployment flexibility for location of Radios • Fully Passive Antenna. Exploits 4T4R Base Stations Bottom Mount RRH • Re-use of same RRH modules/hardware in all configs • Re-use of same RRH modules/hardware for standard, non-Quintel applicationsCopyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 14. Antenna Innovation What could be achieved with an Active Antenna? • Multi dimensional applications covering • Optimisation of different access technologies in same freq band • Optimising individual RF channels within same standard • Enhancing cell throughput on network or cluster basis. Elevation Beamforming Spectral Efficiency TechniquesCopyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 15. A Solution for Spectral EfficiencyMultiWav - Adaptive Elevation Beamforming (Uplink only) • Connecting a 2T4R Base Station as shown with 4-way Maximal Ratio Combiner (MRC), rather than usual 2- Corporate Feed Quintel Corporate Feed Quintel Corporate Feed way MRC. Networks Network (+45o) Network (-45o) • MRC algorithm simply applies weights and phase delays to the 4x Rx inputs to maximize C/I, and will do Dynamic this on a per channel (per user) basis at baseband. (adaptive) tilting (per user) for LTE Uplink Independent • Applying phase delays to within each of the Rx Shifters T R T R T R T R Phase Static Tilt for differential pairs is simply creating a coherent beam LTE Downlink (tilt) toward/from each user/terminal, and then applying T R T R phase/weights between +45 and -45 is then standard +45 2-way Rx diversity. -45 T R T R LTE Uplink (Adaptive) LTE Downlink RxD4 RxD3 4-Way S Tx/Rx1 Tx/Rx2 MRC LTE eNB (2T/4R Configuration)Copyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved. Spectral Efficiency TechniquesQuintel Confidential.
  • 16. A Solution for Spectral Efficiency MultiWav - Adaptive Elevation Beamforming (Up & Downlink) Corporate Feed Quintel Corporate Feed Quintel Corporate Feed Interference Networks Network (+45o) Network (-45o) UE Dynamic Beamform/Tilting for LTE +45A +45B -45A -45B LTE 2GHz/20MHz 2x2 Config LTE (10MHz) Throughput vs. Distance Scatter Plot (Central Cells/Int Tilts) Flat Earth 3x19 cell geometry (Mech Tilt = 3o, Elec Tilt=2o, Bin Size = 10m, Boresight +/- Cell Radii) (25m Ht x 500m 30 ) o Sites without Traffic EDT=7 Monte-Carlo Simulation Spatial Multiplexing Mbps (y) vs. Dist in m (x) 60 up to Rank 2 across Blue – No Elevation BF +45 and -45 BF pairs Red – With Elevation BFBeamforming 50 in Elevation Throughput (Mbps) LTE (R9+)across each 4T4R 40 A&B ports Original Throu Optimised Thr 30 20 10 Can be a 2T4R eNodeB (giving Uplink adaptive 0 coherent Beamforming) 0 100 200 300 400 500 Distance (m)Copyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 17. Antenna Hardware Evolution? Active Adaptive Innovation: • There are Active Antennas which are purely active, offering 1x Antenna Quintel box at the top of the mast. • Then, there’s a roadmap for Active Antennas which also will Quintel Corporate Feed Baseband/DAC/RF Stages promise adaption of the (vertical) beam pattern on a per Physical Resource Block (PRB) or user resolution basis. • The latter being a focus of a lot of OEM vendors right now; fits BB-RF with slim line antennas for Western markets. Dual-PA IRU • Quintel are offering a complimentary solution delivering smart (adaptive) coherent Beamforming in radio channels where full complex vector control of each antenna element isn’t Optical Fibre Optical Fibre necessary. Baseband Baseband Server Server Multi-Band Capable Offers Active/Smart antenna type features Completely Passive Full Complex vector control at each element (Fully Active Adaptive Array)Copyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 18. Quintel Elevation Beamforming Antenna Legacy support plus Adaptive Elevation Beamforming • One 4T4R plus one 2T2R base station example shown Corporate Feed Quintel Corporate Feed Quintel Corporate Feed Networks • Network (+45o) Quintel advantage is that a single column array lends itself Network (-45o) to dual-array (dual-band) topology readily. A side-by-side column array (conventional Azimuthal Beamforming) may prove difficult to make dual-band. Dynamic Beamform/Tilting for LTE800 • Quintel can also offer our conventional independent (static) Shifters 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 Phase RET for 900 tilt for legacy services as illustrated left, as per our MultiServ product approach. +45 -45 • Potentially, beamforming in elevation could prove more effective than beamforming in Azimuth, due to the fact interference comes from one direction (the horizon) rather than multiple directions as in Azimuth. 2xTx/Rx 4xTx/Rx Spectral Efficiency Techniques And Space Efficiency Techniques GSM900, UMTS900 LTE800Copyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 19. Deployment? Weight Critical RRH Weight CriticalCopyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.
  • 20. Thank You! Dave Barker +44 7958 418 816 david.barker@quintelsolutions.com When wireless is pushed to the limit the answer isn’t more of the same The answer is more innovationCopyright © 2011 Quintel. All rights reserved.Quintel Confidential.