Designing the highway

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  • 1. Designing the Highway By: Ron de Guzman
  • 2. Design Speed
  • 3. Design speed
    • ☺ Design speed is defined by the AASHTO as  ...the maximum safe speed that can be maintained over a specified section of highway when conditions are so favorable that the design features of the highway govern.
    • ☺ Design speed is a selected speed used to determine the various geometric features of the roadway.  The assumed design speed should be a logical one with respect to the topography, anticipated operating speed, the adjacent land use, and the functional classification of the highway.
  • 4. Factors that influence Design Speed
    • ☺ The functional classification of the highway
    • ☺ The character of the terrain
    • ☺ The density and character of adjacent land uses
    • ☺ The traffic volumes expected to use the highway
    • ☺ The economic and environmental considerations.
  • 5. Design Speed
    • Typically, an arterial highway warrants a higher design speed than a local road; a highway located in level terrain warrants a higher design speed than one in mountainous terrain; a highway in a rural area warrants a higher design speed than one in an urban area; and a high volume highway warrants a higher design  speed  than one carrying low traffic volumes.
  • 6. Types of Roadway
    • ☺ Freeway
    • ☺ Arterial
    • ☺ Collector
    • ☺ Local
  • 7. Freeway
    • This is a divided major roadway with full control of access and with no crossings at grade. This definition applies to toll as well as non-toll roads.
  • 8. Arterial
    • An  arterial road , or  arterial thoroughfare , is a high-capacity urban road. The primary function of an arterial road is to deliver traffic from collector roads to freeways, and between urban centers at the highest level of service possible.
  • 9. Collector
    • A  collector road  or  distributor road  is a low to moderate-capacity road which serves to move traffic from local streets to arterial roads. Unlike arterials, collectors are also designed to provide access to residential properties.
  • 10. Ranges for Design Speed Type of Road way Terrain Rural Urban US (mi/h) Metric (km/h) US (mi/h) Metric (km/h) F R E E W A Y LEVEL 70 110 50min 80min ROLLING 70 110 50min 80min MOUNTAINOUS 50-60 80-110 50min 80min
  • 11. Ranges for Design Speed Type of Road way Terrain Rural Urban US (mi/h) Metric (km/h) US (mi/h) Metric (km/h) A R T E R I A L LEVEL 60-75 100-120 30-60 50-100 ROLLING 50-60 80-100 30-60 50-100 MOUNTAINOUS 40-50 60-80 30-60 50-100
  • 12. Ranges for Design Speed Type of Road way Terrain Rural Urban US (mi/h) Metric (km/h) US (mi/h) Metric (km/h) C O L L E C T O R LEVEL 40-60 60-100 30+ 50+ ROLLING 30-50 50-80 30+ 50+ MOUNTAINOUS 20-40 30-60 30+ 50+
  • 13. Ranges for Design Speed Type of Road way Terrain Rural Urban US (mi/h) Metric (km/h) US (mi/h) Metric (km/h) L O C A L LEVEL 30-50 50-80 20-30 30-50 ROLLING 20-40 30-60 20-30 30-50 MOUNTAINOUS 20-30 30-50 20-30 30-50
  • 14. Cross Section of a Typical Highway
  • 15. Cross-section of Typical Highway
    • The cross section of a road includes some or all of the following elements:
    • ☺ Traveled way  (the portion of the roadway provided for the movement of vehicles, exclusive of shoulders)
    • ☺ Roadway  (the portion of a highway, including shoulders, provided for vehicular use)
    • ☺ Median  area (the physical or painted separation provided on divided highways between two adjacent roadways)
    • ☺ Bicycle and pedestrian facilities
    • ☺ Utility and landscape areas
    • ☺ Drainage channels and side slopes
    • ☺ Clear zone width  (i.e., the distance from the edge of the traveled way to either a fixed obstacle or nontraversable slope)
  • 16. Cross-section ELEMENTS
    • Travel Lanes
    • The number of lanes needed for a facility is usually determined during the concept stage of project development. It is usually the number of lanes necessary to accommodate the expected traffic volumes at a level of service determined to be appropriate for the facility.
  • 17. Cross-section ELEMENTS
    • Lane Width
    • The width of travel lanes is limited by the physical dimensions of automobiles and trucks to a range between 2.7 and 3.6 m (9 and 12 ft). Generally, as the design speed of a highway increases, so must the lane width to allow for the lateral movement of vehicles within the lane.
  • 18. Cross-section ELEMENTS
    • Lane Width
    • Although lane widths of 3.6 m are desirable on both rural and urban facilities, there are circumstances that necessitate the use of lanes less than 3.6 m wide. In urban areas where rightofway and existing development become stringent controls, the use of 3.3 m lanes is acceptable. Lanes 3.0 m wide are acceptable on low speed facilities. Lanes 2.7 m wide are appropriate on low volume roads in rural and residential areas.
  • 19. Cross-section ELEMENTS
    • Medians
    • An important consideration in the design of any multilane highway is whether to provide a median and, if one is provided, what the dimensions should be. The primary functions of highway medians are to:
  • 20. Cross-section ELEMENTS
    • ☺ Separate opposing traffic flows
    • ☺ Provide a recovery area for out of control vehicles
    • ☺ Allow space for speed changes and left turning and U
    • turning vehicles
    • ☺ Minimize headlight glare
    • ☺ Provide width for future lanes (particularly in suburban
    • areas)
  • 21. Cross-section ELEMENTS
    • ☺ Provide a space for landscape planting that is in keeping with safety needs and improves the aesthetics of the facility
    • ☺ Provide a space for barriers.
  • 22. Cross-section ELEMENTS
    • Clear Zones
    • An important consideration in defining the appropriate cross section for a particular highway facility is the width of the clear zone.  
    • "...the unobstructed, relatively flat area provided beyond the edge of the traveled way for the recovery of errant vehicles."
  • 23. Cross-section ELEMENTS
    • Curbs
    • Used primarily in urban and suburban environments, curbs can serve some or all of the following functions:
    • ☺ Drainage control
    • ☺ Roadway edge delineation
    • ☺ Right of way reduction
    • ☺ Aesthetics
    • ☺ Delineation of pedestrian walkways
    • ☺ Reduction of maintenance operations
    • ☺ Assistance in roadside development.
  • 24. Cross-section ELEMENTS
    • There are basically two types of curbs: barrier and mountable. Flexibility in the use of either type is a handy tool for a highway designer when defining the cross section of an improvement project. Barriertype curbs are not, however, recommended for projects with design speeds above 65 km/h (40 mph).
    • Curbs can be constructed from a variety of materials, including concrete, asphalt, and cut stone. Figure 6.3 illustrates a variety of commonly used barrier and mountable curbs.
  • 25. Cross-section ELEMENTS
  • 26. Cross-section ELEMENTS
    • There are basically two types of curbs: barrier and mountable. Flexibility in the use of either type is a handy tool for a highway designer when defining the cross section of an improvement project. Barriertype curbs are not, however, recommended for projects with design speeds above 65 km/h (40 mph).
    • Curbs can be constructed from a variety of materials, including concrete, asphalt, and cut stone. Figure 6.3 illustrates a variety of commonly used barrier and mountable curbs.
  • 27. Typical Cross Section of Highways
  • 28. Typical Cross Section of Highways
  • 29. Typical Cross Section of Highways
  • 30. Typical Cross Section of Highways
  • 31. Typical Cross Section of Highways
  • 32. Typical Cross Section of Highways
  • 33. Road Shoulder
  • 34. Road Shoulder
    • Shoulder
    • is a reserved area by the verge of a road or motorway. Generally it is kept clear of motor vehicle traffic.
    • Shoulder widths typically vary from as little as 0.6 m (2 ft) on minor rural roads, where there is no surfacing, to about 3.6 m (12 ft) on major highways, where the entire shoulder may be stabilized or paved.
  • 35. Road Shoulder
    • Road shoulder or verge is defined as that portion of the road-way between the edge of the traffic lane and the edge of the ditch, gutters, curb or side slope. AASHTO requires that its usable pavement width shall be strong enough to support a vehicle.
  • 36. Road Shoulder
    • The importance of road shoulders
    • 1. Road shoulder serves as a place for vehicles to stop when disabled, or for some other purposes. Road shoulder considerably reduces road accidents.
    • 2. The road capacity is decreased and accident opportunity increases if the shoulder is too narrow or omitted in the design.
    • 3. Shoulder should be continuous along the full length of the roadway. It also add structural strength to the road pavement.
    • 4. Shoulder increases the horizontal sight distance on curves. It reduces accident potential when vehicle stop during emergencies.
  • 37. Road Shoulder
    • WIDTH OF ROADWAY FOR UNDIVIDED HIGHWAY
    Total Travel way Shoulder Width Roadway Width Speed of Reference 14.00 m. 3.25 20.50 100-80-60-40 12.00 m. 3.25 18.50 60-40 7.00 m. 2.75 12.50 100-80-60-40 7.00 m. 2.00 11.00 80-60-40 6.70 m. 2.75 12.20 100-80-60-40 6.70 m. 2.00 10.70 80-60-40 6.00 m. 2.75 11.50 80-60-40 6.00 m. 1.50 9.00 80-60-40
  • 38. Cut and Fill Slope
  • 39. Cut and Fill Slope
    • Cut slopes
    • Are rarely created greater than a slope of two to one (horizontal to vertical dimensions). Cut sections of roadway or rail are characterized by the roadway being lower in elevation than the surrounding terrain. From an operational standpoint there are unique environmental effects associated with cut sections of roadway. For example, air pollutants can concentrate in the ‘'valleys'‘ created by the cut section. Conversely, noise pollution is mitigated by cut sections since an effective blockage of line of sight sound propagation is created by the depressed roadway design.
  • 40. Cut and Fill Slope
    • Fill
    • sections manifest as elevated sections of a roadway or track bed. Environmental effects of fill sections are typically favorable with respect to air pollution dispersal, but in the matter of sound propagation, exposure of nearby residents is generally increased, since sound walls and other forms of sound path blockage are less effective in this geometry.
    • There are a variety of reasons for creating fills, among them reduction of grade along a route or elevation of the route above water, swampy ground, or areas where snow drifts frequently collect. Fills can also be used to cover tree stumps, rocks, or unstable soil, in which case material with a higher bearing capacity is placed on top of the obstacle in order to carry the weight of the roadway or railway and reduce differential settlement.