This is the simplest example of how a noncontiguous cluster might be executed., where all of the allowed units on both sites are constructed on one site, and the other site is preserved.
This is another example of how a noncontiguous cluster might be executed where all of the allowed units from four parcels are clustered onto one parcel.
Balancing Development and Conservation in Transit-Oriented Development Tim Evans • New Jersey Future2013 NJ Land Conservation Rally • March 9, 2013
New Jersey Future is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization that brings together concerned citizens and leaders to promote responsible land-use policies.The organization employs original research, analysis and advocacy to build coalitions and drive land-use policies that help revitalize cities and towns, protect natural lands and farms, provide more transportation choices beyond cars, expand access to safe and affordable neighborhoods and fuel a prosperous economy.
Assessing Development [and Preservation]Opportunities Around New Jersey’s Transit Stations
More Transit Hubs…But Where? [suggestions from Getting to Work]Can we be systematic about prioritizing candidates?
Prioritizing TOD InvestmentsDatabase of all 243 distinct transit stations inNew Jersey:• 12 ferry terminals• 16 major bus terminals not served by any other modes• 205 served only by rail• 10 multi-modal stations [e.g. Hoboken Terminal, Newark Penn Station, Walter Rand Transp. Center in Camden]
Prioritizing TOD Investments• Operating characteristics of each station: current ridership, frequency of service, number of lines/modes serving, parking spaces available• Characteristics of station neighborhood [as defined by NJT]: median HH income, vehicle ownership, population density, vacant housing units – basically ANY data published at Census tract level• Characteristics of station’s host municipality: per-capita property tax base, property tax rate – basically ANY data published at muni level – parkland per capita, % undeveloped land, % of land still developable
Population density (2009) > 20,000 per square mile in station area • 9th St. (HBLR) [Hoboken] • 2nd St. (HBLR) [Hoboken] • Hoboken Terminal • Harborside (HBLR) [Jersey City] • Grove St. PATH [Jersey City] • Lincoln Harbor (HBLR) [Weehawken] • Bloomfield Ave (Newark Subway) [Newark] • Journal Square [Jersey City] • Harsimus (HBLR) [Jersey City] • Park Ave (Newark Subway) [Newark] • Orange St. (Newark Subway) [Newark] • Elizabeth
Walkability is a key characteristic of TOD:station neighborhoods with > 45% of households having zero vehicles available • Warren St. (Newark Subway) [Newark] • Washington St. (Newark Subway) [Newark] • Newark Airport [Newark] • Norfolk St. (Newark Subway) [Newark] • Military Park (Newark Subway) [Newark] • Journal Square [Jersey City] • Paterson • Newport / Pavonia [Jersey City] • Newark – Penn Station
Stations with host municipality > 50% land undevelopable (preserved or constrained)• Atco [Waterford Twp., Camden County]• Atlantic City• Egg Harbor City• Gillette• Stirling Long Hill Twp., Morris County• Millington• Mahwah• Hammonton• Lincoln ParkMost new development will probably be on already-developed land
Stations with host municipality having > 20% of land undeveloped but still developable• Far Hills• Vineland Transp. Center [bus terminal]• Peapack• Gladstone Can new• White House [Readington Twp.]• Florence development be• Roebling [Florence Twp.] steered to• Annandale [Clinton Twp.] already-• Hammonton developed land?• Lakewood Bus Terminal• Bernardsville• North Branch [Branchburg Twp.]• Mountain Lakes
Transit-hosting municipalities that are at least80 percent developed but with less than 1 acre of parkland per 1,000 residents• Hoboken • Paterson • Point Pleasant• Roselle Park • Plainfield • Perth Amboy• Garfield • Dunellen • Elizabeth• •• Irvington Glen Ridge • Belmar Clifton • • Park Ridge Manasquan More urban• Union City • Waldwick • Little Falls green space• Collingswood • Rahway • Madison• Orange • Spring Lake • Little Silver needed!• Passaic • Weehawken • Somerville• Asbury Park • Bayonne • Hillsdale• Garwood • River Edge • Linden• Fanwood • Teterboro • Raritan borough• East Orange • Edgewater • Bound Brook• Wood-Ridge • Hawthorne • Pennsauken [River Line stations]• Freehold • Oradell • Wildwood [bus terminal]• Bradley Beach • Harrison • Woodbridge Twp.• Hackensack • Haddon Twp. [Westmont PATCO] • North Bergen• South Orange • Westwood • Cherry Hill• Allenhurst • Metuchen • New Brunswick• Bloomfield • Haddonfield • Woodcliff Lake• Red Bank
Can new development be steered toalready-developed land?Tool: “Non-contiguous clustering”
Why Cluster? Put development where it makes the most sensePreserve open space or farmland without using tax payer funds
Conventional Development• “Large lot zoning”• Uniform lot sizes• Development covers most or all of the site
Contiguous Cluster Development• Development is concentrated on a portion of the site• Remaining land is preserved as open space or farmland without relying on public purchase
Noncontiguous Cluster DevelopmentTwo or more non-adjacent parcels are treated asa single site for the purpose of clustering.
Simple Example: All allowed units on both parcels arebuilt on one [yellow], and the other is preserved [green]
More Complex Example: Multiple non-contiguousparcels are treated as one, with one parcel serving as the receiving area
Implementation in New Jersey Ten towns with ordinances: • Delaware • Hillsborough* • Hopewell • Middle • Monroe* • Mt. Olive* • North Hanover • Ocean • Plainsboro* • Robbinsville* * Five towns with noncontiguous cluster developments
“Reduced demand for auto travel, improvedtravel options, less air and water pollution”Using TOD to Shrink Your Carbon Footprint:Why are greenhouse gases a transportationissue?Transportation sector is dominant source of carbonemissions, contributing 35 percent of New Jersey’s greenhouse gas totalHow are greenhouse-gas emissions fromtransportation a land-use issue?
Total emissions = low-emissions vehicles, alternat [emissions per gallon] e fuels x [gallons per mile (i.e. the inverse of average MPG)] fuel efficiency x [total miles (VMT)] amount of travel Or: total emissions = [emissions per mile] x [miles]
Vehicle-Miles Traveled (VMT)• Land use patterns – particularly decisions we make about how far apart to build things – determine how much people have to drive• These decisions have long-lasting implications: buildings last a lot longer than cars• Putting things closer together makes some trips walkable, makes transit more viable, and makes many car trips shorter
LAND USE IN TOD• Higher-density development -- supportstransit.• Mixed use development -- providesorigins and destinations for transit users.• Compact development form -- encourageswalking and bicycling.
Thank you! Tim Evans Director of Research firstname.lastname@example.org New Jersey Future 137 W. Hanover St. Trenton, N.J. 08618 609-393-0008 ext. 103http://www.njfuture.org