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The ecosystem 2.1


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  • 1. DP Environmental systems and societies Topic 2 The ecosystem
  • 2. Terminology Organism Habitat Environment PopulationAbiotic Factors Community• Water Biotic Factors• Sunlight• Oxygen• Temperature• Soil Ecosystem
  • 3. 2.1 STRUCTURE
  • 4. Biotic and AbioticABIOTIC FACTOR = BIOTIC FACTORS = non-living factors in an living factors in environment. an environment.
  • 5. Abiotic factor 無生命的Non-living part of the habitat Includes: • Water • Sunlight • Oxygen • Temperature • Soil (edaphic factors) Important for photosynthesis to occur
  • 6. Photosynthesis 光合作用 Biochemical process of converting carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight, into oxygen and sugarAbiotic factors in low supply prevent thematerials needed for photosynthesis
  • 7. Photosynthesis 光合作用 Biochemical process of converting carbon dioxide, water, and sunlight, into oxygen and sugarVisual animation:
  • 8. WaterHabitats vary in the availability of waterWhich has very little available water? Sea and desert
  • 9. SunlightHabitats vary in the availability of sunlightHow does life survive in low sunlight? Predation, special adaptations
  • 10. Oxygen Habitats vary in the availability of oxygen MountainsWhy do oxygenlevels matter for Deep sealife if a plant onlyneed carbondioxide? dioxide and all gasses means low carbon Low oxygen usually
  • 11. TemperatureHabitats vary temperatureWhat does temperature have to do withphotosynthesis? Rate of reaction
  • 12. SoilHabitats vary in the availability of soil or inthe quality of their soilsSoils produce essential nutrients
  • 13. Biotic factor 生物的 Living part of the habitatOrganism → Population → Community → Ecosystem
  • 14. Organism A living thingOrganisms of the same kind are calledspecies. Species 種類 Physically similar organism that can produce offspring, and those offspring can produce offspring
  • 15. Organism A living thing Population 族群All the members of a particular species in an area Community 群落 All the various populations in an area Ecosystem 生態系統 The community and the habitat
  • 16. Find the abiotic and bioticcomponents
  • 17. TROPHIC LEVELS The feeding level of an organism3rd Trophic Level 2o or 3o consumer2nd Trophic 1o or 2o consumer Level1st Trophic producers Level decomposers
  • 18. Examples of terrestrial and marine food chains
  • 19. An Antarctic marine food web
  • 20. NICHE = all of the HABITAT = ways that the organism place where an interacts with everything organism orelse in the ecosystem-therole or job of a species in population of an ecosystem. organisms live.
  • 21. Pyramids
  • 22. Pyramids• Are graphical models of the quantitative differences that exist between the trophic levels of a single ecosystem.• In accordance to the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics, there is a tendency for numbers and quantities to biomass and energy to decrease along food chains, therefore the pyramids become narrower toward the top.
  • 23. PYRAMID OF NUMBERS represents storages found at each trophic level. Units vary
  • 24. Grassland Temperate Forest (summer) (summer) Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers ProducersA few large producers (the trees) support a much larger number ofSmall primary consumers (insects) that feed on the trees.
  • 25. PYRAMID OF BIOMASS represent the standing stock at each trophic level.Units:J m-2 org m-2
  • 26. Abandoned Field Ocean Tertiary consumers Secondary consumers Primary consumers ProducersIn open waters of aquatic ecosystems, the biomass primary consumers(zooplankton) can exceed that of producers. The zooplankton eat theProducers (phytoplankton) as fast as they reproduce, so their populationis never very large.
  • 27. PYRAMID OF PRODUCTIVITY representsthe flow of energy through each trophic level. Units: J m-2 yr-1 or g m-2 yr-1
  • 28. • As you move up each trophic level, only 10% of the energy is transferred.• The other 90% is used for everyday life functions, metabolism.
  • 29. 10 J m-2 yr-1 100 J m-2 yr-1 1,000 J m-2 yr-1producers 10,000 J m-2 yr-1
  • 30. Pyramid structureaffectsthe functioning ofanecosystem.BioaccumulationBiomagnification
  • 31. Interactions of populationsNatural selection/AdaptationsNiche/Competition/Predation• Predator• PreySymbiosis• Parasitism/Parasite/Host• Mutualism• Commensalism
  • 32. Natural Selection 自然選擇 A process of evolution through better survivalCharacteristics that help apopulation survive end upbeing common in thatpopulation
  • 33. Ratios of peppered moth
  • 34. Adaptations 適應性的變化Behaviors or physical characteristics that allow better survival
  • 35. Niche 壁龕 The role of an organism in it’s habitat• An organisms unique position in theecosystem - habitat, food etc.
  • 36. Competition 競爭 The struggle between organisms to surviveWhat animals are in competition in this foodweb?
  • 37. Predation 掠食When on organism kills another
  • 38. Predator 掠奪者 The organism that does the killingPredator
  • 39. Prey 被捕食的動物 The organism that is killed Prey
  • 40. Which is predator, which is prey? Prey Predator
  • 41. HerbivoryThis involves the grazing of herbivoreson producers.
  • 42. PreyPredator
  • 43. Symbiosis 共生 A close relationship between two speciesA close interaction between species whereon species lives in or on the other • Parasitism • Mutualism • Commensalism
  • 44. Parasite 寄生蟲 The organism that benefits in parasitismeg. mosquitoes Parasite
  • 45. Host 寄主,宿主 The organism that is harmed in parasitismHost
  • 46. Mutualism 互利共生 Symbiosis where both species benefit • Both organisms benefit from the symbiotic relationship eg. lichen2/9/2012 49
  • 47. Mutualism- Lichens
  • 48. Commensalism 共生;共栖 Symbiosis where one species benefits and the other is unaffectedeg. spider crab (camouflaged in algae)