Water Reuse: Technologies for Industrial and Municipal Applications
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Water Reuse: Technologies for Industrial and Municipal Applications

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World Water Stress ...

World Water Stress
Water Use by Industry Sector
Water Demand 2010 to 2060
Case for Reclamation (reuse)
Water Reuse Process (Food Industry)
Water Reuse Process (Oil & Gas)
Water Reuse Process (Municipal)
Water Reuse Process (Agricultural)
Critical worldwide concern
Previously developing nation’s issues
Now Global Crisis
Quantity and Quality Issues
From Surplus to Limited

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    Water Reuse: Technologies for Industrial and Municipal Applications Water Reuse: Technologies for Industrial and Municipal Applications Presentation Transcript

    • Water Reuse: Technologies for Industrial & Municipal Applications Daniel Christodoss, Ph.D., P.E. (Principal Municipal Engineer) John Kovski, P.E. (Department Manager - Engineering) URS Corporation, Houston, TX (713) 914-6699 | daniel.christodoss@urs.com | john.kovski@urs.com 2013 9th Annual Practical “WATER Issues & Technologies” Short Course Sponsored by: Food Protein R&D Center Texas A&M University College Station, TX
    • Outline World Water Stress Water Use by Industry Sector Water Demand 2010 to 2060 Case for Reclamation (reuse) Water Reuse Process (Food Industry) Water Reuse Process (Oil & Gas) Water Reuse Process (Municipal) Water Reuse Process (Agricultural)
    • Diminishing Water Resources Critical worldwide concern Previously developing nation’s issues Now Global Crisis Quantity and Quality Issues From Surplus to Limited
    • World Water Stress
    • EPA 2012
    • Source: Earth Forum: Houston Museum of Natural Science
    • TX Surface Water 3% Freshwater Source: www.fracfocus.org & Estimated Use of Water in the United States, USGS 2005
    • TX Ground Water
    • Municipal Source: AiChE 2011 Eastman Kodak Co.
    • Industrial
    • Mining
    • Manufacturing
    • Texas (TWDB)
    • “I am convinced that, under present conditions and with the way water is being managed, we will run out of water long before we run out of fuel.” – former CEO of Nestle, Peter BrabeckLetmathe in The Economist (2008) Source: AiChE 2011 Eastman Kodak Co.
    • EPA, 2012 Process Water Recovery Treatment Plant Frito Lay, AZ
    • EPA, 2012
    • EPA, 2012
    • Refinery WW Reuse for Boiler Feed Water (BFW) Source: 2012 Industrial Waste and Pretreatment Seminar, Virginia Water Env Assn., AECOM
    • Source: SAWEA 2005 Workshop, ZENON Environmental, Inc.
    • Membranes Dominate Industrial Water Reuse Source: SAWEA 2005 Workshop, ZENON Environmental, Inc.
    • Osmotic pressure Fresh water Saline water (a) direct osmosis Semipermeable membrane (b) osmotic-equilibrium (c) reverse osmosis
    • KBR 2005 Wastewater Recycle for Boiler Feed-Houston Ship Channel
    • KBR 2005 Wastewater Recycle for Boiler Feed-Houston Ship Channel
    • EPA, 2012
    • Example Resource Recovery Center Sewage Primary Clarifier or Filter Low Energy Membrane for BOD and TSS Removal Food waste, misc. organics Electricity Methane Nutrient Removal and Recovery Anaerobic Digester Primary Revenue Ultrapure water for industry makeup and aquifer recharge Peak electricity sales to grid Electricity Generation CO2 Algae Conversion to Biodiesel Final Filter Secondary Revenue Irrigation water Fuel savings Inorganic fertilizer AICHE 2011 Eastman Kodak Co
    • Wetlands Cell Rainwater is collected from the roof top, stored in UG Cisterns and used to flush toilets Rainwater UG Cistern Drip Irrigation Settling Equalization tank Tank Trickling Filter EPA, 2012 Water Purification Eco-Center
    • North American Shale Plays Water management is a key element in all of the shale plays KEY ELEMENT OF WATER MANAGEMENT is: The Water Lifecycle Development Approach to Flowback and Produced Water Treatment and Management Data Collection Concept/Feasibility Studies Bench-/Pilot-scale Testing Technology Screening and Identification Lifecycle Cost Evaluation 27
    • North American Experience Variations within and between shale plays Flowback % Salinity /TDS Values Formation-Derived Inputs (e.g., Scale Formers, NORM) Locational differences but common treatment and disposal scenarios 28 MULTIPLE SHALE PLAYS
    • Play Characteristics Play Barnett Flowback % Medium to high (3070%) Black Warrior Eagle Ford Haynesville Salinity/ TDS Values 50,000 to 140,000 500 to 140,000 2,000 to 10,000 Low (5%) 90,000 to 200,000 Marcellus Niobara 40,000 to 240,000 1,000 to 10,000 Permian 30,000 Piceance Utica 29 Medium to high Other Issues* 1,000 to 15,000 >100,000 BTEX, Boron, Ammonia NORM, BTEX, Scale formers, Boron, Ammonia NORM, BTEX, Ammonia NORM, BTEX, Scale formers, Boron, Ammonia
    • COMPONENTS OF UNCONVENTIONAL GAS LIFECYCLE WATER MANAGMENT Water Sources Groundwater Withdrawals Stream Withdrawals Conveyance Conveyance Storage Tank Truck Delivery Portable Storage Tanks at Well Sites Fracture Stimulation Holding Ponds at Well Sites Well Drilling/ Construction Pipe Delivery Uses Flowback/Produced Flow Back/ Water Brines & Brines Potential Treatment Skid or Facility Well Completion and Appurtenances Treated Effluent from WWTP Public Water Supply Reuse Reuse for Development Hydrostatic/ Geophysical/ Other Testing Discharge to Receiving Waters Dust Control Waste Injection Incorporated into Products/ By- roducts/Waste P 30 Solid Waste Wastes
    • Current Flowback Water Management Approaches • Evaporation in pits/ponds • Trucked off-site for: − Reinjection into Class II disposal wells − Treatment at a commercial wastewater treatment plant or a POTW if disposal wells are not available. • • 31 Direct reuse for fracing by diluting it with makeup water-considered best practice Treatment for reuse or surface discharge
    • Available Treatment Technologies Contaminant Process Comments Free oil, TSS, Bacteria DGF/Filtration/ UV Biocides Low cost technologies $2/bbl Scale formers(Ba,Ca,Fe,Mg,Mn) Clarifier water softening ,electrocoagulation, ceramic membranes Attractive for reuse in fraccing, waste stream created, $2-8/bbl Dissolved solids Membranes/RO/Evaporators/Crystallisers See table Volatile organics Stripping and incineration, AC, Ozone oxidation air discharge and energy usage Create waste AC, ozone energy intensive up to $4/bbl Dissolved organics Biological oxidation general Chemical treatments Susceptible to toxic shocks, operating knowledge, not short term Wide range offered
    • Summary of Characteristics of Major Flowback Water Treatment Technologies-discharge and or reuse Ion Exchange Reverse Osmosis EDR Thermal Distillation Energy Cost Low Moderate High High Energy Usage vs TDS Low Increase High Increase Independent Applicable to All Water types Moderate TDS High TDS High TDS Plant/Unit size Small/Modular Modular Modular Large Possible Possible Low N/A Complexity of Technology Easy Moderate/High Maintenance Regular Maintenance Complex Scaling Potential Low High Low Low Theoretical TDS Feed Limit N/A 32,000 40,000 100,000+ Filtration Extensive Filtration Minimal 200-500 ppm 200-500 ppm 200-1000 ppm < 10 mg/L N/A Low (30-50%) Medium (60-80%) High (75-85%) Characteristics Microbiological Fouling Pretreatment Requirement Final Water TDS Recovery Rate (Feed TDS >20,000mg/L) 33
    • Play Characteristics and Treatment Flowback % Salinity/ TDS Values Medium to high 50,000 to 140,000 Play Barnett Black Warrior 500 to 140,000 Eagle Ford Haynesville Marcellus Niobara Permian Piceance Powder River 34 Other Issues* Low BTEX, Boron, 2,000 to 10,000 Ammonia NORM, BTEX, 90,000 to Scale formers, 200,000 Boron, Ammonia 40,000 to NORM, BTEX, 240,000 Ammonia 1,000 to 10,000 NORM, BTEX, Scale formers, 30,000 Boron, Ammonia Typical Treatment System Components Residual Water Disposal solids removal, chem precip, thermal evaporation solids removal, chem precip, RO or evaporation surface discharge or injection well Solids removal, chem precip, RO Injection well Organics / solids removal, evaporator Injection well Organics and solids removal, evaporation Solids removal, chem precip, RO Injection wells in Ohio Injection well Organics and solids removal, chem precip, RO or evaporation Injection well solids removal, chem precip, RO or surface discharge or Medium to high 1,000 to 15,000 evaporation injection well Ba, Iron, Na, TDS Greensands, Ion exchange , RO
    • Flowback Pre-treatment Followed by Thermal Evaporation for Disposal 35
    • Flowback Pre-treatment Followed by Membrane Separation for Disposal 36
    • Frac Fluid Lifecycle Modular Movable Treatment Gas Fraccing Fluid Hydrocarbon Flowback ~25 – 70% Flowback/ Produced Water Hydrocarbon/ Water Residues Storage Pond Excess water requiring disposal or beneficial use Chemical Precipitation (RO) Fraccing Fluid Flowback Makeup Water 37 Solids/ Organics Removal Filtration Frac Chemicals Last Well Treated Water First Well TYPICAL TREATMENT SYSTEM COMPONENTS Intermediate Storage
    • Lifecycle Water Management Approach • • • Optimize Water Re-use in Fracing Minimize Lifecycle Costs while Meeting Production Needs Minimize environmental footprints By Reuse of frac water modular mobile unit for frac water reuse 38