From the Latin word ëducare” or ëducere” which means to lead forth. The process of acquiring knowledge, habits, attitudes, interest, skills and abilities and other intangible qualities through training instructions and self-activity, and transmitting these vital elements of human civilization to posterity.
1. The Theory of Divine Creation2. The Theory of Evolution
1. Jewish - religious education2. Chinese - career oriented education3. Egyptian - practical and empirical education4. Greeks - liberal and democratic education
1. Sparta ◦ authoritarian government ◦ military city-state ◦ paidonomus2. Athens ◦ liberal education ◦ freedom of thoughts, expression and religion ◦ paedagogus ◦ Palaestra, kitharises, grammatistes
1. Socrates (469-399 B. C.)2. Plato (427-347 B. C.)3. Aristotle (384-322 B. C.)
1. University of Athens2. University of Alexandria
1. Parable A short story, a weighty similitude, used to convey instruction to ignorant prejudiced and inattentive.2. Conversational Method An intimate face to face, direct, natural, personal and informal method. It is a sort of question and answer method1. Proverbial or Gnomic Method Jesus, in his teachings frequently used gnomes or proverbs, some were quoted from the Old Testament and others were His own.
1. Catechumenal - school for new converts2. Catechetical – school for leadership training3. Cathedral/Episcopalian – school for the clergy
1. Monasticism2. Scholasticism3. Chivalry4. The Guild System
Education as a RELIGIOUS discipline. Education was strict, rigid and punishment was severe. Education was based on Monastic vows of poverty, chastity and obedience.
Education as an INTELLECTUAL discipline. The purpose of this movement was to bring reason to faith and support theology by using logic.
Education as a SOCIAL discipline. Flourished in the Christian countries in Europe as a response to the increasing educational needs of the sons of nobility.
Education for the MIDDLE CLASS (Bourgeoisie) Towards the end of the medieval period, a new class of people arose between the nobles and the peasants – the bourgeoisie (burgher) or the middle class.
Islam Means submission to God Established by the prophet Muhammad (570-632) Monotheistic religion, worshipping only Allah Teachings based on the Quran, their sacred scripture
Derived from the Latin word “renaistre” which means to be born again Considered as a revival of ancient learning brought about by the discovery of the “New World” of Christopher Columbus, the fascinating stories of Marco Polo about the wealth and technology of the East (i.e. China under Kublai Khan), the invention of printing press and other events during the latter part of the medieval period
Philosophical Movements (Eastern and Western) Psychological Movements Sociological Movements
Education’s concern: refined wisdom. View: Reality is a world within a persons mind. Truth is in the consistency of ideas. Goodness is an ideal state to attain. Schools’ role: Sharpen the mind and intellectual processes. Students are taught: wisdom
Education’s concerns: the actualities of life and preparation for life’s concrete duties View: Reality is what it is. It is what we observe. Truth is what we sense. Goodness is in the order, laws of nature. School’s role: Reveal order and laws of the world and universe Students are taught: factual information
◦ John Milton (1608-1674)◦ Michael de Montaigne (1533-1592) – travel and fieldtrip◦ John Amos Comenius (1592-1670) – visual aids◦ Francis Bacon (1561-1626) – inductive method
An educational philosophy which adheres to the belief that education should be in accordance with the nature of the child. All educational practices should be focused towards the natural development of all the innate talents and abilities of the child. ◦ Jean Jacques Rousseau
Education’s concerns: natural goodness of individuals / individual human rights View: Goodness is within the individual’s natural development School’s role: Educate according to the individual’s nature Students: Learn by self-spontaneous activities
Education’s concerns: society, societal duties View: Learning is in experience School’s role: Miniature society Students: Active doers
Education’s concerns: whole man View: Learning is in experience, interest, efforts and abilities School’s role: Alternative activities / extracurricular Students: Doers / center of the educative process
Education’s concerns: universal truths View: Learning is in classical knowledge; “Great Books” School’s role: Transfer classical principles (not facts) Students: Tape-recorders
Education’s concerns: basics View: Learning is in the basic and the difficult School’s role: Transmit traditional values and intellectual knowledge; ensure mastery of essential skills Students are taught to be: Culturally literate
Education’s concerns: personal interpretation of the world View: Reality, truth and goodness is defined by the individual. School’s role: Aid students to self-knowledge Students are: given free will to explore
Caused by the massive corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the sale of indulges Highlighted the protests of the people who were dissatisfied by the policies of the Roman Catholic Church Martin Luther (1483-1546)
The response of the Roman Catholic Church to the protests of the “Reformers” led by Rev. Martin Luther. In order to examine the doctrines and policies of the Church, the Council of Trent was convened by Pope Paul III in 1545-1563 ◦ Jesuit Order (Society of Jesus) founded by Ignatius of Loyola ◦ Institute of the Brethren of Christian Schools (La Salle Schools) founded by Jean Baptiste de la Salle (1651-1719)
A philosophy which believes that education is based on DISCIPLINE. Advanced the idea based on Aristotle’s faculty psychology that the human mind is composed of several faculties such as memory, reason, will, judgment, etc. and the power in any faculty can be developed through training and proper discipline Advocated the mastery of mathematics and linguistics ensures mastery of other subjects ◦ John Locke (1632-1704) ◦ Tabula Rasa
This movement calls for the application of basic psychological principles like individual differences, motivation, transfer of learning and others to the educative process.
◦ Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746-1827) - discipline based on love◦ Johann Friedrich Herbart (1776-1841) - method of teaching◦ Friedrich Wilhelm August Froebel (1782- 1852) - “kindergarten” / game and sportss◦ Maria Montessori (1870-1952) - using the senses
Education is looked upon as the process geared toward the propagation, perpetuation and amelioration of the society and the total development of an individual ◦ John Dewey
Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Islam Confucianism Taoism Zen
Article XIV EDUCATION, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, ARTS,CULTURE AND SPORTSSection 1. The State shall protect and promote the right of all citizens to quality education at all levels, and shall take appropriate steps to make such education accessible to all.
“AN ACT PROVIDING FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT AND MAINTENANCE OF AN INTEGRATED SYSTEM OF EDUCATION”Section 2. This act shall apply to and govern both formal and non-formal system in public and private schools in all levels of the entire educational system.
Section 9. Rights of Students in School Section 10. Rights of all School Personnel Section 11. Special Rights and/or Privileges of Teaching or Academic Staff Section12. Rights of Administrators Section 13. Rights of Schools
As provided by BP 232 the national development goals are as follows: 1. To achieve and maintain an accelerating rate of economic development and social progress; 2. To assure the maximum participation of all the people in the attainment and enjoyment of the benefits of such growth; and, 3. To achieve and strengthen national unity and consciousness and preserve, develop and promote desirable cultural, moral and spiritual values in a changing world.
Republic Act No. 9155“AN ACT INSTITUTING A FRAME WORK OF GOVERNANCE FOR BASIC EDUCATION, ESTABLISHING AUTHORITY AND ACCOUNTABILITY, RENAMING THE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS” (August 11, 2001)