Rightsizing Streets aka Road Diets

Gary Toth
Project for Public Spaces

NJ Complete Streets Summit
October 21, 2013
34 years at the New Jersey Department of Transportation
6 Years Director of Transportation Initiatives at PPS
Invested Car...
We shape our streets, thereafter
our streets shape us. –adapted from Winston Churchill

Contrasting 1
We have been Building Transportation Through Communities,
not communities through transportation

Slide courtesy of Dan Bu...
Pre-Automobile Era
Street design HAD to accommodate all users

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Pre-Automobile Era

City streets served as public places for economic and social
interaction

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Graphic courtesy of Andy Singer

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
We stopped viewing Streets as Places

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Focus on high speed
mobility
Proximity

Speed

Accessibility
Slide Courtesy of Chris Sinclair, Renaissance Planning Group
A 21st Century Main Street
Is it a successful street?
So what do we do?

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Rightsizing

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Charlotte Observer, June 2004

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Slide courtesy of Dan Burden

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Slide courtesy of Dan Burden

This:
Pottstown PA

One less travel lane; bike lanes; parallel to back-in
This 5-lane Main S...
East Boulevard
Charlotte

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Reinvented Edgewater Drive
Orlando, Florida

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Crash Rate
14.0

12.6

Crash Rate (per MVM)

12.0

34% Reduction

10.0

8.4

8.0
6.0
4.0

1 crash every
2.5 days
(146 per ...
Injury Rate
4.0

3.6

Injury Rate (per MVM)

3.5
3.0

68% Reduction

2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0

1 injury every
9 days
(41 per yr)

0...
Percent of Vehicles Traveling over 36 MPH

Speeding Analysis
35.0%

29.5%

30.0%
25.0%
20.0%

19.6%
15.7%

15.0%

7.5%

10...
On-Street Parking Utilization
Parking Utilization Percentage

45%

41%

40%
35%
30%

29%

25%
20%
15%
10%
5%
0%

Before

A...
Pedestrian Volumes

Number of Pedestrians

3000
2500

23% Increase

2,632

2,136

2000
1500
1000
500
0

Before

After
Bicycle Volumes
600

Number of Bicycles

500
400

30% Increase

486

375

300
200
100
0

Before

After
Prospect Park West
New York City

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Prospect Park West New York City

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Prospect Park West New York City

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Prospect Park West New York City

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Prospect Park West New York City

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Pine and Spruce Streets
Philadelphia

PROJECT
Pine and Spruce Streets
Philadelphia
• 44% decline in reportable crashes
• 34% decline in crashes resulting in a trip to t...
PPS Rightsizing Web Resource
http://www.pps.org/reference/rightsizing/

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
What Are We Learning from
Rightsizing Streets Case Studies
Some Roads May Be More Safe
with Less Space for Cars?

PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
Rightsized Streets Will Often Carry
More People

PROJECT
Rightsized Streets May Slow You Down
But Often Get You There Faster
PROJECT
PROJECT
PROJECT
Rightsized Streets Make Better Use
Space for Cars That is Very Often Not
Fully Used
Streets as Places Finishes the Job of
Rightsizing
 Reallocate

Street Space (aka Complete Streets)
 Streets as Places!

...
Complete Streets
An Approach for Accomodating All Users

Cars

Pedestrians

Bikes

Buses

Trucks/freight

Alignment + Cros...
Traditional Highway Design Approach
Traffic Volume + Area Type (urban, rural) + Role in Network

Functional Classification...
Placed Based Approach
Corridor/Community

Place

Roadway

Traveled Way

Intersections

Roadside
PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES

Made possible by funding from the Department of Health and Human Services through the Los Angel...
“Lowly, unpurposeful and
random as they may appear,
sidewalk contacts are the small
change from which a city’s
wealth of p...
http://www.pps.org/pdf/bookstore/How_to_Engage_Your_Transportation_Agency_AARP.pdf
Gary Toth
Director of Transportation In...
Rightsizing Streets - Gary Toth
Rightsizing Streets - Gary Toth
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  • There are many possibilities; a typical 5-lane can be converted to (next slide)
  • Key Message:
    This is the traditional engineering approach to roadway design. It shows very little relationship to land use context.
    Background Information:
    The engineer starts out by looking at existing or forecast traffic volume, the type of area the road is in, and its role in the highway network –through route vs. local route, degree of access control desired, etc.
    These characteristics are used to develop a formal functional classification for the road. General classifications include freeways, major arterials, minor arterials, collector streets, and local roads. There are divisions of these categories for urban and rural.
    The functional classification is used to establish the design speed and design vehicle. For example, freeways and rural arterials may be assigned a design speed of 55 mph or more. An urban collector street may be assigned a design speed of 25 to 35 mph. Design vehicle is basically whether the road is designed to readily accommodate large trucks or buses.
    The design speed and vehicle lead to physical requirements or guidelines for alignment, cross-section, intersection design, and roadside treatment. For example, to allow a car to safely travel at 55 mph, a curve must be a certain radius. The radius may need to be greater if the design vehicle is larger. Cross-section elements include lane widths, shoulder widths, medians, and sidewalks. Examples of roadside elements include maximum sideslope and clear zone for obstacles.
    Interactivity:
    Ask: In what ways, if any, does this approach relate a street’s design to its land use context?
    The only relation to land use is whether it is urban or rural
    Notes:
  • Key Message:
    This is the traditional engineering approach to roadway design. It shows very little relationship to land use context.
    Background Information:
    The engineer starts out by looking at existing or forecast traffic volume, the type of area the road is in, and its role in the highway network –through route vs. local route, degree of access control desired, etc.
    These characteristics are used to develop a formal functional classification for the road. General classifications include freeways, major arterials, minor arterials, collector streets, and local roads. There are divisions of these categories for urban and rural.
    The functional classification is used to establish the design speed and design vehicle. For example, freeways and rural arterials may be assigned a design speed of 55 mph or more. An urban collector street may be assigned a design speed of 25 to 35 mph. Design vehicle is basically whether the road is designed to readily accommodate large trucks or buses.
    The design speed and vehicle lead to physical requirements or guidelines for alignment, cross-section, intersection design, and roadside treatment. For example, to allow a car to safely travel at 55 mph, a curve must be a certain radius. The radius may need to be greater if the design vehicle is larger. Cross-section elements include lane widths, shoulder widths, medians, and sidewalks. Examples of roadside elements include maximum sideslope and clear zone for obstacles.
    Interactivity:
    Ask: In what ways, if any, does this approach relate a street’s design to its land use context?
    The only relation to land use is whether it is urban or rural
    Notes:
  • Key Message:
    Network and corridor-level planning can help set the context for addressing more specific street design issues.
    Background Information:
    Network planning can occur as part of the regional and community-level visioning and planning processes, as discussed in Lessons 5 and 8. The design of the network (connectivity, spacing of arterials, etc.) has implications for the design of individual roadway segments.
    Network level solutions – for example, where major traffic routes go in relationship to activity centers – are the first step in establishing street-land use compatibility.
    Corridor visioning and planning, as discussed in Lesson 6, determines how a community wants a corridor to develop. It may include conceptual plans for street cross-sections and local road networks.
    Roadway design includes three distinct aspects – the traveled way, intersections, and the roadside (e.g., sidewalks and planting strips)
    Interactivity:
    Notes:
    Adapted from: Institute of Transportation Engineers (2006). Context Sensitive Solutions in Designing Major Urban Thoroughfares for Walkable Communities: A Proposed Recommended Practice. RP-036. Washington, D.C.
  • …by putting themselves, and the going and staying needs of their bodies, in streets!
  • People have been designed out of many of our urban areas. These men would be considered loiterers if standing next to one of the above columns.
  • In our 30 years of work, we have found that people have never really lost their craving for great civic gathering spaces. People flock to civic spaces when they want to be with other people, to share ideas or become part of the collective expression of an idea or point of view. Uptown Waterloo’s public square has the potential to become such a great civic place and destination for the people of this City. As a parking lot, it’s opportunity to become a defining place for the city is quite limited. However, in either case, the space needs to be carefully planned and designed. But more than that, to be successful it must e actively programmed and managed on an ongoing basis and funds need to be set aside for that purpose NOW. That is why most if not all public spaces fail to realize their potential. Why parks sit empty; while plazas in the middle of busy commercial districts are unused except by skateboarders and the homeless; if you build it they will come, only if there is something to do there and a comfortable place to sit while you do it!
  • Rightsizing Streets - Gary Toth

    1. 1. Rightsizing Streets aka Road Diets Gary Toth Project for Public Spaces NJ Complete Streets Summit October 21, 2013
    2. 2. 34 years at the New Jersey Department of Transportation 6 Years Director of Transportation Initiatives at PPS Invested Career working at the community/agency interface 2
    3. 3. We shape our streets, thereafter our streets shape us. –adapted from Winston Churchill Contrasting 1
    4. 4. We have been Building Transportation Through Communities, not communities through transportation Slide courtesy of Dan Burden
    5. 5. Pre-Automobile Era Street design HAD to accommodate all users PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    6. 6. Pre-Automobile Era City streets served as public places for economic and social interaction PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    7. 7. Graphic courtesy of Andy Singer PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    8. 8. We stopped viewing Streets as Places PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    9. 9. Focus on high speed mobility Proximity Speed Accessibility Slide Courtesy of Chris Sinclair, Renaissance Planning Group
    10. 10. A 21st Century Main Street Is it a successful street?
    11. 11. So what do we do? PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    12. 12. Rightsizing PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    13. 13. Charlotte Observer, June 2004 PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    14. 14. Slide courtesy of Dan Burden PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    15. 15. Slide courtesy of Dan Burden This: Pottstown PA One less travel lane; bike lanes; parallel to back-in This 5-lane Main Street was converted to… diagonal parking on one side; new pavement PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    16. 16. East Boulevard Charlotte PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    17. 17. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    18. 18. Reinvented Edgewater Drive Orlando, Florida PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    19. 19. Crash Rate 14.0 12.6 Crash Rate (per MVM) 12.0 34% Reduction 10.0 8.4 8.0 6.0 4.0 1 crash every 2.5 days (146 per yr) 1 crash every 4.2 days (87 per yr) 2.0 0.0 Before After
    20. 20. Injury Rate 4.0 3.6 Injury Rate (per MVM) 3.5 3.0 68% Reduction 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 1 injury every 9 days (41 per yr) 0.5 0.0 1.2 1 injury every 30 days (12 per yr) Before After
    21. 21. Percent of Vehicles Traveling over 36 MPH Speeding Analysis 35.0% 29.5% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 19.6% 15.7% 15.0% 7.5% 10.0% 9.8% 8.9% Before After 5.0% 0.0% Before After North End Middle Before After South End
    22. 22. On-Street Parking Utilization Parking Utilization Percentage 45% 41% 40% 35% 30% 29% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% Before After
    23. 23. Pedestrian Volumes Number of Pedestrians 3000 2500 23% Increase 2,632 2,136 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Before After
    24. 24. Bicycle Volumes 600 Number of Bicycles 500 400 30% Increase 486 375 300 200 100 0 Before After
    25. 25. Prospect Park West New York City PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    26. 26. Prospect Park West New York City PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    27. 27. Prospect Park West New York City PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    28. 28. Prospect Park West New York City PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    29. 29. Prospect Park West New York City PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    30. 30. Pine and Spruce Streets Philadelphia PROJECT
    31. 31. Pine and Spruce Streets Philadelphia • 44% decline in reportable crashes • 34% decline in crashes resulting in a trip to the hospital • 58% decline in pedestrian crashes • No change in number of car trips • Bike trips doubled • Mean car speed stayed the same • Top range of speeds dropped PROJECT
    32. 32. PPS Rightsizing Web Resource http://www.pps.org/reference/rightsizing/ PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    33. 33. What Are We Learning from Rightsizing Streets Case Studies
    34. 34. Some Roads May Be More Safe with Less Space for Cars? PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    35. 35. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    36. 36. Rightsized Streets Will Often Carry More People PROJECT
    37. 37. Rightsized Streets May Slow You Down But Often Get You There Faster
    38. 38. PROJECT
    39. 39. PROJECT
    40. 40. PROJECT
    41. 41. Rightsized Streets Make Better Use Space for Cars That is Very Often Not Fully Used
    42. 42. Streets as Places Finishes the Job of Rightsizing  Reallocate Street Space (aka Complete Streets)  Streets as Places! PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPA
    43. 43. Complete Streets An Approach for Accomodating All Users Cars Pedestrians Bikes Buses Trucks/freight Alignment + Cross-Section + Intersection + Roadside PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES
    44. 44. Traditional Highway Design Approach Traffic Volume + Area Type (urban, rural) + Role in Network Functional Classification Design Speed + Design Vehicle Alignment + Cross-Section + Intersection + Roadside
    45. 45. Placed Based Approach Corridor/Community Place Roadway Traveled Way Intersections Roadside
    46. 46. PROJECT FOR PUBLIC SPACES Made possible by funding from the Department of Health and Human Services through the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health.
    47. 47. “Lowly, unpurposeful and random as they may appear, sidewalk contacts are the small change from which a city’s wealth of public life may grow”. ─ Jane Jacobs
    48. 48. http://www.pps.org/pdf/bookstore/How_to_Engage_Your_Transportation_Agency_AARP.pdf Gary Toth Director of Transportation Initiatives Project for Public Spaces 609-397-3885 Gtoth@pps.org

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