Effective Management of Cultural Diversity in Ireland: The role of immigrants and host Communities. A Presentation at Cois Tine, Cork by Olaniyi KolawoleCollege of Arts, Celtic Studies andSocial Science, University College Cork. 07/11/2012 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
Proposed schedule of activitiesSession 1: 10am-10:10am: Introduction of participants10:05-10:30: Introduction to key concepts andterminologies10:30-10:50: General discussion10:50-11:05: Short Tea break11:05-11:30- Introduction to the specific concept ofintegration11:30-11:50- Break participants into groups to discussabout their experiences of integration in Ireland11:50-12:10: Break12:10-12:30: Presentation of group work and interactivesession12:30-12:45: Exploring barriers to successful integrationof immigrants in Ireland12:45-13:00- Interactive session and general discussion
Preliminary remarks• My own background• “Safe space”• Confidentiality
Aim of the Session:The aim of this session is to help participantsunderstand the dynamics of immigration andintegration policies in the Irish context and howas individuals, we can leverage the opportunityimmigration and immigrants bring to theadvantage of our society.Therefore, basically, we will be looking at what,why and how of immigration and integrationpolicies.
Context of this training session• Some background definitions• Statistics• Policy responses• Outlook
Why are these issues important?• Rise in immigration is a Europe-wide phenomenon. Major debate as to how well to manage and integrate immigrants now taking place within EU e.g. Seville European Council in 2002.• Asylum issue in particular has been a central issue in public debate, controversy, misinformation• Changing demographics in EU including Ireland: European population is not replacing itself.• Immigrants of one kind or another are here to stay. No longer a question of whether they will, but how they can, fit in - and how we need to change our approach.• Service providers, both statutory and voluntary, need to address the new realities.• Need for much more fundamental policy debate.
This morning’s session on key issues• Small workshop exercise• Terminologies and concepts• Recent developments in Ireland• Legislation and policy in Ireland
Workshop exercise• Take a sheet of plain paper• I will give you a list of key words• Write down the first five words that come to your mind when you hear each of these key words• At the end of the exercise fold the paper and hand it up. Do not sign it.• This exercise is totally confidential
Terminology and Concepts (1)• Emigration, immigration, migration• Voluntary and forced migration• Economic; humanitarian; family reunification• Asylum seekers (programme and convention) and refugees; leave to remain, including parents of Irish-born children• EU/EEA labour migrants• Non-EEA labour migrants• ‘non-nationals’• Reception/admission• Integration/settlement
what is international immigration and who are International immigrants? International migration could broadly bedefined as, the permanent or semi-permanentchange of residence from one country toanother country or the mobility of populationsacross national borders (Lee, 1966: 49). International Migrant is any person whochanges his or her usual country of residence(IOM, 1997)
Statistics of Migrants in IrelandTotal number of migrants in Ireland according to 2011 census: 544,357 (i.e. 12% of the population). Top 10 Nationalities in Ireland Nationality Population Percentage Poland 122,585 22.50% UK 112,259 20.60% Lithuanian 36,683 6.70% Latvian 20,593 3.80% Nigerian 17,642 3.20% Romanian 17,304 3.20% Indian 16,986 3.10% Filipino 12,791 2.30% German 11,305 2.10% American 11,015 2.00%
Categories of Migrants in Ireland1. The European Economic Area (EEA) citizens2. Non-EEA citizens (this category requires employment permit. Employment permits is a document which non-EEA nationals must have in order to be allowed to work in Ireland. This term originally referred to work permits, working visas and work authorisations. However, since 1 February 2007 there are 3 categories of employment permit: Green Cards, work permits, and intra-company transfer.3. Asylum seekers: A person who is seeking to be recognised as a Convention refugee under the Geneva Convention 19514. Refugees: A person who is recognised as being a refugee under the criteria set down in the 1951 Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees, as implemented by legislation in Ireland. A Convention refugee will receive residence stamp no. 4 and will not need an employment permit or business permission to work in Ireland.5. Persons with leave to remain are persons who may not meet the full conditions needed to qualify for full status under the 1951 Convention but who may, for a variety of reasons, nonetheless be granted leave to remain in the state (Coakley and Mac Einri, 2006).6. Students and others
What is integration? Integration is the general term for the process whereby foreigners become members of our society Models of Integration:• Assimilation requires them to become ‘like us’ if they want to fit in - ‘more Irish than the Irish themselves’• Multiculturalism attempts to achieve co-existence of differing cultures in the same society, with core shared values.
Irish Model of IntegrationInterculturalism: This model sees integration astwo way process and consultation with minorityethnic groups and their representative organisationsformed an essential part of this process.•1997: National Consultative Committee on Racismand Interculturalism (NCCRI) was established. NCCRIis closed since the end of December 2008.•1999: it launched the Department of Justice’sprogramme for integration termed ‘Integration: ATwo-Way Process’.•2001: a public awareness programme, a three yearinitiative tagged ‘KNOW RACISM’ was launched toeducate people about diversity and racism.
Terminology and Concepts (2)Stereotypesare qualities assigned to groups of people relatedto their race, nationality and sexual orientation,to name a few.
British Stereotypes of the Irish• Violence• Dirt/Slatternliness• Anarchy• Lack of civilisation/savagery• Ingratitude
American Stereotypes of the Irish• Gender stereotypes• Class – Irish as servants• Politics and corruption• Religion• Irish fond of fighting• Racial inferiority
TWO ‘INFERIOR RACES’; SOUTHERN BLACKS, NORTHERN IRISH, WEIGH EQUALLY IN THE BALANCE
A 1854 caricature of an Irish immigrant in Dublin .
How the Irish were portrayed in writings in the 19th century ‘I am haunted by the human chimpanzees I saw along that hundred miles of horrible country...to see white chimpanzees is dreadful; if they were black one would not see it so much, but their skins, except where tanned by exposure, are as white as ours’- Cambridge historian Charles Kingsley, letter to his wife from Ireland, 1860‘...more like squalid apes than human beings. ...unstable as water. ...only efficient military despotism [can succeed in Ireland] ...the wild Irish understand only force’ - James Anthony Froude, Professor of history, Oxford
Xenophobia• Literally, a fear of foreigners. A generalised dislike of, and prejudice against foreigners.• Racism is based on stereotypes or generalisation based on our alleged membership of defined and separate ‘races’. Xenophobia is a more general dislike of any foreigners (host society people of colour may of course also be victims of racism).
Prejudice and Discrimination• Prejudice is an attitude, an unreasonable pre- judgement of an individual based on stereotyping or labelling• Discrimination is an act which proceeds from an attitude of prejudice• Anyone, whether host community or minority, can be prejudiced. But discrimination cannot take place unless one has the power to do so.• Hence formula prejudice+power = discrimination
UNESCO definition of racismRacism Any theory which involves the claim that racial or ethnic groups are inherently superior or inferior, thus implying that some would be entitled to dominate or eliminate others, presumed to be inferior, or which bases value judgements on racial differentiation, has no scientific foundation and is contrary to the moral and ethical principles of humanity.United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) General Conference 27 November 1978. Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice.
UN International Convention of Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (1969)Any distinction, exclusion, restriction orpreference based on race, colour, descent, ornational or ethnic origin which has the purposeor effect of nullifying or impairing therecognition, enjoyment or exercise, on anequal footing, of human rights andfundamental freedoms in the political,economic, social, cultural or any other field ofpublic lifeNote: belief in “racial superiority” not essential
Are Irish people racist?• Distinguish between: – Fear of difference and/or change – Competition for scarce resources – ‘Hard-core’ racism• But note – Racism was present before arrival of new migrants – Irish migrants have a mixed record abroad – As a society we have not valued or accepted difference easily e.g. Jews, Protestants – Ongoing issue of attitudes to Travellers
Forms of racialization and racism in Ireland• Anti-Traveler racism in Ireland• Anti-Asylum seekers/immigrant racism• Labour market exclusion of migrants• Islamophobia• Attack on single mothers• Attack on dole claimants
The way forward for integration in Ireland• Acknowledgement of and increase awareness about the present cultural diversity.• Proper education and information about the cultural, social and economic advantages of a cohesive society. Dispel the myths about immigrants’ unwillingness to integrate and Irish peoples’ unwillingness to accept migrants.• Anti-racism training to target both immigrant and non- immigrant communities.• Stop universalising the particular. Judge individuals on the basis of their character and not their membership of a particular gender, social, racial, ethnic group.• Concentrating and focusing on our similarities rather than dissimilarities.• Our cultural differences must be recognised and diversity harnessed to the advantage of all . This will be done by giving everyone the opportunity to participate (inclusion).