MedicalA lot of science-based training can benefit from 3D. For example in the medical field, CGIanimations are often crea...
The designers of early graphical user interfaces for computers used this to create a reallyconcise GUI shortcut to say “cl...
Validate       Visualize       http://www.product-design-solutions.com/3d-product-design.html       TV       3D-ready TV s...
Displaying 3D polygon animations:       (application programming interface, e.g. Direct3D, OpenGL; graphics pipeline, e.g....
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geometric_group_theoryMesh ConstructionA polygon mesh or unstructured grid is a collection of...
Bryce (DAZ Productions) is most famous for landscapes and creating painterlyrenderings, as well as its unique user interfa...
Inventor (Autodesk) The Autodesk Inventor is for 3D mechanical design, productsimulation, tooling creation, and design com...
Remo 3D is a commercial 3D modeling tool specialized in creating 3D models forreal-time visualization, available for Windo...
Swift 3D (Electric Rain) is a relatively inexpensive 3D design, modeling, and         animation application targeted to en...
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  1. 1. MedicalA lot of science-based training can benefit from 3D. For example in the medical field, CGIanimations are often created to show internal organs and processes within the body. Thesesame animations would be even more effective in 3D. And for CGI in particular, theupgrading to full 3D is fairly easy as the artist can define a 2nd virtual camera in the CGIscene and output the 2 views to make it 3D.http://www.iclick.co.uk/how-is-3d-printing-used-in-medical-research/EducationalThey almost cover all subjects like English, Math’s, Science, Social Science & also Math guruconcept which is the replacement of Math’s Lab. Science experiments are shown through this 3Danimation. The 3d animation company used thousands of highly animated lesson specific, 3d & 2dmultimedia modules that allow the teachers to effectively explain the lessons in the classrooms.3D animation company also provide a large repository of 3D animated modules and videosmapped to school curriculum through its exclusive partnership with established educationcompany, Designate and Discovery.http://adcnj3d.wordpress.com/3d-for-education/Gaming3D models represent a 3D object using a collection of points in 3D space, connected byvarious geometric entities such as triangles, lines, curved surfaces, etc. Being a collection ofdata (points and other information), 3D models can be created by hand, algorithmically(procedural modeling), or scanned.3D models are widely used anywhere in 3D graphics. Actually, their use predates thewidespread use of 3D graphics on personal computers. Many computer games used pre-rendered images of 3D models as sprites before computers could render them in real-time.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_modelingWeb3D graphics can give web page designs a range of 3D illusions, which are powerful devicesfor managing attention. Using 3D graphics in web design can also add significantly to overallpage file size, and can reduce usability if overused, so should be used deliberately and withcareIn the real world, things that are push able tend to be three-dimensional, such as buttons on aradio.
  2. 2. The designers of early graphical user interfaces for computers used this to create a reallyconcise GUI shortcut to say “clickable”.The button effect is one of the strongest design conventions in interactive design.http://www.webdesignfromscratch.com/web-design/3d-effects/EngineeringEngineering industries, especially mechanical engineering based companies, use CAD in avariety of ways. Right from creating engineering drawings to 3D modeling, CAD is used inmost of the manufacturing process. 3D modeling and pro-engineering packages allowengineering companies to design products or components for machinery, taking care of eventhe minutest of details. The entire process saves time and money and ensures precision andaccuracy. With increasing sophistication in many industries, the design concepts done usingCAD are directly fed into the manufacturing process using Computer Aided Manufacturing(CAM) systems. Electrical and electronic engineering industries use CAD for things likePCB designs and wiring layout designs. CAD is also used to design the overall layout of amanufacturing unit.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computer-aided_designArchitectureIn the past, architecture was a three-dimensional discipline that relied on drawings and models toconvey information. The development of the computer and architectural software, such asComputer Aided Design (CAD) and Building Information Modeling (BIM), has completely changed theprofession. Today, architects develop buildings and models almost exclusively on the computer,whereas the traditional forms of architectural documentation, such as handmade models and hand-drafted drawings, have been put aside.http://www.ehow.com/info_8488755_use-3d-graphics-architecture.htmlProduct Design3D product design enables conceptual designers, engineering, manufacturing, sales and marketingdepartments to explore a complete product in great detail before a final product is ever built.Your Digital prototype allows you too quickly: Design Iterate Optimize
  3. 3. Validate Visualize http://www.product-design-solutions.com/3d-product-design.html TV 3D-ready TV sets are those that can operate in 3D mode (in addition to regular 2D mode) using one of several display technologies to recreate a stereoscopic image. These TV sets usually support HDMI 1.4 and a minimum output refresh rate of 120 Hz; glasses may be sold separately.Philips was developing 3D television sets that would be available for the consumer market by about2011 without the need for special glasses In August 2010; Toshiba announced plans to bring a rangeof autosteroscopic TVs to market by the end of the year.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_televisionFilmis a motion picture that enhances the illusion of depth perception. Derived from stereoscopicphotography, a regular motion picture camera system is used to record the images as seen from twoperspectives (or computer-generated imagery generates the two perspectives in post-production),and special projection hardware and/or eyewear are used to provide the illusion of depth whenviewing the film. 3D films are not limited to feature film theatrical releases; television broadcastsand direct-to-video films have also incorporated similar methods, especially since 3D television andBlu-ray 3D.3D films have existed in some form since 1915, but had been largely relegated to a niche in themotion picture industry because of the costly hardware and processes required to produce anddisplay a 3D film, and the lack of a standardized format for all segments of the entertainmentbusiness. Nonetheless, 3D films were prominently featured in the 1950s in American cinema, andlater experienced a worldwide resurgence in the 1980s and 1990s driven by IMAX high-end theatersand Disney themed-venues. 3D films became more and more successful throughout the 2000s,culminating in the unprecedented success of 3D presentations of Avatar in December 2009 andJanuary 2010.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3D_film
  4. 4. Displaying 3D polygon animations: (application programming interface, e.g. Direct3D, OpenGL; graphics pipeline, e.g. modeling, lighting, viewing, projection, clipping, scan conversion, texturing and shading, display; rendering techniques (radiosity, ray tracing); rendering engines; distributed rendering techniques; lighting; textures; fogging; shadowing; vertex and pixel shaders; level of detail.) Application Programming Interface (API) is a set of functions and rules that a computer use to communicate with each other to do certain jobs, just like how a player communicates to a game by pressing a certain button to do certain action. A good example of this is Twitter, API is used to receive updates on Tweets. Most PCs provide API so that programmers can write applications and that it is good since this makes it easier for users to learn new programs with a similar interface.Direct 3D is only available for Windows 95 and up and that it renders 3D graphics especiallyin gaming as it uses the Graphics card. It all started in 1992 with Servan Keondjian whostarted a company called RenderMorphics and they developed a 3D graphical Applicationprogramming interface (API for short), It was used in medical imaging and CAD (computeraided design) software. Two versions of this API were released. And in February 1995Microsoft bought RenderMorphics. When Direct3D was used to render they used a thingcalled a Buffer to render 3D geometry but the process was AWKWARD and had complexstages that you have to do manually and so Open GL was made to make it simpler.http://lamho.wordpress.com/displaying-3d-polygon-animations/Geometric theoryGeometric group theory is an area in mathematics devoted to the study of finitely generated groupsvia exploring the connections between algebraic properties of such groups and topological andgeometric properties of spaces on which these groups act (that is, when the groups in question arerealized as geometric symmetries or continuous transformations of some spaces).Another important idea in geometric group theory is to consider finitely generated groupsthemselves as geometric objects. This is usually done by studying the Cayley graphs ofgroups, which, in addition to the graph structure, are endowed with the structure of ametric space, given by the so-called word metric.Geometric group theory, as a distinct area, is relatively new, and has become a clearlyidentifiable branch of mathematics in late 1980s and early 1990s. Geometric group theoryclosely interacts with low-dimensional topology, hyperbolic geometry, algebraic topology,computational group theory and geometric analysis. There are also substantial connectionswith complexity theory, mathematical logic, the study of Lie Groups and their discretesubgroups, dynamical systems, probability theory, K-theory, and other areas ofmathematics.
  5. 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geometric_group_theoryMesh ConstructionA polygon mesh or unstructured grid is a collection of vertices, edges and faces that definesthe shape of a polyhedral object in 3D computer graphics and solid modeling. The facesusually consist of triangles, quadrilaterals or other simple convex polygons, since thissimplifies rendering, but may also be composed of more general concave polygons, orpolygons with holes.The study of polygon meshes is a large sub-field of computer graphics and geometricmodeling. Different representations of polygon meshes are used for different applications andgoals. The variety of operations performed on meshes may include Boolean logic, smoothing,simplification, and many others. Network representations, "streaming" and "progressive"meshes, are used to transmit polygon meshes over a network. Volumetric meshes are distinctfrom polygon meshes in that they explicitly represent both the surface and volume of astructure, while polygon meshes only explicitly represent the surface (the volume is implicit).As polygonal meshes are extensively used in computer graphics, algorithms also exist forRay tracing, collision detection, and rigid-body dynamics of polygon meshes 3ds Max (Autodesk), originally called 3D Studio MAX, is a comprehensive and versatile 3D application used in film, television, video games and architecture for Windows and Apple Macintosh. It can be extended and customized through its SDK or scripting using a Maxscript. It can use third party rendering options such as Brazil R/S, final Render and V-Ray. AC3D (Inivis) is a 3D modeling application that began in the 90s on the Amiga platform. Used in a number of industries, Math Works actively recommends it in many of their aerospace-related articles due to price and compatibility. AC3D does not feature its own renderer, but can generate output files for both Render Man and POV-Ray among others. Aladdin4D (DiscreetFX), first created for the Amiga, was originally developed by Adspec Programming. After acquisition by DiscreetFX, it is multi-platform for Mac OS X, Amiga OS 4.1, MorphOS, Linux, AROS and Windows. Animation: Master from HASH, Inc is a modeling and animation package that focuses on ease of use. It is a spline-based modeler. Its strength lies in character animation.
  6. 6. Bryce (DAZ Productions) is most famous for landscapes and creating painterlyrenderings, as well as its unique user interface.Carrara (DAZ Productions) is a fully featured 3D toolset for modeling, texturing,scene rendering and animation.Cheetah3D is a proprietary program for Apple Macintosh computers primarily aimedat amateur 3D artists with some medium- and high-end featuresCinema 4D (MAXON) is a light (Prime) to full featured (Studio) 3d package dependanton version used. Although used in film usually for 2.5d work, Cinemas largest userbase is in the television motion graphics and design/visualization arenas. Originallydeveloped for the Amiga, it is also available for Mac OS X and Windows.City Engine (Procedural Inc) is a 3D modeling application specialized in thegeneration of three dimensional urban environments. With the procedural modelingapproach, City Engine enables the efficient creation of detailed large-scale 3D citymodels, it is available for Mac OS X, Windows and Linux.Cobalt is a parametric-based Computer-aided design (CAD) and 3D modelingsoftware for both the Macintosh and Microsoft Windows. It integrates wireframe,freeform surfacing, feature-based solid modeling and photo-realistic rendering (seeRay tracing), and animation.Electric Image Animation System (EIAS3D) is a 3D animation and rendering packageavailable on both Mac OS X and Windows. Mostly known for its rendering qualityand rendering speed it does not include a built-in modeler. The popular film Piratesof the Caribbean and the television series Lost used the software.form (AutoDesSys, Inc.) is a general purpose solid/surface 3D modeler. Its primaryuse is for modeling, but it also features photo realistic rendering and object-centricanimation support. form is used in architecture, interior design, illustration, productdesign, and set design. It supports plug-ins and scripts, has import/export capabilitiesand was first released in 1991. It is currently available for both Mac OS X andWindows.GPure is a software to prepare scene/meshes from digital mockup to multiple usesGrome is a professional outdoor scene modeler (terrain, water, vegetation) forgames and other 3D real-time applications.Houdini (Side Effects Software) is used for visual effects and character animation. Itwas used in Disneys feature film The Wild. Houdini uses a non-standard interfacethat it refers to as a "NODE system". It has a hybrid micropolygon-raytracerrenderer, Mantra, but it also has built-in support for commercial renderers likePixars Render Man and mental ray.
  7. 7. Inventor (Autodesk) The Autodesk Inventor is for 3D mechanical design, productsimulation, tooling creation, and design communication.Light Wave 3D (NewTek), first developed for the Amiga, was originally bundled aspart of the Video Toaster package and entered the market as a low cost way for TVproduction companies to create quality CGI for their programming. It first gainedpublic attention with its use in the TV series Babylon 5 and is used in severalcontemporary TV series. Light wave is also used in a variety of modern filmproductions. It is available for both Windows and Mac OS X.MASSIVE is a 3D animation system for generating crowd-related visual effects,targeted for use in film and television. Originally developed for controlling the large-scale CGI battles in The Lord of the Rings,] Massive has become an industry standardfor digital crowd control in high-end animation and has been used on several otherbig-budget films. It is available for various UNIX and Linux platforms as well asWindows.Maya (Autodesk) is currently used in the film, television, and gaming industry. Mayahas developed over the years into an application platform in and of itself throughextendibility via its MEL programming language. It is available for Windows, Linuxand Mac OS X.Modo (Luxology) is a subdivision modeling, texturing and rendering tool withsupport for camera motion and morphs/blendshapes.and is now used in theTelevision Industry It is available for both Windows and Mac OS X.Mud box is a high resolution brush-based 3D sculpting program that claims to be thefirst of its type. The software was acquired by Autodesk in 2007, and has a currentrival in its field known as ZBrush (see below).NX (Siemens PLM Software) is an integrated suite of software for computer-aidedmechanical design (mechanical CAM), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), andcomputer-aided engineering (CAE) formed by combining the former Unigraphics andSDRC I-deals software product lines.[12] NX is currently available for the followingoperating systems: Windows XP and Vista, Apple Mac OS X, and Novell SUSE Linux.Poser (Smith Micro) Poser is a 3D rendering and animation software programoptimized for models that depict the human figure in three-dimensional form and isspecialized for adjusting features of preexisting character models via varyingparameters. It is also for posing and rendering of models and characters. It includessome specialized tools for walk cycle creation, cloth and hair.Real Flow simulates and renders particle systems of rigid bodies and fluids.Realsoft3D Real3D Full featured 3D modeling, animation, simulation and renderingsoftware available for Windows, Linux, Mac OS X and Iris.
  8. 8. Remo 3D is a commercial 3D modeling tool specialized in creating 3D models forreal-time visualization, available for Windows and Linux.Rhinoceros 3D is a commercial modeling tool which has excellent support forfreeform NURBS editing.Shade 3D is a commercial modeling/rendering/animation tool from Japan withimport/export format support for Adobe, Social Worlds, and QuickTime amongothers.Silo (Never center) is a subdivision-surface modeler available for Mac OS X andWindows. Silo does not include a renderer. Silo is the bundled in modeler for theElectric Image Animation System suite.Sketch Up Pro (Google) is a 3D modeling package that features a sketch-basedmodeling approach. It has a pro version which supports 2D and 3D model exportfunctions among other features. A free version is integrated with Google Earth andlimits export to Googles "3D Warehouse", where users can share their content.Softimage (Autodesk) (formerly Softimage|XSI) is a 3D modeling and animationpackage that integrates with mental ray rendering. It is feature-similar to Maya and3ds Max and is used in the production of professional films, commercials, videogames, and other media.Solid Edge ( Siemens PLM Software) is a commercial application for design, drafting,analysis, and simulation of products, systems, machines and tools. All versionsinclude feature-based parametric modeling, assembly modeling, drafting, sheetmetal, weldment, freeform surface design, and data management.] Application-programming interfaces enable scripting in Visual Basic and C programming.solid Thinking (solid Thinking) is a 3D solid/surface modeling and rendering suitewhich features a construction tree method of development. The tree is the "history"of the model construction process and allows real-time updates when modificationsare made to points, curves, parameters or entire objects.Solid Works (Solid Works) is an application used for the design, detailing andvalidation of products, systems, machines and tooling’s. All versions includemodeling, assemblies, drawing, sheet metal, weldment, and freeform surfacingfunctionality. It also has support for scripting in Visual Basic and C.Spore (Maxis) is a game that revolutionized the gaming industry by allowing users todesign their own fully functioning creatures with a very rudimentary, easy-to-useinterface. The game includes a COLLADA exporter, so models can be downloadedand imported into any other 3D software listed here that supports the COLLADAformat. Models can also be directly imported into game development software suchas Unity (game engine).
  9. 9. Swift 3D (Electric Rain) is a relatively inexpensive 3D design, modeling, and animation application targeted to entry-level 3D users and Adobe Flash designers. Swift 3D supports vector and raster-based 3D animations for Adobe Flash and Microsoft Silverlight XAML. Vue (E-on Software) is a tool for creating, animating and rendering natural 3D environments. It was most recently used to create the background jungle environments in the 2nd and 3rd Pirates of the Caribbean films.[16] ZBrush (Pixologic) is a digital sculpting and animation tool that combines 3D/2.5D modeling, texturing and painting. It is available for Mac OS X and Windows. It is used to create normal maps for low resolution models to make them look more detailed.Task 2

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