Mm ch 12 pr


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Mm ch 12 pr

  1. 1. Mass Media in a Changing World Second Edition George Rodman Brooklyn College of CUNY HISTORY INDUSTRY CONTROVERSY
  2. 2. Mass Media Jason Nix Journalism Instructor and Program Director JOURN 110 Spokane Falls Community College
  3. 3. Chapter 12 Public Relations and Politics: The Image Industries Chapter Outline • History • Industry • Controversies
  4. 4. What is Public Relations? Journalist PR specialist Serves general public Serves client Avoids taking sides Promotes client’s point of view Controls all information Provides information Depends upon PR Depends upon journalists Uses one form of media Employs various media individualistic Team players Goal: inform the public Goal: generate goodwill for client • It differs from journalism
  5. 5. What is Public Relations? Advertising Public relations Tries to seduce Tries to motivate with fact Controls the message Provides information Flashy with exaggeration Low-key and serious Expensive Relatively inexpensive Relies on repetition Efforts are fresh Broad audience Aimed at specific audience Consumers try to avoid ads Journalists are constantly seeking out stories • It differs from advertising
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  7. 7. A Brief History of Public Relations • What is public relations? • Integrated marketing • Internal publics • External publics
  8. 8. A Brief History of Public Relations Precursors of Public Relations • People have always had opinions and others have always tried to influence those opinions. • Ancient Greeks hired Sophists • Most people in the colonies were indifferent to the cause of American independence. Patriots used PR techniques, such as the Boston Tea Party of 1773, to gain public support for the war. • press agents worked to generate publicity for their hype. • P.T. Barnum • In the 1800s, railroads encouraged the westward migration to generate customers for their services.
  9. 9. A Brief History of Public Relations Public Relations As a Profession • Ivy Ledbetter Lee: the father of the modern public relations industry. • Lee believed that the goal of public relations was not to fool or ignore the public. • Early presidents used PR: • Andrew Jackson hired 60 former newspaper reporters to help push through legislation • Woodrow Wilson hired PR professionals to encourage enlistment in the armed forces and the purchase of Liberty Bonds. • FDR and the WPA projects Edward Bernays coined the term “public relations counsel” in his 1923 book, Crystallizing Public Opinion.
  10. 10. A Brief History of Public Relations • The Public Relations Society of America (PRSA) was founded in 1948 to promote professional standards and put forth a positive image. PRSA adopted a code of ethics in 1950. • By stressing nonviolent forms of protest and enduring physical and verbal abuse in the 1950s and 1960s, civil rights organizations such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) won a public relations war in their fight for Constitutional rights being denied to minorities by local governments. • The FBI’s “Ten Most Wanted Fugitives” Program started off as a reporter’s request to name their most-wanted fugitives. Subsequent positive publicity after the story culminated into the “List.”
  11. 11. A Brief History of Public Relations • Today, countries with expanding economies such as Korea and some countries of the former Soviet union, hire public relations firms to improve the perception that international investors have of them. • In the wake of the September 11th, 2001 attacks on the United States, the U.S. government established media specifically designed to sway anti-U.S. sentiment in the Arab media: • “Al Hurra” is a slickly produced Arab-language cable television network. • Radio Sawa is an Arab-language radio service. • Radio Farda is a Farsi-language radio service. • Hi Magazine is a geared towards Iraqi elites.
  12. 12. A Brief History of Public Relations • When someone poisoned Tylenol capsules in 1982, the president of Johnson & Johnson and other company officials sat down for a teleconference, a news conference in which newsmakers and reporters are in different locations but joined by a satellite hookup. This conference involved 600 reporters in 30 cities and allowed the company to explain the extraordinary precautions that Johnson & Johnson was taking to protect consumers. • Teleconferences are also known as videoconferences and satellite media tours.
  13. 13. Milestones in Public Relations History timeline
  14. 14. Understanding Today’s Public Relations Industry Top Public Relations Agencies by Number of Employees Source: PR Central at, accessed August 2006
  15. 15. Understanding Today’s Public Relations Industry Public Relations Activities Public relations is a broad field that includes a wide range of activities. Research, counseling, and communication, however, are the three primary activities of the industry.
  16. 16. Understanding Today’s Public Relations Industry Public Relations Strategies These are the primary strategic functions that public relations professionals perform their clients.
  17. 17. Understanding Today’s Public Relations Industry PR Activities • Research that occurs through the public relations process is used to: • define problems, • identify publics, • test concepts, • monitor the progress of a campaign, • evaluate its effectiveness when it is over. PR practitioners are involved in decision-making and organizational policy-making of companies and politicians. This includes coaching clients on how to behave in an interview, offering grooming advice or teaching how to avoid answering direct questions.
  18. 18. Understanding Today’s Public Relations Industry PR Strategies • News management techniques include: • publicity stunts to create human-interest stories, • creating news hooks to interest media gatekeepers in the information that clients want to publicize, • developing media relations, or press relations, that maintain contact with reporters, • using leaks and trial balloons to test public reaction to a major policy, • granting exclusives to just one news outlet to increase the impact of publicity. PR maintains good community relations by giving corporate aid to schools, charities and nonprofits.
  19. 19. Understanding Today’s Public Relations Industry • Crisis management is the action used to repair a client’s public image following an emergency, such as a major error, accident, or sabotage. • Lobbying is any attempt to influence the voting of legislators. The name comes from the practice of PR representatives speaking to lawmakers in the lobbies outside their hearing rooms. • U.S. companies spend hundreds of millions of dollars annually in their lobbying efforts. • Multi-million dollar industry associations are set up purely for the purpose of influencing how laws are written.
  20. 20. Understanding Today’s Public Relations Industry Some Public Relations Tools • Press releases, or news releases, are short documents, written in standard news form, for insertion into news reports. • Canned news and editorials are digital files to be inserted verbatim into feature or editorial sections. • Audio news releases include interviews and sound bites ready for insertion into news reports. • Video news releases (VNRs) are ready-to-broadcast tapes. For example, a drug company might distribute a VNR that provides interviews with experts who have developed and tested a new drug along with satisfied users.
  21. 21. Understanding Today’s Public Relations Industry Sample Press Release Format
  22. 22. Understanding Today’s Public Relations Industry Some Public Relations Tools • VNRs have become increasingly controversial in recent years, and have come to be called Fake News, when they are used without attribution. • A 2006 Center for Media Democracy study found 36 VNRs that had aired on 77 stations.
  23. 23. Controversies The Ethics of PR Tactics • Many PR professionals and journalists have a “love-hate” relationship. Neither respects the other’s job yet they need each other. Journalists call PR people “spin doctors and “flacks,” which derives from the term for WW II anti- aircraft fire. • To some, spinning is the practice of twisting the truth so that what is said puts the best possible face on the facts. Critics contend that most spinning is a type of lying, or a half-truth at best. • “The Big Lie” occurs when people state something they know to be untrue and stick to it in spite of all evidence in the hopes that the press and public will become confused by the issue and forget about it.
  24. 24. Controversies • Greenwashing is covering up environmental problems caused by the client by associating that client with beneficial environmental actions. • Many critics believe that freebies, including junkets, meals, and gifts designed to curry favor with reporters and magazine writers, amount to bribes. • Much PR operates behind the scenes without attribution. One survey revealed that almost half of TV news directors admitted that they did not identify the source of VNRs on their programs. • PRSA encourages ethical behavior by issuing accreditation to experienced members with good records who pass an extensive written and oral exam.
  25. 25. Mass Media Jason Nix Journalism Instructor and Program Director JOURN 110 Spokane Falls Community College