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    Chapter 9 Chapter 9 Presentation Transcript

    • lcome to the world ofurnalism, whereporters have beengging dirt, raking muck,king headlines andadlines for centuriesw. It’s a history full ofbloid trash, of slimynsationalists, ofrunkards, deadbeats andmmers” (as a Harvardiversity president oncescribed reporters).But it’s a history full ofroes, too: men andmen risking their livestell stories of war andagedy, riskingprisonment to defendee speech. And as youn see here, reports havecome beloved charactersp culture, too, turning upmovies, comics and TVows as if guided by ancult hand.Every culture seekseffective ways to spreadnew information and gossip.In ancient times, news waswritten on clay tablets. InCaesar’s age, Romans readnewsletters compiled bycorrespondents andhandwritten by slaves.Wandering minstrels spreadnews (and the plague) in theMiddle Ages. Them cameink on paper. Voices onairwaves. Newsreels, Websites, And 24-hour cablenews networks.Thus when scholarsanalyze the rich history ofjournalism, some view it interms of technologicalprogress—for example, thedramatic impact of bigger,faster printing presses.Others see journalism asa specialized form literaryexpression, one that’sconstantly evolving,reflecting and shaping itsculture.Others see it as aninspiring quest for freespeech, an endless powerstruggle between Authority(trying to controlinformation) and the People(trying to learn the truth).Which brings to mind thewords of A.J. Liefling:“Freedom of the press isguaranteed only to htosewho own one.”In the pages ahead, we’lltake a quick tour of 600years of journalism history,from hieroglyphics tohypertext: the media, themessage and the politics.Technical advances andbrilliant ideas forged a newstyle of journalism. It was acentury of change, andnewspapers changeddramatically. The typinewspaper of 1800 waundisciplined mishmalegislative proceedinglong-winded essays asecondhand gossip. B1900, a new breed oftor had emerged. Jourhad become big businReporting was becomdisciplined craft. Andnewspapers were becmore entertaining andessential than ever, wmost of the features wexpect today: Snappyheadlines, Ads, ComicSports pages. And an“inverted pyramid” stywriting that made storitighter and newsier.Radio and televisionbrought an end tonewspapers’ mediamonopoly. Why? Wellyourself: Which did yoBroadcast journalismInside ReportingTim Harrower9
    • Broadcast journalism• Broadcast news• Writing for broadcast• Radio news reporting• Television news reporting
    • Broadcast news Print journalism offers depth,context and information. Broadcast journalism –emotional appeal, realism, andimmediacy. News as entertainment.TV, radio journalism neither better norworse than print journalism
    • Broadcast news News director serves as one-person newsroom. Report local stories. Rework wire copy. Read news on the air. If reporters, assignments oftenvary.How a radio broadcast news story comestogether
    • Broadcast news Start day with news meeting tocollect assignments. Assignments vary. Stand-ups often done live. Must fit to the precise second inbroadcast.How a TV broadcast news story comestogether
    • Broadcast newsAll the news that fits – and that’s reallynot much• 70% of stories last lessthanone minute.• 75% of stories arelocal.• Crime stories appearmost often.• Most stories ofcontroversiesgive one pointof view.
    • Writing for broadcast Use friendlier, conversationaltone. Keep it short. Simple. Andeasy to follow. Don’t use inverted-pyramidform.Stories require different styles• Use present tense asoften as possible.• Contractions areacceptable.• Treat attributions andquotes differently.
    • Writing for broadcast Add phoneticpronunciation. Use punctuation to help –not hinder –delivery.In different media…• Avoid abbreviationsand symbols.• Round off numbersand spell them out.
    • Radio news reporting Write to your bites. Read stories aloud. Record natural sound. Paint word pictures.Radio may be most challengingBest radio reporting• Conversational,yet concise.• Friendly,yet authoritative.• Snappy,yet eloquent.
    • Radio news reporting Record yourself. Adjust your delivery. Most common problemscan be avoided.It takes practice to sound like a pro Study the pros. Practice.
    • • Voicer – news storythat does not useactualities.• Lead-in – words thatintroduce an elementin the story.• Live – notprerecorded.Radio news reporting Anchor – person hostingnewscast. Actuality – sound bite. Natural sound – ambientsound. Script – written version ofstory.Common radio news terms & jargon
    • • Tag – closing line;also called sign-off,sig-out, lockout,standard outcue.• Talent – reporters,anchors, disc jockeys.• Tease – briefheadline or promo forcoming story.Radio news reporting Wrap – story begins and endswith reporter. Intro – the lead to areporter’s wrap. In-cue – first words of a cut orwrap. Out-cue –final words of a cutor wrap.Common radio news terms & jargon
    • Television news reporting Collaborate. Write to the video. Don’t overload withfacts.TV journalism’s unique approach• Engage viewers’emotions.• Look professional.• Talk into cameraand depend onvideo.
    • Television news reporting Find location. Maintain eye contact. Rephrase and re-askquestions.TV journalism’s unique approachInterviewing tips• Watch for goodsound bites.• Avoid “steppingon” sound bites.• Shoot cutaways.
    • Television news reporting• B-roll – video imagesshot at news scene (alsocalled cover).• Stand-up – shot ofreporter at news scene.• Package – storyprepared by reporter.Common TV news terms & jargon• Audio – sound heardon TV.• Video – images seen onTV.• Sound bite – recordedcomment.• Track – audio recordingof reporter.
    • • Toss – what’s saidas one reporterhands off to another.• On cam –on-camera.• VO – voice-over.• SOT – sound ontape.Television news reporting• Anchor intro –introduction to pieceread by anchor (alsocalled lead-in).• Bridge – stand-up thatmoves story from oneangle to another.Common TV news terms & jargon
    • Television news reporting• Rundown – orderstories will appear.• Prompter – device thatprojects script foranchor to read.Common TV news terms & jargon•Talking head –person beinginterviewed.
    • lcome to the world ofurnalism, whereporters have beengging dirt, raking muck,king headlines andadlines for centuriesw. It’s a history full ofbloid trash, of slimynsationalists, ofrunkards, deadbeats andmmers” (as a Harvardiversity president oncescribed reporters).But it’s a history full ofroes, too: men andmen risking their livestell stories of war andagedy, riskingprisonment to defendee speech. And as youn see here, reports havecome beloved charactersp culture, too, turning upmovies, comics and TVows as if guided by ancult hand.Every culture seekseffective ways to spreadnew information and gossip.In ancient times, news waswritten on clay tablets. InCaesar’s age, Romans readnewsletters compiled bycorrespondents andhandwritten by slaves.Wandering minstrels spreadnews (and the plague) in theMiddle Ages. Them cameink on paper. Voices onairwaves. Newsreels, Websites, And 24-hour cablenews networks.Thus when scholarsanalyze the rich history ofjournalism, some view it interms of technologicalprogress—for example, thedramatic impact of bigger,faster printing presses.Others see journalism asa specialized form literaryexpression, one that’sconstantly evolving,reflecting and shaping itsculture.Others see it as aninspiring quest for freespeech, an endless powerstruggle between Authority(trying to controlinformation) and the People(trying to learn the truth).Which brings to mind thewords of A.J. Liefling:“Freedom of the press isguaranteed only to htosewho own one.”In the pages ahead, we’lltake a quick tour of 600years of journalism history,from hieroglyphics tohypertext: the media, themessage and the politics.Technical advances andbrilliant ideas forged a newstyle of journalism. It was acentury of change, andnewspapers changeddramatically. The typinewspaper of 1800 waundisciplined mishmalegislative proceedinglong-winded essays asecondhand gossip. B1900, a new breed oftor had emerged. Jourhad become big businReporting was becomdisciplined craft. Andnewspapers were becmore entertaining andessential than ever, wmost of the features wexpect today: Snappyheadlines, Ads, ComicSports pages. And an“inverted pyramid” stywriting that made storitighter and newsier.Radio and televisionbrought an end tonewspapers’ mediamonopoly. Why? Wellyourself: Which did yoBroadcast journalismInside ReportingTim Harrower9