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Chapter 8

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  • 1. lcome to the world ofurnalism, whereporters have beengging dirt, raking muck,king headlines andadlines for centuriesw. It’s a history full ofbloid trash, of slimynsationalists, ofrunkards, deadbeats andmmers” (as a Harvardiversity president oncescribed reporters).But it’s a history full ofroes, too: men andmen risking their livestell stories of war andagedy, riskingprisonment to defendee speech. And as youn see here, reports havecome beloved charactersp culture, too, turning upmovies, comics and TVows as if guided by ancult hand.Every culture seekseffective ways to spreadnew information and gossip.In ancient times, news waswritten on clay tablets. InCaesar’s age, Romans readnewsletters compiled bycorrespondents andhandwritten by slaves.Wandering minstrels spreadnews (and the plague) in theMiddle Ages. Them cameink on paper. Voices onairwaves. Newsreels, Websites, And 24-hour cablenews networks.Thus when scholarsanalyze the rich history ofjournalism, some view it interms of technologicalprogress—for example, thedramatic impact of bigger,faster printing presses.Others see journalism as aspecialized form literaryexpression, one that’sconstantly evolving,reflecting and shaping itsculture.Others see it as aninspiring quest for freespeech, an endless powerstruggle between Authority(trying to controlinformation) and the People(trying to learn the truth).Which brings to mind thewords of A.J. Liefling:“Freedom of the press isguaranteed only to htosewho own one.”In the pages ahead, we’lltake a quick tour of 600years of journalism history,from hieroglyphics tohypertext: the media, themessage and the politics.Technical advances andbrilliant ideas forged a newstyle of journalism. It was acentury of change, andnewspapers changeddramatically. The typinewspaper of 1800 waundisciplined mishmalegislative proceedinglong-winded essays asecondhand gossip. B1900, a new breed oftor had emerged. Jourhad become big businReporting was becomdisciplined craft. Andnewspapers were becmore entertaining andessential than ever, wmost of the features wexpect today: Snappyheadlines, Ads, ComicSports pages. And an“inverted pyramid” stywriting that made storitighter and newsier.Radio and televisionbrought an end tonewspapers’ mediamonopoly. Why? Wellyourself: Which did yoOnline  repor*ng  Inside ReportingTim Harrower8
  • 2. 2  From  print  to  the  Web  Media  convergence  Online  storytelling  op9ons  Wri9ng  for  online  media  
  • 3. 3  —  Online  media  offers  readers  more  variety  and  control  —  Naviga9on  crucial  factor  Electronic newspapers may replace dead-tree newspapers!
  • 4. 4  —  Tradi9onal  papers   • Online news sitesArranging stories!
  • 5. 5  —  Need  to  develop  new  ways  to  tell  stories.  —  Tomorrow’s  journalists  will  plan  and  produce  news  stories  in  different  ways.  To fulfill the potential of new media!
  • 6. 6  —  Timeliness  —  Print  uses  large  photo  to  catch  eye;  Web  uses  smaller  image  —  Print  uses  smaller  text;  Web  uses  larger  text  Navigating online news sites!
  • 7. 7  — Home  page  is  gateway  to  online  news  — Must  be  comprehensive  — Must  be  easy  to  navigate  — Compelling  headlines  for  links  Navigating online news sites!
  • 8. 8  —  Gatekeeper  (past)  —  Journalist  shares  with  readers  informa9on  to  which  only  she  has  access.  The role of the journalist is changing alongwith the media !Navigator (present)Journalist helps toguide readers throughan ever-increasing bodyof information on aspecific topic.
  • 9. 9  —  Time/date  —  Index  —  Lead  story  —  Page  design  for  single-­‐screen  display  —  Naviga9on  buXons  Key home page elements!• Search engine• Ads/promotions• Interactive extras• Links• Footer
  • 10. 10  — Newsroom  convergence  —  Journalists  from  different  media  share  same  workspace.  Technological innovations transforming21st-century journalism!NewsgatheringconvergenceReporters, editors andphotographerscollaborate on reports.
  • 11. 11  —  Content    convergence  —  Final  story  combines  —  Text.  —  Images.  —  Blogs.  —  Podcasts.  —  Slideshows.    Technological innovations…!
  • 12. 12  —  Use  print  to  explain.  —  Use  mul9media  to  show.  —  Use  interac9ves  to  demonstrate  and  engage.  New forms of news deliveries!
  • 13. 13  —  Video  —  Audio  —  Webcams  and  Webcasts  —  Podcasts  —  Animated  graphics  • Archives    • Other  Web  sites  • Organiza9ons  • Editorials  and  columns  • Addi9onal  story  elements  Multimedia Interactive Links• Live  chats  • Reader  feedback  and  comments  • Online  polls  and  quizzes  • Downloads  
  • 14. 14  —  Who  creates  blogs?  —  Journalists  —  Par9cipants  in  breaking  news  —  Bloggers  who  monitor  what’s  new  and  newsworthy  —  Are  blogs  important?  —  Everyone  has  a  voice  BLOGS: a way to add viewpoints!
  • 15. 15  —  “Chunk”  your  informa9on.  —  Tweak  your  type  to  make  it  easier  to  scan.  —  Rethink  what  a  “story”  is.  Tips for creating readable, user-friendlynews stories for Web sites5• Enhance your story withextra elements.• Collaborate.
  • 16. 16  —  Photocopy  page  161.  —  Ask  the  team  what’s  this  story  really  about.    —  Summarize  in  25  words  or  less.  Online package planning guide!• Think like a reader.• Organize.• Distribute copies.