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Chapter 5
 

Chapter 5

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    Chapter 5 Chapter 5 Presentation Transcript

    • lcome to the world ofurnalism, whereporters have beengging dirt, raking muck,king headlines andadlines for centuriesw. It’s a history full ofbloid trash, of slimynsationalists, ofrunkards, deadbeats andmmers” (as a Harvardiversity president oncescribed reporters).But it’s a history full ofroes, too: men andmen risking their livestell stories of war andagedy, riskingprisonment to defendee speech. And as youn see here, reports havecome beloved charactersp culture, too, turning upmovies, comics and TVows as if guided by ancult hand.Every culture seekseffective ways to spreadnew information and gossip.In ancient times, news waswritten on clay tablets. InCaesar’s age, Romans readnewsletters compiled bycorrespondents andhandwritten by slaves.Wandering minstrels spreadnews (and the plague) in theMiddle Ages. Them cameink on paper. Voices onairwaves. Newsreels, Websites, And 24-hour cablenews networks.Thus when scholarsanalyze the rich history ofjournalism, some view it interms of technologicalprogress—for example, thedramatic impact ofbigger, faster printingpresses.Others see journalism asa specialized form literaryexpression, one that’sconstantlyevolving, reflecting andshaping its culture.Others see it as aninspiring quest for freespeech, an endless powerstruggle between Authority(trying to controlinformation) and the People(trying to learn the truth).Which brings to mind thewords of A.J. Liefling:“Freedom of the press isguaranteed only to htosewho own one.”In the pages ahead, we’lltake a quick tour of 600years of journalismhistory, from hieroglyphicsto hypertext: the media, themessage and the politics.Technical advances andbrilliant ideas forged a newstyle of journalism. It was acentury of change, andnewspapers changeddramatically. The typinewspaper of 1800 waundisciplined mishmalegislative proceedinglong-winded essays asecondhand gossip. B1900, a new breed oftor had emerged. Jourhad become big businReporting was becomdisciplined craft. Andnewspapers were becmore entertaining andessential than ever, wmost of the features wexpect today: Snappyheadlines, Ads, ComicSports pages. And an“inverted pyramid” stywriting that made storitighter and newsier.Radio and televisionbrought an end tonewspapers’ mediamonopoly. Why? Wellyourself: Which did yoCovering the newsInside ReportingTim Harrower5
    • Covering a beat2 New beat Do research. Talk to your predecessor. Achieve a mind-meld with editors. Meet people.Beat reporters focus on specific topics orinstitutionsMake lists:Key sources.Upcoming meetingsand events.Story ideas.
    • Covering a beat3 Familiarize yourself. Follow the money. Call sources back. Write for yourreaders, not for your sources.Working a beat: Do’s and don’tsDO•Get too cozy.• Waste sources’ time.• Simply mimic.DON’T
    • Writing Obituaries4Death is newsObituaries are read moreclosely by more people thanany other part of the paper.• They tell stories.• They touch hearts.• They honor andinspire.
    • Writing Obituaries5Watch your language• Addresses.• Cause of death.• Past personal• Problems.• Flowery phrases.
    • Writing Obituaries6Obituary checklist• Use full names.• Find a phrase that bestsummarizes this person.• State age simply unlessasked to omit.•Avoid details in mentioningcause of death.•Include birth date andbirthplace.
    • Writing Obituaries7Obituary checklist•List education, militaryservice, honors and careerachievements.• Name survivors inimmediate family.• Include name and phonenumber for funeral home.
    • Writing Obituaries8Writing standard news obituaryEmphasize person’ssignificance in lead.Lead should include:1. Name.2. Majoraccomplishmentor occupation.3. Day, location andcause of death.If natural cause of death,focus on personal history.If unusual cause ofdeath, details shouldprecede thebackground info.More prominent get morequotes.
    • Writing Obituaries9The feature obituary• Looser, friendlier style.• Create an illusion ofintimacy.• Omit attributions.
    • Writing Obituaries10Talking with families aboutthe deceased• Don’t be squeamish.• If you’re not sure what tosay, use a script.• Be supportive.• Be willing to listen.• If it will be a longobituary, gatheras much detail as possible.• Avoid theawkwardly obvious.
    • Covering Disasters
    • How do editors decide what isand is not a news story?• Severity: death, damage or injury• Impact: how many people are affected• Proximity: The more local it is, the moreimpact on your readers.
    • How to prepare•Anticipate worst-case scenarios• Check your history• Obtain information on local agencies’ emergency planning• Keep a phone list handy• Devise a newsroom battle plan• Prepare a field kit
    • What to do when you arriveon the scene?•Go to where the action is• Question authorities first• Talk to victims and eyewitnesses• Record details that capture the scene• Check in often with your editors, and collaborate
    • Dealing with victims• Ask permission• Go slowly• Empathize – but watch what you say
    • Covering fires16Reporting and writing fire stories• Identify yourself.• Find the command post.• Introduce yourself tocommand.•Get as close as you can.• Wear boots.
    • Coveringfires17Reporting and writing fire storiesFirefighters only seepart of the story.Watch your language. Be specific Destroyed Conflagration Holocaust Guts Razed
    • Covering fires18Fire story checklist Victim names. Extent of injuries/causeof death. Type of building. Location. Time. How the fire was discovered. Cause of fire. Number of fire fighters. Estimated cost of damage.
    • Covering fires19Fire story checklist…Extent of insurancecoverage. Acts of heroism. Weather. Effect of fire onevacuees. Plans to relocate victimsor rebuild structures. Arrests or citations. Anecdotes anddescriptions. Any other unusualaspects.
    • Covering fires20Organizing stories on fire1. Death or injury usually the lead.2. Focus on the most3.compelling aspect.4. Cover the aftermath.May offer opportunity to use narrativestorytelling.
    • Covering Crime21Crime writing style and structure• Add color, not clutter.• Avoid sloppy allegations.• Explore chronological storyforms.KickerInverted-pyramid leadChronology
    • Covering Crime22Covering the crime beat• Get to know everyone.• Find what information isavailable.• Get familiar with policeprocedures.• Use a scanner.
    • Covering Crime23Covering the crime beat• Be prepared foranything.• Think trends.• Convey the humandrama.•Rememberteachers, coaches, ministersand public officials are bignews.
    • Covering Crime24What you should withhold• Names of minors.• Names of victims ofsensitive crimes.• Names of endangeredvictims.• Labeling people assuspects.• Stereotypes.
    • Covering Crime25Homicide or assault story checklist• Victim’s name.• Extent of injuries/cause ofdeath.• Location.• Time.• Circumstances.• Description of suspect.• Name and identification ofanyone arrested.• Comments.• Unusual factors.
    • Covering Crime26Theft story checklist• Type, value of items taken.• Victim• Location.• Time.• Circumstances.• Description of suspect.• Name and identificationof anyone arrested.• Comments.• Unusual factors.
    • Covering Courts27Most trials aren’t newsworthy,except:• Murder cases.• Celebrity trials.• Important legal rulings.• Human-interest stories.
    • Covering Courts28Covering the court beat• Do your homework.• Learn to navigate courtrecords.• Monitor future cases.• Study background of everycase.• Be there for key moments.
    • Covering Courts29Covering the court beat• Don’t trust everythingattorneys tell you.• Stay neutral.• Double-check all your facts.• Be balanced and careful.• Be a storyteller.
    • Covering Courts30Criminal and civil court proceduresMisdemeanors – minoroffensesFelonies – serious crimesCivil suits – resolvedisputes, recover right orobtain compensation
    • Covering Courts31Misdemeanors• Arrest or citation.• Charges reviewed.• Arraignment.• Pretrial conference.• Pretrial motions.• Trial.• Verdict/sentencing.
    • Covering Courts32Felonies• Arrest or citation.• First court appearance.• Grand jury.• Preliminary hearing.• Arraignment.• Pretrial conference/motions.• Trial.• Verdict/sentencing.• Appeal.
    • Covering Courts33Civil suits• Suit filed.• Hearings and motions.• Pretrial conference.• Trial.• Judgment.• Appeal.
    • Covering Courts34Court story checklistCourt name.Judge’s name.Specific charges.Translation of jargon. Brief recap. Description and details. Quotes and dialogue. What happens next.
    • Covering Courts35Verdict story checklistSentence.Details about jury deliberations.Reactions from central characters.What it means.
    • Covering Courts36Covering campaigns and elections• Prioritize.• Get to know the candidates.• Do your homework.• Use reliable experts.• Brainstorm story ideas.• Spread onto the Web.
    • Covering Courts37Keeping tabs of governmental policies andplayersDecision making.The election process.Money.
    • Covering Politics381 Politicians lie.2 Politicians will schmooze you so theycan use you.Unfortunate truths aboutcovering politics43 Everybody believes yourstories are biased.
    • Covering Politics394 People don’t want to read about government process.Unfortunate truths…4You must peel awaylayer after layer to getto the truth.
    • Covering Sports40Three most common story types Game stories. Feature stories•Analysis•Profiles. Columns.
    • Covering Sports41Game story checklist• Final score• Teams’ names• When and where• Key players and key plays• Quotes• Strategies• Key statistics• Injuries• Both teams’ records• What the game means• Other relevant factors
    • Covering Sports42Advance sporting event checklist Significance of game History Key players Records and recentperformances Quotes Strategies Injuries Other factors Who’s favored Time, place and ticketinformation
    • Covering Sports43Compiling, crunching sport stats• Conduct solid research.• Take careful notes.• Use stats selectively.• Add charts, graphs or sidebars, ifneeded.
    • Covering Sports44Sports style• Team name usually plural.• High school athletes aregirls and boys.• Abbreviate league names.• Avoid native American teamnames.• Use figures for measurements.• Use numerals for scores andtime.
    • Covering Sports45Tips for the sports beatCovering events• Know the sport.• Cultivate your sources.• Ask tough, pointedquestions.Writing stories• Think plot, not play-by-play.• Avoid jargon and clichés.• Remember, it’s a game.
    • lcome to the world ofurnalism, whereporters have beengging dirt, rakingmuck, king headlinesand adlines for centuriesw. It’s a history full ofbloid trash, of slimynsationalists, ofrunkards, deadbeats andmmers” (as a Harvardiversity president oncescribed reporters).But it’s a history full ofroes, too: men andmen risking their livestell stories of war andagedy, riskingprisonment to defendee speech. And as youn see here, reports havecome beloved charactersp culture, too, turning upmovies, comics and TVows as if guided by ancult hand.Every culture seekseffective ways to spreadnew information and gossip.In ancient times, news waswritten on clay tablets. InCaesar’s age, Romans readnewsletters compiled bycorrespondents andhandwritten by slaves.Wandering minstrels spreadnews (and the plague) in theMiddle Ages. Them cameink on paper. Voices onairwaves. Newsreels, Websites, And 24-hour cablenews networks.Thus when scholarsanalyze the rich history ofjournalism, some view it interms of technologicalprogress—for example, thedramatic impact ofbigger, faster printingpresses.Others see journalism asa specialized form literaryexpression, one that’sconstantlyevolving, reflecting andshaping its culture.Others see it as aninspiring quest for freespeech, an endless powerstruggle between Authority(trying to controlinformation) and the People(trying to learn the truth).Which brings to mind thewords of A.J. Liefling:“Freedom of the press isguaranteed only to htosewho own one.”In the pages ahead, we’lltake a quick tour of 600years of journalismhistory, from hieroglyphicsto hypertext: the media, themessage and the politics.Technical advances andbrilliant ideas forged a newstyle of journalism. It was acentury of change, andnewspapers changeddramatically. The typinewspaper of 1800 waundisciplined mishmalegislative proceedinglong-winded essays asecondhand gossip. B1900, a new breed oftor had emerged. Jourhad become big businReporting was becomdisciplined craft. Andnewspapers were becmore entertaining andessential than ever, wmost of the features wexpect today: Snappyheadlines, Ads, ComicSports pages. And an“inverted pyramid” stywriting that made storitighter and newsier.Radio and televisionbrought an end tonewspapers’ mediamonopoly. Why? Wellyourself: Which did yoCovering the newsInside ReportingTim Harrower5