Egypt&tut ppt 97 03bbbb


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Treasures of Egypt:
They Forsook it All!

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Egypt&tut ppt 97 03bbbb

  1. 1. Berlin: Egyptian Museum
  2. 2. Egypt: “Gift of the Nile”, Herodotus
  3. 3. Hail to you, O Nile, that issues from the earth and comes to keep Egypt alive! He that waters the meadows that Re created…. He that makes to drink the desert and the place distant from water….
  4. 4. Papyrus Irrigated Fields Canal Flooding
  5. 5. Fishing & Hunting
  6. 6. Natural Bounty
  7. 7. Communication Felucca Ancient Egyptian sail boat, from about 2000 BC
  8. 8. Only invasion rout
  9. 9. 1500 Years of Safety Made Egyptians
  10. 10. First Intermediate Period Second Intermediate Period •Early Dynastic-  3000-2780 BC - dynasties I - II •  Old Kingdom - 2780 - 2254 BC - dynasties III - VI •  First Intermediate period - 2254 - 1991 BC - dynasties VII - XI • Middle Kingdom -1991 - 1778 BC  - dynasty XII • Second Intermediate period - 1778 - 1573 BC - dynasties XIII - XVII •New Kingdom - 1573 - 1085 BC - dynasties XVIII - XX
  11. 11. UNITY through the god‑ king Pharaoh The Narmer Palette Namer or Menes, architect of Egyptian unity 2780-2254 BC dynasties III VI Middle Kingdom New First Intermediate Second Intermediate Kingdom Late Dynast Early Dynasty dynasties I - II OLD KINGDOM 30002780 BC Narmer Palette Symbolic of the unification
  12. 12. Hymn to the Pharaoh    He has come unto us and has united the Two Lands…. He has come unto us and has brought the Black Land under his sway; he has apportioned to himself the Red Land…. He has come unto us and has made Egypt to live; he has banished its suffering…. Khafre, Gizeh, Egypt, Dynasty IV Ca 2520-2495 BC
  13. 13. Pharaoh: The God‑ King (i) every living pharaoh was God Horus (ii) every dead pharaoh was God Osiris (a) (b) must preserve his physical remains to supply him in the next life pyramids built to house body and goods (iii) source of all law (iv) guarantor of orderly world, ma'at
  14. 14. Egyptian Gods… They worshipped thousands of gods, goddesses, spirits Re, sun god (i) Osiris, father of Horus, god of underworld (ii) Isis, mother of Horus a. Horus, guarantor of balance and harmony b. Seth, brother and murderer of Osiris Amun Bastet Bes Hathor Horus Isis Khnum Amun-Re Anubis Ma'at Nephthys Aten Geb Hapy Khepri Nun Isis and Horus
  15. 15. Development of Tombs of Pharaohs. 1. mastaba, the traditional tomb 2. step pyramid  four step pyramid.  enlarged to six step 3. Smooth surfaced pyramid
  16. 16. Various Possible Methods of Pyramid Construction
  17. 17. Preparation of dead
  18. 18. The sage Ipuwer indignantly described the turmoil: The door-keepers say: "Let us go and plunder." The washerman refuses to carry his load… Strangers have become Egyptians everywhere… The high-born are full of lamentations, and the poor are full of joy. Every town says: "Let us drive out the powerful from our midst." . . . Laughter has perished and is no longer made. It is grief that walks through the land, mingled with lamentations.... They who had clothes are now in rags. He who wove not for himself now possesses fine linen… 2254-1991 BC dynasties VII-XI Old Early Dynasty Kingdom Middle Kingdom New Second Intermediate Kingdom Late Dynast financial exhaustion political unrest Relief showing men, women, and children suffering from the effects of severe famine
  19. 19. public works democratization of religion 1991-1778 BC dynasty XII Old Early Dynasty Kingdom First Intermediate New Second Intermediate Kingdom Late Dynast
  20. 20. Fayum Fayum
  21. 21. Abraham and Sara in Egypt in 1875 B.C. SDA Commentary, I, 192 There was famine in the country, and Abram went down to Egypt… Gn 12:10-13 Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) Abraham
  22. 22. From 1700 B.C. on Semitic immigrants and invaders entered Egypt Hyksos King One such group: Hyksos The Hyksos introduced: • the horse and chariot, • the compound bow, • fortification techniques 1778-1573 BC dynasties XIII - XVII Old Early Dynasty Kingdom First Intermediate Middle Kingdom Second Intermediate New Kingdom Late Dynast
  23. 23. Hyksos capital Avaris (modern Tall ad-Dab'a). Excavations since the 1960s have revealed a Canaanite-style temple, Palestinian-type burials, including horse burials, Palestinian types of pottery, and quantities of their superior weapons. Joseph and the Hebrews came into Egypt during the Hyksos period SDA Commentary I, 192
  24. 24. “Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, “Since God has made all this known to you, there is no one so discerning and wise as you. You shall be in charge of my palace, and all my people are to submit to your orders. Only with respect to the throne will I be greater than you.” Genesis 41:39-40
  25. 25. “…So then, it was not you who sent me here, but God. He made me father to Pharaoh, lord of his entire household and ruler of all Egypt. Now hurry back to my father and say to him, ‘This is what your son Joseph says: God has made me lord of all Egypt. Come down to me; don’t delay.” Genesis 45:4-9
  26. 26. •1573-1085 BC •Dynasties: • XVIII - XX Old Early Dynasty Kingdom First Intermediate Middle Kingdom Intermediate Kingdom New Second Late Dynast
  27. 27. NEW KINGDOM: 18th Dynasty Liberated and unified Egypt -- ruled from Thebes Ahmose I 1570 - 1546 Chased out Hyksos Ahmose I Hebrew associates in trouble Hatshepsut "the Female Pharaoh" 1504 – 1483 Ahmose I, being depicted as fighting back the Hyksos. Tuthmosis III 1483 - 1450 Akhenaton “the Heretic King" 1350 - 1346 Tutankhamun, “King Tut" 1334 - 1325
  28. 28. NEW KINGDOM: 18th Dynasty Liberated and unified Egypt -- ruled from Thebes Ahmose I 1570 - 1546 Hatshepsut "the Female Pharaoh" 1504 – 1483 SDA Commentary I, 192 Tuthmosis III 1483 - 1450 Akhenaton “the Heretic King" 1350 - 1346 Tutankhamun, “King Tut" 1334 - 1325 Hatshepsut with beard
  29. 29. Mortuary Temple of Hatshepsut at Deir el Bahari
  30. 30. Moses’ name occurs 900 times in the Bible! Nearly half of the 66 books of the Bible mention his name! YET – no mention in any contemporary secular document Moses being placed in Nile Michelangelo, Moses
  31. 31. [ 26] He thought it was better to suffer for the sake of the people than to own the treasures of to the great Egypt, for he was looking ahead reward that God would give him. [27] It was by faith that Moses left the land of Egypt. He was not afraid of the king. Moses kept right on going because he kept his eyes on the one who is invisible. Hebrews 11:26-27
  32. 32. NEW KINGDOM: 18th Dynasty Mummified head of Thutmose III. Liberated and unified Egypt - ruled from Thebes Ahmose I 1570 - 1546 Hatshepsut "the Female Pharaoh" 1504 – 1483 Tuthmosis III Relief of Tuthmosis III Elephantine Island, Temple of Satis, 1483 – 1450 MOSES FLED TO MIDIAN SDA Commentary I, 192 Amenhotep II 1450-1419 Akhenaton “the Heretic King" 1350 - 1346 Tutankhamun, “King Tut" 1334 - 1325 Thutmose III.
  33. 33. NEW KINGDOM: 18th Dynasty Liberated and unified Egypt -- ruled from Thebes Ahmose I 1570 - 1546 Hatshepsut "the Female Pharaoh" 1504 – 1483 Tuthmosis III 1483 - 1450 Amenhotep II Exodus 1450 - 1419 BC SDA Commnetary I, 192 Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV) “the Heretic King" 1350 –46 Tutankhamun, “King Tut" 1334 - 1325
  34. 34. NEW KINGDOM: 18th Dynasty Liberated and unified Egypt -- ruled from Thebes Ahmose I 1570 - 1546 Hatshepsut "the Female Pharaoh" 1504 – 1483 Tuthmosis III 1483 - 1450 Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV) “the Heretic King" 1350 – 1346 Tutankhamun, “King Tut" 1334 - 1325
  35. 35. •Amenhotep IV became Akhenaten, “who serves Aten (pure, sun disk) willingly.” •Akenaten suppressed other gods •New capital Akhetaten, to emphasize break with old ruling regime Tell el-Amarna Small Temple of the Aten at Akhetaten
  36. 36. Akhenaton The Great Hymn to the Aten Thou appearest beautifully on the horizon of heaven, Thou living Aton, the beginning of life! When thou art risen on the eastern horizon, Thou hast filled every land with thy beauty. Thou art gracious, great, glistening, and high over every land; Thy rays encompass the lands to the limit of all that thou hast made: Akhenaton and his family worshiping Aten
  37. 37. Akhenaton Nefertiti wife of Akhenaton
  38. 38. Akhenaten Revolution in Art: Greater Naturalism
  39. 39. NEW KINGDOM: 18th Dynasty Liberated and unified Egypt -- ruled from Thebes Ahmose I 1570 - 1546 Hatshepsut "the Female Pharaoh" 1504 – 1483 Tuthmosis III 1483 - 1450 Akhenaton “the Heretic King" 1350 - 1346 Tutankhamun “King Tut" 1334 - 1325
  40. 40. Tutankhamen, the Boy King
  41. 41. Family Tree of Tutankhamun Kiya, lesser wife of Akhenaten was Tutankhamun's mother. Akhenaten Tutankhamun Nefertiti Principal Wife Tutankhamun began life with the name Tutankhaten (“Living Image of the Aten”) as son of the heretic King Akhenaten and his lesser wife Kiya. He grew up at Akhetaten, the controversial new capital city.
  42. 42. Tutankhamun’s Early Reign After Akhenaten’s passing, the tenyear-old Tutankhaten ascended the throne of Egypt. Near the time of his father’s death, Tutankhaten married Ankhsenpaaten— probably his halfsister and the daughter of Akhenaten by Nefertiti, the famous beauty and chief wife. Tutankhamun as the King of Upper and Lower Egypt
  43. 43. Restoring Traditional Beliefs One of Tutankhaten’s first actions as pharaoh was to move away from the Amarna religion, because his father's belief in one god, the Aten, had proved to be quite unpopular with the people. Tutankhaten quickly re-established the orthodox belief in the pantheon of the gods and reopened their temples. By his second year, King Tutankhaten and his queen had changed their names to Tutankhamun and Ankhsenamun. Although they did not abandon Amarna completely, members of the royal family re-established the old capitals and now spent most of their time at the traditional administrative center of Memphis. No M or e At on Back to Polytheism
  44. 44. Tut’s Death and Burial After a nine-year reign, the boy king passed away unexpectedly before reaching his twentieth birthday. Coffinette for the Canopic of Tutankhamun The Ou ter Cof fin Tutankhamun Tomb This miniature coffin in the form of Osiris held the liver of King Tutankhamun. One of four containers, this one has texts invoking protection from Imsety, a son of Horus, and Isis, the wife of Osiris. Canopic Stopper of Tutankhamun
  45. 45. Financier and Discoverer Lord Carnarvon Howard Carter
  46. 46. Valley of the Kings Va lle yo Valley of the Kings Karnak ft he Kin gs Luxor
  47. 47. nk ta Tu n me ha mb To
  48. 48. Tutankhamun Tomb Howard Carter’s discovery of King Tut’s tomb.
  49. 49. The Initial Discovery: Stairway On the morning of November 4, 1922, a young boy arrived at the site with jars of water for the workers. As he cleared a space for the jars, he found the top of a step cut into the bedrock. Soon afterward, Carter arrived and directed his men to clear away the sand, uncovering eleven more steps leading to a doorway blocked with stones and plaster. First Glimpse into the Tomb (corridor) After making a small hole, Carter peered inside and saw a corridor filled with rubble. He curbed his impatience, had his men refill the stairway, and sent the momentous telegram to Lord Carnarvon in England: “AT LAST HAVE MADE WONDERFUL DISCOVERY IN THE VALLEY, A MAGNIFICENT TOMB WITH SEALS INTACT; RECOVERED SAME FOR YOUR ARRIVAL; CONGRATUATIONS!
  50. 50. Cow Couch Lioness Couch
  51. 51. Burial Chamber 1 sarcophagus, and 3 coffins protected the mummy Ou te rC of sa rc op ha gu s fin Th eO ute r sar c Tutankhamun's second sarcophagus. Differences in its facial features suggest that it was probably intended for someone else. Tutankhamun's third, innermost sarcophagus. Beaten from heavy gold sheet, it weighs 110.4 kg. Cof fin oph agu s side Out nd o sec Th e fin Cof Innermost Coffin
  52. 52. The First Look at the Mummy The third and final coffin was of solid gold and covered in sticky, hardened black resin. With great difficulty, the lid of the inner coffin was finally raised to reveal King Tutankhamun’s mummy. More black resin covered the body inside and adhered the king’s head to his gorgeous gold funerary mask.
  53. 53. Cause of Tutankhamun’s death: A 1968 x-ray seemed to show damage to the base of the skull, perhaps due to a blow to the head but CT scans in 2005 have disproved that theory. Recent examination showed a compound fracture of the left thigh. Setting in infection could have killed him
  54. 54. Tut’s Curse “They who enter this sacred tomb shall swift be visited by the wings of death.” Supposed message written in ancient hieroglyphics on the outside of the tomb There was one inscription found on an Anubis shrine that stated: "It is I who hinder the sand from choking the secret chamber.  I am for the protection of the deceased". Anubis shrine
  55. 55. When Howard Carter opened the tomb, his pet canary was swallowed by a cobra.  Cobras, as the goddess Wadjet, were the protectors of the Pharaoh.  Lord Carnarvon Died at 57 died of pneumonia in Cairo on April 5th, 1923, four months after the discovery of the tomb. It was said that at the moment of his death, the lights went out in Cairo and that back in England his dog, Susie, howled and died in the same instant. Howard Carter died at 65 of natural causes According to Newspapers, 26 people associated with the find died within a decade of its discovery.  In reality, only six people died during this first decade, while many others lived to an old age. 
  56. 56. Chair with Footrest Decorated Chest Personal Objects This falcon collar of sheet gold, fashioned for the burial, wrapped around the neck of Tutankhamun’s mummy
  57. 57. 18th Dynasty Ahmose I 1570 -- 1546 Hatshepsut "the Female Pharaoh" 1504 - 1483 Tuthmosis III 1483 - 1450 Akhenaton the Heretic King" 1350 - 1346 Smenkhkare 1336 -- 1334 Tutankhamun, King Tut" 1334 - 1325 Horemheb 1321 - 1293 19th Dynasty Seti I 1291 -- 1278 Ramses II “the Great" 1278-1212 Merneptah 1212 -- 1202 Ramses II Ramses II smiting enemies
  58. 58. Ramses II Ramses II temple at Abu Simbel
  59. 59. Merneptah “Israel 1212-1202 is laid waste and its seed is not” The earliest reference to Israel as an entity outside the Bible. Stela-Merneptah
  60. 60. 1) Archbishop James Ussher: Exodus 1491 BC 2) Oppressor: Thutmose III (1502- 1448 BC) Exodus: Amenhotep II (18th Dynasty) 1450 - 1419 BC [few scholars] 3) Oppressor: Ramses II (19th Dynasty)(1301- 1234) Exodus: Merneptah –After Crisis in Egypt [most scholars] – Better fits Egyptian history – Better fits Palestinian archaeology
  61. 61. Toward the end of the New Kingdom, the pharahonic system of Government was beginning to show signs of wear. Military and Political power declined. Invasions of the Sea Peoples. 1200 B.C. Libyan dynasties 940‑730 B.C. Nubian dynasties 760‑656 B.C. Nubians and Assyrians struggle for control 671‑663 b.c. Egyptian recovery: the Sauté Pharaohs 664‑ 525 BC. Persian conquest of Egypt 525 B.C. Ptolemies after the conquest by Alexander the Great 332 B.C. Cleopatra ROMAN CONQUEST AND CONTROL, 68 B.C.
  62. 62. Jesus Flight into Egypt Herod the Great, 37 to 4 BC. Egypt under ROMAN CONTROL
  63. 63. Egyptian Christians believe that the Patriarchate of Alexandria was founded by  Mark the Evangelist around 33, but little is known about how Christianity entered Egypt. Originally the Christians in Egypt were predominantly influenced by  Gnosticism . By 200 it is clear that Alexandria was one of the great Christian centers. The Christian apologists Clement of Alexandria and Origen both lived part or all of their lives in that city, where they wrote, taught, and debated. A mosaic in St. Mark's, Venice, shows St. Mark taking gospel to Alexandria ...