A Stroll Through the History and Culture of Japan


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A Stroll Through the History and Culture of Japan

  1. 1. A St ro l l Th ro u g h t he H I s t o r y & C u l t u re of J a p a n A Stroll Through the History and Culture of Japan
  2. 2. Osaka Kansai (KIX) Hokkaido Honshu Kyushu Shikoku
  3. 3. <ul><li>Shinkansen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kodama </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hikari </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nozomi </li></ul></ul>
  4. 6. The Search for the History of Japan begins at Tokyo National Museum North Tokyo, Ueno Park
  5. 7. DATES PERIODS EVENTS B.C.E. -to - 300 JOMON CULTURE Prehistoric culture characterized by hand-made pottery with rope pattern design.
  6. 8. Yayoi Pottery DATES PERIODS EVENTS JOMON CULTURE 300 BCE - 300 CE YAYOI CULTURE (ca. 300) Immigration of rice growers and rice culture from China Emergence of nature religion, Shinto
  7. 9. <ul><li>Shinto has: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No founder, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No scriptures, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No code of ethical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>requirements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Central aspects of Shinto: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>harmony with the (kami) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(non- anthropomorphic “god” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or “spirit” or “force”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purification rituals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matsuri : festivals </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. Shinto Shrine consists of... Torii The torii gate marks the approach and entrance to a shrine. Purification trough Near the entrance, for purification. Clean your hands and mouth before approaching the main hall. Main and offering hall The main contains the shrine's sacred object, and visitors make their prayers and offerings. Ema Shrine visitors write their wishes on these wooden plates and then leave them at the shrine in the hope that their wishes come true. Most people wish for good health, success in business, passing entrance exams, love or wealth Omikuji Fortune telling papers at shrines and temples. Randomly drawn, they contain predictions ranging from &quot;great good luck“ to &quot;great bad luck&quot;. By tying the paper around a tree's branch, good fortune will come true or bad fortune can be averted. Charm against evils
  9. 11. ISE Shrine : The Naiku Most revered Shinto shrine. The Naiku enshrines Amaterasu Omikami, the ancestral goddess of Japan's imperial house and the great ancestral deity of the Japanese people and home of the spirits of all past emperors. Amaterasu
  10. 12. Itsukushima Shinto Shrine
  11. 14. Money
  12. 16. Kasuga Shrine: Nara
  13. 17. Heian Shrine : Kyoto
  14. 18. Tomb of Emperor Nintoku Yamato or Kofun Period ca. 300-710 Tomb Period <ul><li>Great earthen grave mounds and their funery objects, such as clay haniwa --terra-cotta figurines of people and animals models of buildings and </li></ul><ul><li>Reform based on ideas imported from China: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buddhism (552) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>writing system, (kanji) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bureaucratic organization, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nara designed like Ch’ang-an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imperial (Court) government. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emperor ruled by Decree of Heaven with absolute </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>authority and by descent from Amaterasu </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>United provinces ruled by central bureaucracy </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>Basic elements of a Buddhist: </li></ul><ul><li>Life is suffering </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering is due to desire </li></ul><ul><li>Desire must be extinguished </li></ul><ul><li>Salvation through walk on “Noble eight fold path” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>right understanding (belief) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>right thinking (purpose) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>right speech </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>right conduct </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Buddhism
  16. 20. Buddhism Buddha of Curing Pains Kannon (Deity of Mercy) with 11 faces and 1000 arms Siddhartha Gautama, Amida, the Buddha of Everlasting Light, was a previous incarnation of Siddhartha Gautama, the Buddha Anyone who calls his name, with faith will get eternal life in the Pure Land
  17. 21. Jizo , guardian Bosatsu (bodhisattva) of those who suffer
  18. 22. <ul><li>Main Schools of Japanese Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Tendai (T'ien Tai, Chinese): </li></ul><ul><li>Founded in Japan by Saicho (d. 822 C.E. All Buddhas are bodhisattva; </li></ul><ul><li>none are yet in nirvana; all work compassionately to lead all to nirvana </li></ul><ul><li>Shingon : </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Kukai (d. 835 C.E); enlightenment through rituals and </li></ul><ul><li>meditation. </li></ul><ul><li>Jodo or Pure Land: </li></ul><ul><li>Began at the time of the publication of the treatise of Honen (d. 1212 C.E) ; </li></ul><ul><li>entrance into the happy land through devotion to kannons through </li></ul><ul><li>chants and prayers </li></ul><ul><li>Joho Shinshu or True Pure Land: </li></ul><ul><li>Founded by Shinran (d. 1262 C.E; salvation not through merit and </li></ul><ul><li>chants but only through the power and mercy of amida. </li></ul><ul><li>Nichiren: </li></ul><ul><li>Named after its founder Nichiren (d. 1282 C.E; Enlightenment and this-worldly </li></ul><ul><li>benefits (health, wealth) through chants </li></ul><ul><li>Zen (Soto and Rinzai Sects): </li></ul><ul><li>The monk Eisai (d. 1215 C.E). Meditation, concentration and self-forgetfulness </li></ul>
  19. 23. Buddhist Temples consit of... Main hall The sacred objects of worship, such as statues, are displayed in the main hall. Lecture hall Lecture halls are for meetings and lectures and often also display objects of worship. Structure with up to five stories. Pagodas store remains of the Buddha Most cemeteries in Japan are Buddhist and are located at a temple. Gates mark the entrance to the temple grounds
  20. 24. Kiyomizu Temple: Kyoto
  21. 25. Many devout worshippers stand beneath the waterfall to perform the rite of cold water ablution while worshipping Fudo Myoo (the God King of Fire) who is enshrined at the waterfall's fount.
  22. 26. Main Hall is with 125 metres is the longest wooden structure in the world. 1164 AD Sanjusangendo Temple, Kyoto
  23. 27. Sanjusangen-do Temple . Kyoto 1001 statues of the Kannon (buddhist goddess of mercy),
  24. 28. Daibutsu-den Nara Period: 710-794 Chinese plan Chinese governmental structure 700 NARA (710-784) Establishment of first permanent capital at Nara ; emergence of Japanese patterns of administration and institutions. Beginning of classical period. 800 HEIAN (794-1185) (Late Heian: FUJIWARA) 1100 KAMAKURA (1185-1333) Kemmu Restoration (1333-1336) 1400 ASHIKAGA (1338-1573) (MUROMACHI)
  25. 29. Nara
  26. 30. Daibatsu (Great Buddha) of the Todaji Temple Todaji Temple
  27. 31. Kasuga Shrine
  28. 32. Kasuga Shrine
  29. 33.  Emperor’s Gate at the Imperial Palace Kyoto 700 NARA 800 HEIAN (794-1185) (Late Heian: FUJIWARA) Capital moved to Kyoto . Great flowering of classical Japanese culture. Elegant court life. Court aristocracy, especially women, produced a great body of literature--poetry, diaries, the novel The Tale of Genji. Development of “KANA” script
  30. 34. Kyoto: Shrines and Temples Everywhere <ul><li>Kyoto boasts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1,600 Buddhist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>temples </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>400 Shinto shrines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As well as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2 imperial villas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 palace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 castle </li></ul></ul>
  31. 35. Kiyomizu Temple: Kyoto
  32. 36. Sanjusangendo Temple, Kyoto Main hall with 1,001 figures of Kannon carved in the 12th and 13th centuries. Tendai sect.
  33. 37. Shogun Minamoto no Yoritomo Feudal Age 700 NARA (710-784) 800 HEIAN (794-1185) 1100 KAMAKURA (1185-1333) A feudalistic, military government based on a Shogun (military general) who ruled in place of the emperor and was served by Daimyo (war lords) and Samurai (warriors). Imperial court remained in Kyoto but shogun's governing organization was based in Kamakura, which is south of modern Tokyo.
  34. 38. Himeji Castle Samurai Castle
  35. 40. Ashikaga Cultural Developments <ul><li>Beauty in Simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Noh Drama </li></ul><ul><li>Tea Ceremony </li></ul><ul><li>Landscape gardening </li></ul>700 NARA (710-784) 800 HEIAN (794-1185) 1100 KAMAKURA ( 1185-1333) 1400 ASHIKAGA (1338-1573) (MUROMACHI) New warrior government in Kyoto retained marginal control of the country, but from its base in Kyoto's Muromachi district became patron of newly flourishing artistic tradition, influenced by Zen Buddhist culture as well as samurai and court society.
  36. 41. <ul><li>Fosters harmony, reverence, purity & tranquility (Zen) </li></ul><ul><li>Beauty in Simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>Tea in promoting physical and spiritual health </li></ul>Japanese Tea Ceremony
  37. 42. Kinkakuji-Temple (Golden Pavilion) <ul><ul><li>Originally a villa of the Saionji family on the hills of Kitayama, but offered to the third shogun of the Ashikaga Shogunate, Yoshimitsu Ashikaga in 1397 </li></ul></ul>Kinkakuji-Temple
  38. 44. Japanese Gardens come from a Shinto love of nature and Buddhist ideal of paradise Rock garden at Ryoanji - Kyoto Paradise Garden, Nijo-Castle Stroll Garden, Shukkeien Garden, Hiroshima Tea Garden -Tokyo
  39. 45. Beginning in the 15th Century the bonds of loyalty between the Ashikaga Shogunate and the daimyo grew frayed and decades of war followed.
  40. 46. <ul><li>1549: The Portuguese Jesuit Francis Xavier establishes Christian mission in Japan with support of regional aristocrats </li></ul>Portuguese come in 1543 Christians come in 1549 Ignatius sends Francis Xavier Xavier monument in Yamaguchi
  41. 47. Francis Xavier and Fernandez preaching in the streets of Yamaguchi <ul><li>By 1600: flourishing church in Japan: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>300,000 believers out of 25 million inhabitants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250 Japanese catechist; 3 ordained Japanese priests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largest community in port of Nagasaki </li></ul></ul>
  42. 48. CHRISTIANS Persecuted <ul><li>Toyotomi Hideyoshi , </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bans Christianity, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expels missionaries, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>executes those who refuse to apostatize ( executed 26 Franciscans in Nagasaki ) </li></ul></ul>Monument for the 26 Franciscans in Nagasaki.
  43. 49. Three men changed the history of Japan <ul><ul><li>Oda Nobunaga </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1534-82) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toyotomi Hideyoshi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1536-98) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tokugawa Ieyasu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1542-1616) </li></ul></ul>
  44. 50. In 1600 Ieyasu achieves hegemony in battle of Sekigahara
  45. 51. Ieyasu destruction of Hideyori ( Hideyoshi ’s heir) in Osaka Castle
  46. 52. Tokugawa Ieyasu   Country at War Unification (1568-1598) 1600 1800 TOKUGAWA (EDO) (1600-1867) Country unified under military government which maintained 250 years of secluded peace, leading to development of vibrant urban &quot;middle-class&quot; culture with innovations in economic organization, literature, and the arts. 1900 .
  47. 53. <ul><li>Seclusion policy 1639-1854 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>prohibited trades and contracts with foreigners All contact with the West via small Dutch trading station on island in Nagasaki’s harbour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Strict division of social/economic roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Samurai, peasants, artisans, tradesmen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>implied low social and economic mobility </li></ul></ul>Unique institutions of Edo Era 3 . Alternate attendance - Daimyōs had to alternate their residences between Edo and their home territories every other year - Their families had to live in Edo <ul><li>4. Persecution of Christians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Christians killed or expelled beginning in 1616 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christian peasant rebellion in 1638 [4000 killed] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hidden Christians” practice their faith in secret until 1860s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Christianity reintroduced by missionaries in late 1800s </li></ul></ul>
  48. 54. <ul><li>Built by Tokugawa Ieyasu, in 1603 as his residence in Kyoto. Emperor resided in Kyoto until 1867 but Ieyasu moved the government to Edo (Tokyo) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The fifteenth shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu return his administrative power to the imperial household in 1867 in the Nijo-Castle </li></ul></ul>Nijo Castle
  49. 55. The Kara-mon gate,
  50. 56. &quot;nightingale&quot; floors
  51. 58. Ieyasu moved the government to Edo (Tokyo)
  52. 59. Ieyasu moved into this place in Edo (Tokyo )
  53. 60. Asakusa, Senso-ji Temple
  54. 61. Tokugawa culture Bunraku Kabuki
  55. 62. Abe Masahiro Commodore Matthew Perry steamed into Tokyo Bay, 1853-54 Opened Japan
  56. 63. <ul><li>CRY: Sonno joi – </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ revere the emperor; expel the barbarians” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Daimyo in Choshu and Satsuma fire on British ships in 1863 </li></ul><ul><li>British retaliate with uncontested bombardments of Japanese cities </li></ul>Realization: West can only be contained through acquisition of Western knowledge The Buddhist fire deity Fudoson is studying western ways
  57. 64. Destruction of Tokugawa Meiji Restoration: 1867 Empress Haruko in Western garb 1900 MEIJI RESTORATION (1868) Meija Period (1868-1912) Taisho (1912-1926) Showa (1926-1989) CONTEMPORARY JAPAN 1945-Present Heisei (1989- ) Emergence, through Western Stimulus, into modern international world marked by drastic alterations in Institutions, traditional social organization, and culture.
  58. 65. Meija Period (Meija 1868-1912) Taisho (Yoshihito 1912-1926) Showa (Hirohito 1926-1989) ( Akihito 1989-) 125th emperor . Crown Prince Naruhito and Masako Owada Imperial Houshold Agency
  59. 66. Rushing into Westernization
  60. 67. Sino-Japanese War, 1894 Russo-Japanese War, 1904 Manchurian Incident, 1931 World War II, 1941 Rapid Rise to World Power Status
  61. 68. Attack on Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941
  62. 69. Military Command Building, Hiroshima
  63. 70. Hiroshima
  64. 72. Hiroshima
  65. 73. Yasukuni Shrine is dedicated to the souls of the 2.5 million Japanese war dead from the mid 1800s to 1945.  Class-A war criminals including Premier Tojo are enshrined here. Inside, there are military relics including artillery pieces and a kamikaze torpedo guided by a suicide pilot.
  66. 77. Cables everywhere
  67. 78. THE END