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Resesarch types


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  • 1. Chapter 13: Descriptive and Exploratory Research  Descriptive Exploratory Experimental Describe Find Cause Populations Relationship and Effect Case study Developmental Research Normative Research Qualitative research Correlational, Predictive research
  • 2. Descriptive/Exploratory Research  Purpose: – To describe a phenomenon – To explore factors that influence and interact with it  Descriptive Research – Document conditions, attitudes, or characteristics of individuals or groups of individuals
  • 3. Descriptive Research  Exploratory Research: – Focuses on the relationships among these factors Descriptive and Exploratory Research: May be combined, depending on the research question Are considered nonexperimental or observational research (no data manipulation)
  • 4. Retrospective and Prospective Research  Retrospective Research – Data have been collected in the past Prospective Research Data are collected in the present (longitudinal studies) Prospective research is more reliable than retrospective
  • 5. Descriptive Research  Purpose of descriptive studies: – Document the nature of existing variables – How they change overtime – Structured around a set of guiding questions Descriptive data provide the basis for classifying data and for further questions
  • 6. Case Studies  Purpose  In-depth description of an individual’s condition or responses to treatment  Can also focus on a group, institution, or other social unit  Case series- an expansion of a case study (several similar cases are reported)
  • 7. Case Studies  Most often:  Case studies emphasize unusual patient problems or diagnoses that present interesting clinical challenges  A case study is an intensive investigation designed to a analyze & understand factors important to the:
  • 8. Case Studies –Etiology, care, and outcome of subject’s: –Background, present status, and responses to intervention
  • 9. Case Studies It begins with a: full history, delineation problems, symptoms, and prior treatments, demographic and social factors that a relevant to the subject’s care and prognosis
  • 10. Case Studies  Literature should be cited to support treatment  Documentation of all interventions, subject’s responses, and and10 follow- up should be complete  Data could be quantitative or qualitative, or both
  • 11. Case Studies  Major Contributions: – Information generates hypothesis – A thorough analysis of a single situation may lead to discovery of non obvious relationships – “Case law” may lead to a conceptual form
  • 12. Case Studies  Provides an opportunity for understanding the totality of an individual’s experience  Limitations: – Limited generalizability from one case to another due to lack of control
  • 13. Developmental Research  Involves the description of developmental change and the sequencing of behavior in people over time (Erickson, Piaget)  Methods used to document change: 1. Longitudinal study- follows a cohort of subjects over time
  • 14. Developmental Research  Advantage of longitudinal method: – Ability to accumulate data through intensive documentation of growth and change in the same individuals Disadvantages: Money, long term commitment, attrition, and confounding variables
  • 15. Developmental Research 2. Cross-Sectional Method- studies a stratified group of subjects at one-point in time This method is used more often than longitudinal method because its efficiency as subjects are tested once at the same time
  • 16. Developmental Research  Disadvantages of Cross-Sectional method: • Selection of subjects (results reflect extraneous factors) • “Cohort Effects” (effects are not age-specific but rather generation or time of birth)
  • 17. Developmental Research  Provides valuable information for generating correlational or experimental hypothesis/es  Generates developmental theories
  • 18. Normative Studies  Purpose:  To describe typical or standard values for characteristics of a given population  Directed toward: – A specific age group, gender, occupation, culture, or disability
  • 19. Normative Research  Norms are usually expressed in terms of: – Mean (within a range of acceptable values) – Normal nerve conduction velocity of the Ulnar nerve is expressed as 57.5 meters/sec, with a normal range of 49.5 to 63.6 m/s
  • 20. Normative Research  The “norm” is used as a basis for: Prescribing corrective interventions Predicting future performance Researchers must be aware of sampling biases
  • 21. Qualitative Research  Quantitative Methods: – Based on ‘Logical positivism” – Concept/constructs can be measured and assigned numbers Qualitative Methods: Based on observing the “complex nature of humans”
  • 22. Qualitative Research  Purpose: To understand the patient’s perspective To describe how individuals perceive their own experiences within a specific context  To seek an understanding why something occurs (Phantom pain)
  • 23. Qualitative Research  Methods of Data collection: – Interviews – Observations  Data Analysis and Interpretation – Data are recorded in the narrative – Content analysis – Themes
  • 24. Qualitative Research  “Measurement error” – In terms of judgments not numerical equivalency Sampling Size
  • 25. Exploratory Research  The systematic investigation of relationship among two or more variables  Purpose: – To describe relationships – To predict the effects of one variable on another – To test relationships that are supported by clinical theory
  • 26. Exploratory Research  Exploratory research is guided by a set of hypotheses – Operational definition – Statistical testing
  • 27. Exploratory Research  The foundation of exploratory research is the process of: 1. Correlation- – Measures the degree of association among variables – A function of covariation of the data (the extent that one variable varies directly or indirectly with another variable)
  • 28. Exploratory Research The strength of this relationship is measured by a correlation statistic – Pearson Correlation r (how close the correlation coefficient is to +1or -1 2. Regression- Predicts the score on an outcome variable by knowing the values of other variables
  • 29. Chapter 13  Now you know all about Descriptive and Exploratory Research