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Chapter 13: Descriptive and
Exploratory Research
 Descriptive Exploratory Experimental
Describe Find Cause
Populations Re...
Descriptive/Exploratory
Research
 Purpose:
– To describe a phenomenon
– To explore factors that influence and
interact wi...
Descriptive Research
 Exploratory Research:
– Focuses on the relationships among these
factors
Descriptive and Explorator...
Retrospective and Prospective
Research
 Retrospective Research
– Data have been collected in the past
Prospective Researc...
Descriptive Research
 Purpose of descriptive studies:
– Document the nature of existing variables
– How they change overt...
Case Studies
 Purpose
 In-depth description of an individual’s
condition or responses to treatment
 Can also focus on a...
Case Studies
 Most often:
 Case studies emphasize unusual
patient problems or diagnoses that
present interesting clinica...
Case Studies
–Etiology, care, and outcome of
subject’s:
–Background, present status, and
responses to intervention
www.Stu...
Case Studies
It begins with a: full history,
delineation problems, symptoms,
and prior treatments,
demographic and social ...
Case Studies
 Literature should be cited to support
treatment
 Documentation of all interventions,
subject’s responses, ...
Case Studies
 Major Contributions:
– Information generates hypothesis
– A thorough analysis of a single situation
may lea...
Case Studies
 Provides an opportunity for
understanding the totality of an
individual’s experience
 Limitations:
– Limit...
Developmental Research
 Involves the description of
developmental change and the
sequencing of behavior in people over
ti...
Developmental Research
 Advantage of longitudinal method:
– Ability to accumulate data through
intensive documentation of...
Developmental Research
2. Cross-Sectional Method- studies a
stratified group of subjects at one-point
in time
This method ...
Developmental Research
 Disadvantages of Cross-Sectional
method:
• Selection of subjects (results reflect extraneous
fact...
Developmental Research
 Provides valuable information for
generating correlational or experimental
hypothesis/es
 Genera...
Normative Studies
 Purpose:
 To describe typical or standard values
for characteristics of a given population
 Directed...
Normative Research
 Norms are usually expressed in terms
of:
– Mean (within a range of acceptable values)
– Normal nerve ...
Normative Research
 The “norm” is used as a basis for:
Prescribing corrective interventions
Predicting future performance...
Qualitative Research
 Quantitative Methods:
– Based on ‘Logical positivism”
– Concept/constructs can be measured and
assi...
Qualitative Research
 Purpose:
To understand the patient’s perspective
To describe how individuals perceive their
own e...
Qualitative Research
 Methods of Data collection:
– Interviews
– Observations
 Data Analysis and Interpretation
– Data a...
Qualitative Research
 “Measurement error”
– In terms of judgments not numerical
equivalency
Sampling
Size
www.StudsPlanet...
Exploratory Research
 The systematic investigation of relationship
among two or more variables
 Purpose:
– To describe r...
Exploratory Research
 Exploratory research is guided by a set
of hypotheses
– Operational definition
– Statistical testin...
Exploratory Research
 The foundation of exploratory research
is the process of:
1. Correlation-
– Measures the degree of ...
Exploratory Research
The strength of this relationship is measured
by a correlation statistic
– Pearson Correlation r (how...
Chapter 13
 Now you know all
about Descriptive
and Exploratory
Research
www.StudsPlanet.com
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  1. 1. Chapter 13: Descriptive and Exploratory Research  Descriptive Exploratory Experimental Describe Find Cause Populations Relationship and Effect Case study Developmental Research Normative Research Qualitative research Correlational, Predictive research www.StudsPlanet.com
  2. 2. Descriptive/Exploratory Research  Purpose: – To describe a phenomenon – To explore factors that influence and interact with it  Descriptive Research – Document conditions, attitudes, or characteristics of individuals or groups of individuals www.StudsPlanet.com
  3. 3. Descriptive Research  Exploratory Research: – Focuses on the relationships among these factors Descriptive and Exploratory Research: May be combined, depending on the research question Are considered nonexperimental or observational research (no data manipulation) www.StudsPlanet.com
  4. 4. Retrospective and Prospective Research  Retrospective Research – Data have been collected in the past Prospective Research Data are collected in the present (longitudinal studies) Prospective research is more reliable than retrospective www.StudsPlanet.com
  5. 5. Descriptive Research  Purpose of descriptive studies: – Document the nature of existing variables – How they change overtime – Structured around a set of guiding questions Descriptive data provide the basis for classifying data and for further questions www.StudsPlanet.com
  6. 6. Case Studies  Purpose  In-depth description of an individual’s condition or responses to treatment  Can also focus on a group, institution, or other social unit  Case series- an expansion of a case study (several similar cases are reported) www.StudsPlanet.com
  7. 7. Case Studies  Most often:  Case studies emphasize unusual patient problems or diagnoses that present interesting clinical challenges  A case study is an intensive investigation designed to a analyze & understand factors important to the: www.StudsPlanet.com
  8. 8. Case Studies –Etiology, care, and outcome of subject’s: –Background, present status, and responses to intervention www.StudsPlanet.com
  9. 9. Case Studies It begins with a: full history, delineation problems, symptoms, and prior treatments, demographic and social factors that a relevant to the subject’s care and prognosis www.StudsPlanet.com
  10. 10. Case Studies  Literature should be cited to support treatment  Documentation of all interventions, subject’s responses, and and10 follow- up should be complete  Data could be quantitative or qualitative, or both www.StudsPlanet.com
  11. 11. Case Studies  Major Contributions: – Information generates hypothesis – A thorough analysis of a single situation may lead to discovery of non obvious relationships – “Case law” may lead to a conceptual form www.StudsPlanet.com
  12. 12. Case Studies  Provides an opportunity for understanding the totality of an individual’s experience  Limitations: – Limited generalizability from one case to another due to lack of control www.StudsPlanet.com
  13. 13. Developmental Research  Involves the description of developmental change and the sequencing of behavior in people over time (Erickson, Piaget)  Methods used to document change: 1. Longitudinal study- follows a cohort of subjects over time www.StudsPlanet.com
  14. 14. Developmental Research  Advantage of longitudinal method: – Ability to accumulate data through intensive documentation of growth and change in the same individuals Disadvantages: Money, long term commitment, attrition, and confounding variables www.StudsPlanet.com
  15. 15. Developmental Research 2. Cross-Sectional Method- studies a stratified group of subjects at one-point in time This method is used more often than longitudinal method because its efficiency as subjects are tested once at the same time www.StudsPlanet.com
  16. 16. Developmental Research  Disadvantages of Cross-Sectional method: • Selection of subjects (results reflect extraneous factors) • “Cohort Effects” (effects are not age-specific but rather generation or time of birth) www.StudsPlanet.com
  17. 17. Developmental Research  Provides valuable information for generating correlational or experimental hypothesis/es  Generates developmental theories www.StudsPlanet.com
  18. 18. Normative Studies  Purpose:  To describe typical or standard values for characteristics of a given population  Directed toward: – A specific age group, gender, occupation, culture, or disability www.StudsPlanet.com
  19. 19. Normative Research  Norms are usually expressed in terms of: – Mean (within a range of acceptable values) – Normal nerve conduction velocity of the Ulnar nerve is expressed as 57.5 meters/sec, with a normal range of 49.5 to 63.6 m/s www.StudsPlanet.com
  20. 20. Normative Research  The “norm” is used as a basis for: Prescribing corrective interventions Predicting future performance Researchers must be aware of sampling biases www.StudsPlanet.com
  21. 21. Qualitative Research  Quantitative Methods: – Based on ‘Logical positivism” – Concept/constructs can be measured and assigned numbers Qualitative Methods: Based on observing the “complex nature of humans” www.StudsPlanet.com
  22. 22. Qualitative Research  Purpose: To understand the patient’s perspective To describe how individuals perceive their own experiences within a specific context  To seek an understanding why something occurs (Phantom pain) www.StudsPlanet.com
  23. 23. Qualitative Research  Methods of Data collection: – Interviews – Observations  Data Analysis and Interpretation – Data are recorded in the narrative – Content analysis – Themes www.StudsPlanet.com
  24. 24. Qualitative Research  “Measurement error” – In terms of judgments not numerical equivalency Sampling Size www.StudsPlanet.com
  25. 25. Exploratory Research  The systematic investigation of relationship among two or more variables  Purpose: – To describe relationships – To predict the effects of one variable on another – To test relationships that are supported by clinical theory www.StudsPlanet.com
  26. 26. Exploratory Research  Exploratory research is guided by a set of hypotheses – Operational definition – Statistical testing www.StudsPlanet.com
  27. 27. Exploratory Research  The foundation of exploratory research is the process of: 1. Correlation- – Measures the degree of association among variables – A function of covariation of the data (the extent that one variable varies directly or indirectly with another variable) www.StudsPlanet.com
  28. 28. Exploratory Research The strength of this relationship is measured by a correlation statistic – Pearson Correlation r (how close the correlation coefficient is to +1or -1 2. Regression- Predicts the score on an outcome variable by knowing the values of other variables www.StudsPlanet.com
  29. 29. Chapter 13  Now you know all about Descriptive and Exploratory Research www.StudsPlanet.com
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