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Leadership across cultures

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  • 1. Leadership Across Cultures
  • 2. 2 Foundation for Leadership Philosophical Background: Theories X, Y, and Z  A manager who believes that people are basically lazy and that coercion and threats of punishment often are necessary to get them to work. Theory X ManagerTheory X Manager
  • 3. 3 Foundation for Leadership Philosophical Background: Theories X, Y, and Z  A manager who believes that under the right conditions people not only will work hard but will seek increased responsibility and challenge. Theory Y ManagerTheory Y Manager Theory X ManagerTheory X Manager
  • 4. 4 Foundation for Leadership Philosophical Background: Theories X, Y, and Z  A manager who believes that workers seek opportunities to participate in management and are motivated by teamwork and responsibility sharing. Theory Z ManagerTheory Z Manager Theory Y ManagerTheory Y Manager Theory X ManagerTheory X Manager
  • 5. 5 Foundation for Leadership Leadership Behaviors and Styles Participative Leadership Participative Leadership Authoritarian Leadership Authoritarian Leadership Paternalistic Leadership Paternalistic Leadership The use of work-centered behavior designed to ensure task accomplishment. The use of work-centered behavior coupled with a protective employee centered concern. The use of both work- or task-centered and people centered approaches to leading subordinates.
  • 6. 6 Leader–Subordinate InteractionsLeader–Subordinate Interactions McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adapted from Figure 13–1: Leader–Subordinate Interactions Authoritarian Leader Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate One-way downward flow of information and influence from authoritarian leader to subordinates.
  • 7. 7 Leader–Subordinate InteractionsLeader–Subordinate Interactions McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adapted from Figure 13–1: Leader–Subordinate Interactions Paternalistic Leader Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate Continual interaction and exchange of information and influence between leader and subordinates.
  • 8. 8 Leader–Subordinate InteractionsLeader–Subordinate Interactions McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adapted from Figure 13–1: Leader–Subordinate Interactions Participative Leader Subordinate Subordinate Subordinate Continual interaction and exchange of information and influence between leader and subordinates.
  • 9. 9 123456789 ConcernforPeople/Relationships High Low 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Concern for Production/Task HighLow The Managerial GridThe Managerial Grid McGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adapted from Figure 13–2: The Managerial Grid 1,1 Management Style Exertion of minimum effort to get required work done is appropriate to sustain organization membership 9,1 Management Style Efficiency in operations results from arranging conditions of work in such a way that human elements interface to a minimum degree 5,5 Management Style Adequate organization performance is possible through balancing the necessity to get out work with maintaining morale of people at a satisfactory level 9,9 Management Style Work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a “common stake” in organization purpose leads to relationships of trust and respect 1,9 Management Style Thoughtful attention to needs of people for satisfying relationships leads to a comfortable friendly organization atmosphere and work tempo
  • 10. 10 Leadership in the International Context How do leaders in other countries attempt to direct or influence their subordinates? Are their approaches similar to those used in the United States? Research shows that there are both similarities and differences – most international research on leadership has focused on Europe, East Asia, the Middle East, and developing countries such as India, Peru, Chile, and Argentina.
  • 11. 11 Leadership in the International Context Attitudes of European Managers Toward Leadership Practices Capacity for Leadership and Initiative Capacity for Leadership and Initiative European managers tend to use a participative approach. Researchers investigated four areas relevant to leadership. Does the leader believe that employees prefer to be directed and have little ambition? (Theory X) OR Does the leader believe that characteristics such as initiative can be acquired by most people regardless of their inborn traits and abilities? (Theory Y)
  • 12. 12 Leadership in the International Context Attitudes of European Managers Toward Leadership Practices Capacity for Leadership and Initiative Capacity for Leadership and Initiative Sharing Information and Objectives Sharing Information and Objectives Does the leader believe that detailed, complete instructions should be given to subordinates and that subordinates need only this information to do their jobs? OR Does the leader believe that general directions are sufficient and that subordinates can use their initiative in working out the details? Most evidence indicates European managers tend to use a participative approach. Researchers investigated four areas relevant to leadership.
  • 13. 13 Leadership in the International Context Attitudes of European Managers Toward Leadership Practices Capacity for Leadership and Initiative Capacity for Leadership and Initiative Sharing Information and Objectives Sharing Information and Objectives ParticipationParticipation Does the leader support participative leadership practices? Most evidence indicates European managers tend to use a participative approach. Researchers investigated four areas relevant to leadership.
  • 14. 14 Leadership in the International Context Attitudes of European Managers Toward Leadership Practices Capacity for Leadership and Initiative Capacity for Leadership and Initiative Sharing Information and Objectives Sharing Information and Objectives ParticipationParticipation Internal ControlInternal Control Does the leader believe that the most effective way to control employees is through rewards and punishment? OR Does the leader believe that employees respond best to internally generated control? Most evidence indicates European managers tend to use a participative approach. Researchers investigated four areas relevant to leadership.
  • 15. 15 Leadership in the International Context  Higher-level managers tend to express more democratic values than lower-level managers in some countries – in other countries, the opposite was true  Company size tends to influence the degree of participative-autocratic attitudes  Younger managers were more likely to have democratic values when it came to capacity for leadership and initiative and to sharing information and objectives Attitudes of European Managers Toward Leadership Practices The Role of Level, Size, and Age on European Managers’ Attitudes Toward Leadership
  • 16. 16 Leadership in the International Context  Japan is well known for its paternalistic approach to leadership  Japanese culture promotes a high safety or security need, which is present among home country–based employees as well as MNC expatriates  Japanese managers have much greater belief in the capacity of subordinates for leadership and initiative than do managers in most other countries – only managers in Anglo-American countries had stronger feelings in this area Japanese Leadership Approaches
  • 17. 17 Leadership in the International Context  Except for internal control, large U.S. firms tend to be more democratic than small ones – the profile is quite different in Japan  Younger U.S. managers appear to express more democratic attitudes than their older counterparts on all four leadership dimensions  Japanese and U.S. managers have a basically different philosophy of managing people – Ouchi’s Theory Z combines Japanese and U.S. assumptions and approaches providing a comparison of seven key characteristics Differences Between Japanese and U.S. Leadership Styles
  • 18. 18 Leadership in the International Context Another difference between Japanese and U.S. leadership styles is how senior-level managers process information and learn Differences Between Japanese and U.S. Leadership Styles  Variety Amplification Japanese executives are taught and tend to use variety amplification – the creation of uncertainty and the analysis of many alternatives regarding future action  Variety Reduction U.S. executives are taught and tend to use variety reduction – the limiting of uncertainty and the focusing of action on a limited number of alternatives
  • 19. 19 Leadership in the International Context  The “New Generation” group scored significantly higher on individualism than did the current and older generation groups  They also scored significantly lower than the other two groups on collectivism and Confucianism  These values appear to reflect the period of relative openness and freedom, often called the “Social Reform Era,” in which these new managers grew up  They have had greater exposure to Western societal influences may result in leadership styles similar to those of Western managers Leadership in China
  • 20. 20 Leadership in the International Context  There may be much greater similarity between Middle Eastern leadership styles and those of Western countries  Western management practices are evident in the Arabian Gulf region due to close business ties between the West and this oil-rich area as well as the increasing educational attainment, often in Western universities, of Middle Eastern managers  Organizational culture, level of technology, level of education, and management responsibility were good predictors of decision-making styles in the United Arab Emirates  There is a tendency toward participative leadership styles among young Arab middle managers, as well as among highly educated managers of all ages Leadership in the Middle East
  • 21. 21 Differences in Middle Eastern andDifferences in Middle Eastern and Western ManagementWestern Management Adapted from Table 13–5: Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management
  • 22. 22 Differences in Middle Eastern andDifferences in Middle Eastern and Western ManagementWestern Management Adapted from Table 13–5: Differences in Middle Eastern and Western Management
  • 23. 23 Leadership in the International Context  Managerial attitudes in India are similar to Anglo- Americans toward capacity for leadership and initiative, participation, and internal control, but different in sharing information and objectives  Leadership styles in Peru may be much closer to those in the United States than previously assumed  Developing countries may be moving toward a more participative leadership style Leadership Approaches in Developing Countries
  • 24. 24 Types of Leadership  Transactional Leadership  Charismatic Leadership  Transformational Leadership