Mike Perez, Cole Underwood & Sarah Torp
Describe the basic philosophic foundation & styles of
Examine the attitudes of European managers toward
Compare & Contrast leadership styles in Japan with those
of the US
Review leadership approaches in China, the Middle East,
and developing countries
Examine recent research & findings regarding leadership
Discuss the relationship of culture clusters & leader
behavior on effective leadership practices, including
increasing calls for more responsible global leadership
Foundation of Leadership
Leadership – The process of influencing people to
direct their efforts toward the achievement of some
particular goal or goals.
What would you say is the difference between a leader
and a manager? Similarities?
Leadership in the International
How leaders in Europe attempt to direct or influence
their subordinates? Are their approaches similar to
those used in the United States?
Attitudes of European Managers
1. Capacity for leadership and initiative (Theory X vs.
2. Sharing information and objectives: general vs.
detailed, completed instructions for subordinates.
3. Participation: leadership support for participative
4. Internal control: leader control through external vs.
A leadership theorist Douglas McGregor started a idea
that eventually developed into the X,Y,Z Theories.
Theory X: A manager who believes that people are
basically lazy and that coercion and threats of
punishment often are necessary to get them to work.
Theory Y: A manager who believes that under the right
conditions people not only will work hard but will seek
increased responsibility and challenge.
Theory Z: A manager who believes that workers seek
opportunities to participate in management and are
motivated by teamwork and responsibility sharing.
What do you think is the most effective of these?
Leadership Behaviors and Styles
Leaders behaviors can be translated into three
Who’s your leader?
Authoritarian - use of work-centered behavior
designed to ensure task accomplishment.
Paternalistic - use of work-centered behavior coupled
with protective employee centered concern
Participative - use of both work or task centered and
people centered approaches to leading subordinates
Page 436 Figure 13-1
grid is a useful
visual to chart
Can you tell
me which one
points is an
Leadership Across The Globe
• Promotes high safety or security need
• Use of participation
•Leaders have confidence in the ability of their subordinates
and use a style that allows their people to actively participate
• Strong emphasis on ambiguous goals
•Some believe it’s time consuming since most of the time
subordinate are unsure what the leaders are asking of them &
spend a great amount of time over preparing for a task
Leadership Differences in Japan &
Large US firms tend to be more democratic than
Japan and US managers have different philosophies on
managing people (Table 13-4, p.443)
Japanese executives use variety amplification
creation of uncertainty and analysis of many
alternatives regarding future action
US executives tend to use variety reduction
limiting of uncertainty and the focusing of action on a
limited number of alternatives
US managers tend to limit the scope of questions and
issues, emphasize one or two central aspects of that
topic, identity specific employees respond to it, and
focus on a goal or objective that is attainable
In contrast, Japanese managers are typically inclusive in
their consideration of issues or problems, seek a large
information to inform the problem, encourage all
employees to engage in a solution, and aim for goals that
are distant in the future
Japanese focused on problems and allowed poor
performance so workers can learn from their mistakes
while the US focused on opportunities and wanted to
stop performance as quickly as possible
Leadership in China
New generation of Chinese leaders are emerging & are
different from past leaders in work values
Tested in three areas: Individualism, Collectivism &
New generation scored higher in individualism and
lower in collectivism and Confucianism
As the economy changes the country moves more and
more toward capitalism
Discussion: Why do you think the new generation
leaders are moving away from the older leaders
Indian Leadership Styles
Indian is developing at a rapid rate as MNC’s increase
Workers are more productive when managers took a
high people and high participative approach
Important to focus on the individual but in order to be
efficient, managers need to maintain awareness of the
tasks that need to be completed
Study showed that job satisfaction increased as the
leadership styles becomes more participative
Discussion: What country’s leadership style do you
support the most?
Types of Leaders
Transformational Leaders: Visionary agents with a sense of mission
who are capable of motivating their followers to accept new goals & new
ways of doing things.
Idealized influence: Enhance pride, loyalty, and confidence in their
people; align followers by providing common purpose or vision that
the latter willingly accept
Inspirational motivation: Extremely effective in articulating vision,
mission, beliefs in clear-cut ways
Intellectual stimulation: able to get followers to question old
paradigms and accept new views of world
Individualized consideration: able to diagnose and elevate needs of
each follower in way that furthers each one’s development
Charismatic Leaders: Leaders who inspire & motivate employees
through their charismatic traits and abilities
Transactional Leaders: individuals who exchange rewards for effort &
performance and work on a “something for something basis”
Discussion: What kind of leader is the most efficient?
Best Boss Ever
Culture Clusters and Leader
In addition to research about universal leadership
traits, there are also recent findings that show that
effective leader behaviors tend to vary by cultural
Look at Table 13-7 on page 453
Shows data from a survey of about 6,000 European
middle managers’ opinions of what traits make an
outstanding business leader
Similarities between culture clusters, but none of the
lists are identical
Leader Behavior, Leader Effectiveness,
and Leading Teams
Culture is important in helping explain how
leaders should act in order to be effective
Leaders in affective cultures tend to exhibit their
Leaders in neutral cultures do not tend to show
Japan and China
Leader Behavior, Leader Effectiveness,
and Leading Teams
In some cultures, people are taught to exhibit their
emotion but separate those emotions from their
In other cultures, emotions and making rational
decisions are intertwined
What are some advantages and disadvantages of both
mixing and separating emotions from decision-
What role do you think emotions play in decision-
making by American workers?
Leader Behavior, Leader Effectiveness,
and Leading Teams
The way in which managers speak to their
employees can influence the outcome
In Anglo cultures, managers raise their voices for
In Asian cultures, managers use self-control to speak at
the same level, which shows respect for the other person
In Latin cultures, managers vary their tone of voice
constantly to show interest and commitment to what
they are saying
Cross-Cultural Leadership: Insights from
the GLOBE Study
The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior
Effectiveness (GLOBE study) is a 15-year, multi-method
research program that is studying societal and
organizational culture, effectiveness, and leadership
GLOBE researchers concluded that leadership behaviors
can be summarized into six broad categories:
Which leadership behaviors would you prefer
managers in your present or future jobs to display, and
Universal Leadership Qualities
Being trustworthy, just, and honest (having integrity)
Having foresight and planning ahead
Being positive, dynamic, encouraging, motivating, and
Being communicative and informed
Being a coordinator and a team integrator
“the greater a society’s future orientation, the higher
its average GDP per capita and its levels of
innovativeness, happiness, confidence, and . . .
GLOBE Study Results
Summary of GLOBE study’s findings:
Cultural values affect leadership preferences
Future orientation is essential
Unexpected findings: societies that valued assertiveness
were positively correlated with valuing Humane-
Positive Organizational Scholarship and
Positive organizational scholarship (POS) – a
method that focuses on positive outcomes, processes,
and attributes of organizations and their members
Example: if a firm is doing well financially due to downsizing,
POS would emphasize the revenue and its potentials instead
of criticizing the negative effects
Effective leaders seem to live by the POS model, as they are
constantly innovating, creating relationships, striving to
bring the organization to new heights, and working for the
greater global good through self-improvement
Do you think POS is more common in certain industries?
Distinct Characteristics of Authentic Leaders:
Do not fake their actions; they are true to themselves and do
not adhere to external expectations
Are driven from internal forces, not external rewards
Are unique and guide based on personal beliefs, not others’
Act based on individual passion and values
Increased self-awareness differentiates authentic
leaders from traditional leaders and creates a better
understanding within the organization
Ethically Responsible Global Leadership
Links leadership and corporate responsibility
through responsible global leadership
Maintaining quality relationships with shareholders
Scandals at corporations have led to a decrease in
trust of global leaders
This has prompted some companies to go on the
offensive and to develop more ethically oriented and
responsible leadership practices
Entrepreneurial Leadership and
What is the difference between a leader and an
An entrepreneur possesses many of the same qualities as
a leader, but entrepreneurs must be opportunity seekers
who are comfortable with failure and willing to accept
personal and business risks.
Global entrepreneurs must also possess cultural
sensitivity, international vision, and global mindsets to
effectively lead their venture as it confronts the
challenges of doing business in other countries.
1. What cultures would be most likely to perceive
differences between managerial and leadership duties?
What cultures would view them as the same?
2. Is there any relationship between company size and
European managers’ attitude toward participative
1. Japan would treat the positions the same. Their
managing and leadership style are more group
oriented than other cultures and have strong emphasis
on ambiguous goals. The Middle East would view the
two as different. Their leadership styles are similar to
Western countries while their management styles are
1) Will the leadership style used in the United States be
successful in Australia, or will the Australians
respond better to another?
2) If the retailer goes into Europe, in which country will
it have the least problem using its U.S-based
leadership style? Why?
3) If the company goes into Europe, what changes
might it have to make in accommodating its
leadership approach to the local environment? Use
Germany as an example.
Australia has a similar leadership role. There is no
language boundary and they both tend to have a more
paternalistic leadership role.
The retailer will have the least trouble with England.
Similar cultures and leadership styles.
The U.S would need to continue
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