Indian financial services

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  • 1. Indian Financial System www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 2. Financial System Existence of a well organized financial system Promotes the well being and standard of living of the people of a country Money and monetary assets Mobilize the saving Promotes investment www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 3. Financial System of any country consists of financial markets, financial intermediation and financial instruments or financial products Suppliers of funds (Mainly households)Flow of financial services Incomes , and financial claims Seekers of funds (Mainly business firms and government) Flow of funds (savings) www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 4. Indian Financial System Un-Organized Organized Money lenders Local bankers Traders Landlords Pawn brokers Regulators Financial Institutions Financial Markets Financial services Financial Instruments www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 5. Organized Indian Financial System Money Market Instrument Capital Market Instrument Forex Market Capital Market Money Market Credit Market Primary Market Financial Instruments Financial Markets Financial Intermediaries Secondary Market Regulators 1.MoF 2.SEBI 3.RBI 4.IRDA www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 6. Indian Capital Market Market Instruments Intermediaries Primary Secondary Equity DebtHybrid Regulator •Brokers •Investment Bankers •Stock Exchanges •Underwriters SEBI Players Corporate IntermediariesCRA Banks/FI FDI /FIIIndividual www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 7. Financial Markets Mechanism which allows people to trade Affected by forces of supply and demand Process used In Finance, Financial markets facilitates www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 8. Why Capital Markets Exist Capital markets facilitate the transfer of capital (i.e. financial) assets from one owner to another. They provide liquidity.  Liquidity refers to how easily an asset can be transferred without loss of value. A side benefit of capital markets is that the transaction price provides a measure of the value of the asset. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 9. Role of Capital Markets Mobilization of Savings & acceleration of Capital Formation Promotion of Industrial Growth Raising of long term Capital Ready & Continuous Markets Proper Channelisation of Funds  Provision of a variety of Services www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 10. Capital Market Instruments Derivative Market 1.Exchange Traded 2.Future & Option a.Index b.Stock Equity Debt Primary Market 1.Public Issue 2. Private Placement a. Domestic Market b. International Market Secondary Market 1.NSE 2.BSE 3.OTCEI 4.ISE 5.RSE Private Corporate Dept. PSU Bond Market Govt. Securities Market Primary Segment Secondary Segment www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 11. Factors contributing to growth of Indian Capital Market Establishment of Development banks & Industrial financial institution. Legislative measures Growing public confidence Increasing awareness of investment opportunities www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 12. Factors contributing to growth of Indian Capital Market Growth of underwriting business Setting up of SEBI Mutual Funds Credit Rating Agencies www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 13. Indian Capital Market deficiencies Lack of transparency Physical settlement Variety of manipulative practices Institutional deficiencies Insider trading www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 14. Money Market Market for short-term money and financial assets that are near substitutes for money.  Short-Term means generally period upto one year and near substitutes to money is used to denote any financial asset which can be quickly converted into money with minimum transaction cost www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 15. Money Market It is a place for Large Institutions and government to manage their short-term cash needs It is a subsection of the Fixed Income Market It specializes in very short-term debt securities  They are also called as Cash Investments www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 16. Defects of Money Market Lack of Integration Lack of Rational Interest Rates structure Absence of an organized bill market Shortage of funds in the Money Market Seasonal Stringency of funds and fluctuations in Interest rates Inadequate banking facilities www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 17. Money Market Instruments  Treasury Bills  Commercial Paper  Certificate of Deposit  Commercial Bills  Term Money 1. Primary Segment 2.Secondary Segment  Call Money Market www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 18. FINANCIAL INSTRUMENTS  Money Market Instruments  The money market can be defined as a market for short-term money and financial assets that are near substitutes for money. The term short-term means generally a period up to one year and near substitutes to money is used to denote any financial asset which can be quickly converted into money with minimum transaction cost. Some of the important money market instruments are briefly discussed below; 1. Call/Notice Money 2. Treasury Bills 3. Term Money 4. Certificate of Deposit 5. Commercial Papers www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 19. 1.Call Money Market Loan disbursed by commercial banks 1 day – 7 days Bank can recall the loan at its maturity Usually advanced to bill brokers & stock exchange brokers. 2. Term Money Term Money market for deposits of maturity beyond 14 days is referred to as the term money market. The entry restrictions are the same as those for Call/Notice Money except that, as per existing regulations, the specified entities are not allowed to lend beyond 14 days. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 20. 3. Treasury Bills. Government Paper Securities Duration of 91 days Promissory note of the government to pay a specified sum after a specified period www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 21. 4. Certificate of Deposits  Certificates of Deposit (CDs) is a negotiable money market instrument and issued in dematerialized form or as a Usance Promissory Note, for funds deposited at a bank or other eligible financial institution for a specified time period.  Guidelines for issue of CDs are presently governed by various directives issued by the Reserve Bank of India, as amended from time to time.  CDs can be issued by (i) scheduled commercial banks excluding Regional Rural Banks (RRBs) and Local Area Banks (LABs); and (ii) select all-India Financial Institutions that have been permitted by RBI to raise short-term resources within the umbrella limit fixed by RBI. Banks have the freedom to issue CDs depending on their requirements.  An FI may issue CDs within the overall umbrella limit fixed by RBI, i.e., issue of CD together with other instruments viz., term money, term deposits, commercial papers and interoperate deposits should not exceed 100 per cent of its net owned funds, as per the latest audited balance sheet. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 22. 5. Commercial Paper  CP is a note in evidence of the debt obligation of the issuer. On issuing commercial paper the debt obligation is transformed into an instrument.  CP is thus an unsecured promissory note privately placed with investors at a discount rate to face value determined by market forces.  CP is freely negotiable by endorsement and delivery. A company shall be eligible to issue CP provided - (a) the tangible net worth of the company, as per the latest audited balance sheet, is not less than Rs. 4 crore; (b) the working capital (fund-based) limit of the company from the banking system is not less than Rs.4 crore and (c) the borrowal account of the company is classified as a Standard Asset by the financing bank/s. The minimum maturity period of CP is 7 days. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 23. Capital Market Instruments Capital Market Instruments The capital market generally consists of the following long term period i.e., more than one year period, financial instruments; In the equity segment Equity shares, preference shares, convertible preference shares, non- convertible preference shares etc and in the debt segment debentures, zero coupon bonds, deep discount bonds etc. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 24. Equity Market 1 .Primary Markets Helps companies in raising funds through issue of securities like shares and debentures. Governed by SEBI (Securities and Exchange Board of India). Methods of issuing securities in Primary Market: – Public Issue – Rights Issue – Bonus Issue – Private Placement – Bought-out Deals www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 25. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 26. International Capital Markets Development attributed to following factors: investors’ need to avoid taxes in their own country and to ensure protection against depreciating home currencies. emergence of new technologies in the area of financial services, development and deregulation of financial markets www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 27. Equity Instruments GDR:  instruments which possess a number of underlying shares held by the custodian domestic bank of the company.  The GDRs are traded on a foreign stock exchange, issued to the non-resident investors.  The GDR’s are denominated in the foreign currency and the underlying shares are denominated in the local currency of the issuer.  The GDR’s are considered as common equity of the company and are entitled to dividends and voting rights. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 28. ADR  Is a dollar denominated negotiable certificate traded in the US-markets whose underlying securities are of non-US companies.  ADR Level-I :first step for an issuer to enter the US market, minimum disclosure required, need not comply with the American GAAP. Can trade only on the OTC market and not on any national stock exchange.  ADR Level-II: significant disclosures to be made to the SEC, company allowed to list on AMEX, NYSE.  ADR Level-III :fresh capital can be raised company to be registered with the SEC and shall even follow US GAAP. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 29. Euro Bonds These are the bonds that are issued outside the country of the currency in which it is denominated Features: No with holding of tax on interest payments These are in bearer form with coupon interest attached Listed on stock exchanges though traded on the OTC market www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 30. Foreign Bonds Bonds floated in the domestic markets denominated in the domestic currency by the non-resident. Yankee Bonds Samurai Bonds Bulldog Bonds Shibosai Bonds www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 31. Yankee bonds These are US dollar denominated issues by the foreign borrowers in the US markets. Features Regulated by the SEC. Requires more disclosure than that given by the prospectus. Foreign borrower to adopt US accounting policies Bonds sponsored by the underwriting syndicate Requires SEC registration before the sale. To be rated by the US credit rating agencies www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 32. Samurai Bonds Yen denominated bonds issued in the Japanese markets by the non- Japanese companies. Features Maturity: 3-20 years Borrowers in order of priority sovereigns, supranational and their entities, high quality private corporations having some kind of Japanese trade links. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 33. Bull Dog Bonds Sterling denominated foreign bonds floated in the UK market. Features: Maturity 5 for short maturities 25 for long maturities. Subscribed by the long-term institutional investors- pension funds, life insurance Co’s Bonds offered by placing or offer for sale process will have to be listed on the London SE www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 34. Shibosai Bonds Privately placed bonds issued in the Japanese market Features Offered to institutional investors, including banks the issue’s eligibility, coupon rate, etc governed by the Japan’s MOF guidelines Pricing done based on base rate and spread which depends on the rating of Co or country. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 35. Forex Markets  Foreign Exchange Market: Deals with transactions in currencies other than one’s own currency.  Exchange rate: The rate at which one currency can be converted into another currency  Participants:  – Exporters  – Importers  – Commercial Banks  – Central Banks  – Authorized Dealers and Money Changers  – Brokers www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 36. Equity Market 2. Secondary Market Securities already issued in the primary market are traded in the secondary market. Provides liquidity to the securities held by the investors. Provides liquidity to the securities held by the investors. Operates through stock exchanges that regulate the trading activities in this market. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 37. Equity Market 3. Derivatives Market Financial derivative is a product derived from the market of an underlying asset. Participants: – Hedgers – Speculators – Arbitrators Types of Derivatives: – Futures – Options - Caps - floors and Collars www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 38. Debt. Market Government of India, public sector units and corporations together comprise as dominant issuer of debt markets in India. Local governments, mutual funds and international financial institution issue debt instruments as well but very infrequently. The Central Government mobilizes funds mainly through issue of dated securities and T-bills. Bonds are also issued by government sponsored institutions like the development financial institutions (DFIs) like IFCI and IDBI, banks and public sector units. Some, but not all, of the PSU bonds are tax-exempt. The corporate bond market comprise of commercial papers and bonds. In recent years, there has been an increase in issuance of www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 39. Financial Institution www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 40. Financial Institution Financial Institutions Industrial Development Bank of India (IDBI) Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI ) Industrial Investment Bank of India (IIBI) Export and Import Bank of India State Financial Corporations State Industrial Development Corporations www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 41. Non-banking financial institution Non-Banking Financial Companies Investment Trusts or Investment Companies: Close end organizations, having fixed amount of authorized capital provides services through conserving and managing property for those who cannot manage their own funds. Mutual Benefit Funds or Nidis: Sources of their funds are share capital, deposits. Merchant Banks : Offers financial advice & services for fees; Services offered are management, marketing, underwriting of new issue, project promotion & finance, corporate advice, BOD, venture capital etc. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 42. Hire Purchase Finance Companies Lease Finance Companies Housing Finance Companies National Housing Bank : Wholly owned by subsidiary of RBI, Aim is to promote housing finance Institution at local & regional levels, It refinance housing loans to scheduled commercial & co operative banks, housing finance companies etc. Venture Capital Funding Companies www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 43. DEVELOPMENT FINANCE INSTITUTION All India Financial Institutions IFCI: Industrial Finance Corporation of India The IFCI, India’s first DFL, was established on 1 July 1948 IFCI principal activities can be categorised into - Financing - Promotional activities www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 44. FINANCING ACTIVITIES Project Activities Financial Services Corporate advisory Services Corporate advisory Services to Foreign Investors www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 45. PROMOTIONAL ACTIVITIES  Played a key role in the development of cooperatives in the sugar and textile sector  It has promoted technical consultancy organisation primarily in less developed state, to provide necessary services to the promoters of small and medium- sized industries in collaboration with other banks and institutions.  It has developed many institutions like  Management Development institute  Investment and credit rating agency  Tourism finance corporation of India  Rashtriya Gramin Vikas Nidhi www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 46. DISADVANTAGES The reasons to this dismal state of affairs of the company are as follows  Operational Inefficiency  Political Interference  Traditional sector financing  Higher provisioning for Non –performing assets www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 47. The steps taken for the revival of IFCI are as follows: IFCI constituted an expert committee in 2001  To formulate a medium-to long term strategic plan for IFCI in the emerging new business environment  The committee has laid down the road map plan for the next five years  It has made recommendations covering a wide range of structural and operational areas  It has strengthened its risk management techniques and is putting in efforts to bring down the NPAs to a manageable level, through corporate debt structuring  It has initiated action against defaulters and has filed suits against defaulter companies www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 48. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT BANK OF INDIA  Established in 1964 by Parliament as a wholly owned subsidiary of the RBI  In 1976, the banks ownership was transferred to the Government of India  IDBI has engineered the development of capital market through helping in setting up of the - Securities Exchange Board of India (SEBI) - National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE) - Credit Analysis and Research Limited (CARE) - Stock Holding corporation of India Limited (SHCIL) - Investors Services of India Limited (ISIL) - National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) - Clearing Corporation of India Limited (CCIL) www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 49. IDBI has undertaken several initiatives to reposition itself as a universal Bank:-  In April 2001, IDBI appointed Boston consulting Group India Private Limited (BCG) as consultant to draw up a road map for conversion into a universal bank  Formation of high level risk management committee to develop overall risk management policy  The bank has constituted a credit risk management group to evaluate credit risk both at the transaction level and also at the portfolio level  It has pioneered the setting up of Asset Reconstruction Company (India) Limited (ARCIL) in 2002 in association with select banks and financial institutions www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 50. IDBI-SERVICES  IDBI provides Merchant banking and wide array of corporate advisory services as part of its fee based activities  This includes professional advice and services for - issue management - private placement of equity/debt instruments - project evaluation - credit syndication - share valuation - corporate restructuring including mergers and acqusitions and divestment of equity  the bank also offers a number of Forex related services on a commission basis including opening of letters of credit and remittance of foreign currency on behalf of its assisted companies for import of its goods and services www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 51. IIBI  Established in 1985 under the IRBI Act 1984  It is a principal credit & reconstruction agency for re-habilitation of sick & closed industrial units.  The range of its services include provision of infrastructure facilities , consultancies , managerial & merchant banking facilities & making available machinery & other equipment on a lease or hire purchase bases  It was renamed as industrial investment bank of India & brought under companies act 1956 since March 17 1997.  It finances new projects , modernization work , balancing equipment needs , correcting imbalance in current Assets , relieving strains on cash resources , repayment of pressing liabilities and other activities. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 52. IDFC  Conceived as an institution to facilitate the flow of private finance to commercially viable infrastructure projects & help mitigate commercial & structural risk contain therein , by designing innovative products & processes.  It operates in areas such as energy , telecommunication & IT , integrated transportation , Urban infrastructure & food & agri-business infrastructure.  It offers the variety of services to projects in the infrastructure & advisory services.  It helps promoters raise resources from international markets  It intends offering advisory services to these funds to facilitate & strengthen their connectivity with infrastructure projects. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 53. NABARD  Established in July 1982 under an act of parliament , is an apex dvpt. Bank for promotion & dvpt. Of agriculture , small-scale industries , cottage & village industries & other allied economic activities in rural areas.  Objective is to promote integrated rural development for overall prosperity of rural areas.  Provides long term investment credit to the Farm sector for various approved agricultural & allied activities such as minor irrigation , plantation etc.  It also extends refinance to banks for financing government sponsered programmes like prime minister Rojgar Yojna , Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojna etc.  Other important development includes setting up of micro finance development fund by NABARD. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 54. SIDCS  Established under the companies act 1956, as wholly owned undertakings of the state governments with the specific objective of promoting and developing medium and large industries in the respective states.  It undertakes a range of promotional activities including: -repression of preparation of feasibility reports . -conducting industrial potential surveys. -entrepreneurship training and development programs. -developing industrial estates.  It also offer package of developmental services that include Technical guidance, assistance in plant location and coordination with other agencies. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 55. EXIM BANK  Established in 1982, is a wholly government owned financial institution setup for the purpose of financing, facilitating and promoting India’s foreign trade.  Its financing services include a range of fund and non-fund based programs to enhance the exports, competitiveness of Indian companies.  Its major operations presently comprise -financing of projects -products and service exports -building export competitiveness -promotional programs -Financing of research and development activities of exporting companies. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 56. SFC It is a state level development bank setup under the SFCs act, 1951, for the development of small and medium scale industries in their respective states. It aims at bringing about balanced regional development by wider dispersal of industries and generating larger employment opportunities. It includes composite loan scheme, scheme for women entrepreneurs, modernization scheme, equipment finance scheme etc. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 57. SIDBI It offer a chain of financial product covering micro finance, business,incubation, venture capital etc. It also provides support services such as training, market information and advise for enhancing the inherent strength of small scale units. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 58. Products And Services of SIDBI Direct finance scheme. Bills finance scheme. Re-finance scheme. International finance scheme. Marketing finance and development schemes. SIDBI foundation for micro-credit. Other schemes. Promotional and development activities. Fixed deposit/bond. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 59. Financial Regulators www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 60. Financial Regulators Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Reserve Bank of India Ministry of Finance IRDA www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 61. Security Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) was first established in the year 1988 Its a non-statutory body for regulating the securities market It became an autonomous body in 1992 www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 62. Functions Of SEBI Regulates Capital Market. Checks Trading of securities. Checks the malpractices in securities market. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 63. Functions Of SEBI It enhances investor's knowledge on market by providing education. It regulates the stockbrokers and sub-brokers. To promote Research and Investigation www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 64. Objectives of SEBI It tries to develop the securities market. Promotes Investors Interest. Makes rules and regulations for the securities market. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 65. The Recent Initiatives Undertaken Sole Control on Brokers For Underwriters For Share Prices For Mutual Funds www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 66. Reserve Bank of India Established on April 1, 1935 in accordance with the provisions of the RBI Act, 1934. The Central Office of the Reserve Bank has been in Mumbai. It acts as the apex monetary authority of the country. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 67. Functions Of RBI Monetary Authority: Formulation and Implementation of monetary policies. Maintaining price stability and ensuring adequate flow of credit to the Productive sectors. Issuer of currency: Issues and exchanges or destroys currency and coins. Provide the public adequate quantity of supplies of currency notes and coins. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 68. Regulator and supervisor of the financial system: Prescribes broad parameters of banking operations Maintain public confidence, protect depositors' interest and provide cost-effective banking services. Authority On Foreign Exchange: Manages the Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999. Facilitate external trade, payment, promote orderly development and maintenance of foreign exchange market. Functions Of RBI www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 69. Developmental role:  Performs a wide range of promotional functions to support national objectives. Related Functions:  Banker to the Government: performs merchant banking function for the central and the state governments.  Maintains banking accounts of all scheduled banks. Functions Of RBI www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 70. Monetary Measures (a) Bank Rate: The Bank Rate was kept unchanged at 6.0 per cent. (b) Reverse Repo Rate: The Repo rate is around 7 per cent and Reverse repo rate is around 6.10 per cent. (c) Cash Reserve Ratio: The cash reserve ratio (CRR) of scheduled banks is currently at 5.0 per cent. www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 71. Objectives Of MoF Reorientation of the economy Macro economic stability To Increase competitive efficiency in the operations To remove structural rigidities and inefficiencies To attain a balance between the goals of financial stability & integrated & efficient markets www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 72. Recommendations Reduce the level of state ownership in banking Lift restrictions on foreign ownership of banks Spur the development of the corporate-bond market Strengthen legal protections www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 73. Recommendations Deregulate the insurance industry Drop proposed limits on pension reforms Increase consumer ownership of mutual-fund products Introduce a gold deposit scheme www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 74. Recommendations Speed up the development of electronic payments. Separate the RBI's regulatory and central-bank functions Lift the remaining capital account controls Phase out statutory priority lending and restrictions on asset allocation www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 75. IRDA Agent Registration Portal Designated Person (Ins. Co.) Service Provider ----------------------- 1.Care-Site 2.Tech Support Ins. Co. (Development Officer) I I I EXAM IRDA Agent Training Institute Agents www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 76. IRDA Function….  Data Correction Approval (License) • Shows list of data correction requests by DPs • IRDA can approve these requests  Cancellation Approval (License/Certificate) • Shows list of license cancellation requests • IRDA can approve or reject • IRDA can cancel with or without refund  Recall Cancellation Approval • Shows list of license recall cancellation requests • IRDA can approve or reject  Termination Approval • Shows list of license termination requests by Corporate DP • IRDA can approve or reject termination requests  Terminate License • IRDA can terminate individual/corporate license www.StudsPlanet.com
  • 77. Thank you www.StudsPlanet.com