MOOC ManiaWelcomeIn chat, please …• Introduce yourself with your name andinstitution.• Indicate if you are participating as a group.• Share what you want to get out of today’sseminar.
MOOC ManiaParticipating in Today’s SeminarThis seminar is being recorded.Click to OpenPanels forParticipants &Chat
MOOC Mania and theAmbivalent Future ofAmerican Higher EducationSean Andrews, ACLS PublicFellow and Director, NITLEShared Libraries
MOOC ManiaSome premises• Context is important• Determination is contextual– Raymond Williams: Determination derived bythe setting of limits and the application ofpressures.• What are the key issues in the MOOC debate?• What are the limits and pressures?• Why are we having this particular conversation atthis particular moment?
MOOC ManiaMyth of technological sublime―Today’s world of new media is not the firstto be christened with magical powers totranscend the present and institute a neworder. But they also demonstrate thattranscendence is not easy to sustain.[The] sublime eventually fades into thebanality of everyday life.‖- Mosco, Digital Sublime
MOOC Mania―The lid of the classroomhas been blown off, and thewalls have been set on thecircumference of the globe.‖[Thanks to radio,]―every home has thepotentiality of becoming anextension of Carnegie Hallor Harvard University‖- Radio Broadcast Magazine
MOOC Mania"I believe that 50 years from now, educationwill be as short and sweet as Twitter istoday. It will be like an evening talk. And thatwill be a fantastic moment.”- Sebastian Thrun, Udacity founderhttps://www.edsurge.com/n/2013-04-02-udacity-s-sebastian-thrun-on-the-future-of-education
MOOC ManiaGeorge Siemans―The problem of education does not concernme as much as the solutions to theproblem of education are starting toconcern me.‖- in response tosomething Jeff Jarvissaid…at a TED talk.
MOOC Mania―Solutionism‖• ―An unhealthy preoccupationwith sexy, monumental, andnarrow-minded solutions [. ..] to problems that areextremely complex, fluid, andcontentious.‖• ―How problems arecomposed matters every bitas how they are solved.‖
MOOC ManiaMOOCs as Solutionism―The quick fixes it peddles do not exist in apolitical vacuum. In promising almostimmediate and much cheaper results, theycan easily undermine support for moreambitious, more intellectually stimulating,but also more demanding reform projects.‖
MOOC ManiaThis is why MOOCs matter. Not becausedistance learning is some big new thing orbecause online lectures are a solution toall our problems, but because they’vecome along at a time when students andparents are willing to ask themselves,"Isn’t there some other way to do this?"
MOOC ManiaMOOCs as ―Disruption‖• Dismisses any political or social answer tothe problem.– MARKET, CONSUMERS, and TECH primary• Overlooks the political, social, and culturalelements to their vision coming to pass.– True even of Clayton Christensen’s examples,e.g. disk drives.
MOOC ManiaBA Premium• US has one of the largest earningspremiums: Henwood and Featherstone– ―Someone with a bachelor’s earns 77% morethan someone with only a high school diploma(or international equivalent) 24 points aboveOECD average. The college premium looks tobe broadly associated with the general levelof inequality, with Brazil and the US at the top,Sweden at the bottom.‖
MOOC ManiaPLUTOCRACYSince 1970s –Rising inequalityStagnant wagesFalling public funding for higher educationRising student debtSince 2007-Soaring corporate profitsLittle investmentStubborn unemployment
MOOC ManiaGlobal Plutocracy―The rich of today are also different from the rich ofyesterday. Our light-speed, globally connected economyhas led to the rise of a new super-elite that consists, to anotable degree, of first- and second-generation wealth.Its members are hardworking, highly educated, jet-setting meritocrats who feel they are the deservingwinners of a tough, worldwide economic competition—and, as a result, have an ambivalent attitude towardthose of us who haven’t succeeded quite sospectacularly. They tend to believe in the institutions thatpermit social mobility, but are less enthusiastic about theeconomic redistribution—i.e., taxes—it takes to pay forthose institutions.‖http://breakingculture.tumblr.com/post/41790069710/reflective-writing-and-expropriation
MOOC ManiaWorkers don’t lack skills, they lack workhttp://www.epi.org/publication/workers-dont-lack-skills-lack-work/
MOOC Mania“For full-time, full-year workers, the hourly wage declines from2000 to 2012 represent a roughly $3,200 decline.”http://www.epi.org/publication/snapshot-wages-young-college-graduates-failed-grow/
MOOC ManiaNo jobs because no investmenthttp://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2013/02/liberal-arts-majors-didnt-kill-the-economy/272940/?fb_action_ids=10151520078370485&fb_action_types=og.recommends&fb_source=aggregation&fb_aggregation_id=288381481237582
MOOC ManiaBruce Bartlett, in NYT―many corporations are holding vast amounts ofcash and other liquid assets, using them neitherfor investment nor to benefit shareholders.These assets are largely earned and heldoverseas, and not subject to American taxesuntil the money is brought home.‖―As of the third quarter of 2012 nonfinancialcorporations in the United States held $1.7trillion of liquid assets‖
MOOC ManiaAll ―perfectly legal‖• ―Texas gives out $19 billion per year incorporate subsidies.‖• ―To help balance its budget last year,Texas cut public education spending by$5.4 billion — a significant decreaseconsidering that it already ranked 11thfrom the bottom among all states in per-pupil financing, according to recent datafrom the Census Bureau‖– http://www.nytimes.com/2012/12/03/us/winners-and-losers-in-texas.html?smid=fb-share&_r=2&#h
MOOC ManiaTech companies as tax dodgers• ―Apple deferred taxes on over $35.4 billionin offshore income between 2009 and2011.‖– http://www.nytimes.com/2013/01/04/business/an-inquiry-into-tech-giants-tax-strategies-nears-an-end.html?_r=0• ―Google Inc. avoided about $2 billion inworldwide income taxes in 2011 by shifting$9.8 billion in revenues into a Bermudashell company, almost double the totalfrom three years before, filings show.‖– http://breakingculture.tumblr.com/post/37718667423/google-is-a-u-s-tax-deadbeat
MOOC ManiaPublichighered• Not just ―Public‖ schools, but how and whywe, as a society fund and supporteducation.• Cannot separate higher ed from k-12,which is also seeing many of the samethreats/pressures• Private market more efficient• Testing to justify ROI of public funds• Technology = efficiency
MOOC Maniae.g.• Florida - Now mandatory that all studentsmust take at least one class online beforegraduating high school.– Led by Jeb Bush– Supporter of Academic Partnerships• Virtual Charter systems in FL, Colorado,Virginia, and Texas among other states.– Teacher:student can be as high as 1:137– Widespread graft, little oversight.
MOOC ManiaStats• US – Spends 1/3 more than OECD average oneducation, second highest of any country (exceededonly by Iceland)• 41% of Ed spending on Tertiary Education, 15 pointsabove average.• 23% of Americans in their 20s are enrolled in someform of higher ed. 2% below OECD average– Finland = 43%– EU Average = 33%• 16th in terms of completion
MOOC ManiaObama Admin• Leading world in BA by 2020• Higher rate of completion• Lower debt• Time to degree (three years ideal)• ―Accountability‖– Bush era Spellings report recommendation• Western Governor’s as model– Competency based; no tenured faculty; allonline; public, non-profit, lower cost.
MOOC ManiaNot public vs. private• Federal, state and local dollars subsidizeeducation at all levels – because of ourmeritocratic ideology.• Instead:– Who will use federal dollars to produce moredegrees/credentialed citizens?– And what kind of skills will they teach.
MOOC ManiaTrue disruptive innovation• For profits – mining public dollarsefficiently by exploiting underservedstudents who qualify for higher Pell grants– not technological – political economic– Spend< 25% of funds on education– More on marketing, recruiting, debt peonage– 10% of ed market, 25% of federal aid– In some cases 85% of income from tax $$– http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CPRT-112SPRT74931/pdf/CPRT-112SPRT74931.pdf
MOOC ManiaAs the share of enrollment in the for-profit sector increased from 6% in fall 2001 to 12% in fall 2010, the shareof Pell Grant funds going to students in this sector increased from 14% to 25%. In fall 2011, for-profitenrollments remained at 12% of FTE students, and the sector’s share of Pell Grants declined to 21%.
MOOC Mania2011 Pell Grants = $37billion21% = $7.5 billion+21% Stafford+23% Unsub. Stafforde.g. University of Phoenixderives 85-88% of revenuesfrom U.S. Governmentfunding
MOOC ManiaPell helps colleges poach middleclass payments• ―more than one-third of public colleges and nearlytwo-thirds of private colleges engage in ―gapping‖— providing lower-income students with aidpackages that don’t come close to meeting theirfinancial need. In the parlance of enrollmentmanagement, this is often called ―admit-deny,‖ inwhich schools deliberately underfund financiallyneedy students in order to discourage them fromenrolling.‖• http://public.tableausoftware.com/views/pellprivates_test/Sheet1?:embed=y&:display_count=no
MOOC ManiaHmmm• Tech industry investing in more training forpeople to build the robots to replace us– Udacity, GIT Computer Science MA MOOC• VC hoping to cash in on federal dollars setaside for this training– For-profits didn’t pan out, but mayberebranding of online will pay off.– Lots of money in this– And a lot of people to be served.
MOOC ManiaCompetency based credentials• Southern New Hamshire University– Predicted to make $200 million in 2013-2014– Fully online• Governor’s State University– Amendment written in 2005 allowing them togrant degree based on competency instead ofcredit hour.
MOOC ManiaMy Verdict• We must do all of the above– Improve use of ed tech– Combat plutocratic abandonment ofeducation, decent jobs and wages, and– Ensure the future of the U.S. meritocracy• …Maybe we should do a MOOC on this
MOOC ManiaThank YouPlease evaluate this event:nitle.org