NITLE Shared Academics: Fostering a Collaborative Culture: Smart Change and Shared Leadership

  • 846 views
Uploaded on

Institutional readiness to respond and even thrive amid rapid change is dependent on the ability to cultivate a culture of collaboration and embrace transformative change. Indeed, institutional speed …

Institutional readiness to respond and even thrive amid rapid change is dependent on the ability to cultivate a culture of collaboration and embrace transformative change. Indeed, institutional speed of response ultimately depends on shared vision, shared agreement, and shared leadership. Ann Hill Duin urges those involved with planning throughout all levels of an organization to actively foster a culture of collaboration. Doing so will ready your institution to tackle complex challenges and transform them into opportunities for reinvention and re-invigoration. As a professor of writing studies, Ann Hill Duin studies the language of the transactions that occur through networks of individuals engaged in collaborative, strategic work. During her 15 years in higher education administration, she has worked to build shared leadership across colleges, institutions, and academic and administrative realms. In her study of multiple inter-institutional partnerships, she found that a key component of fostering a collaborative culture is increased access to and shared understanding of “smart” change and “shared” leadership. During this Shared Academics seminar, you will gain increased understanding of these concepts and examine an action plan for strategic partnering.

  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Be the first to comment
    Be the first to like this
No Downloads

Views

Total Views
846
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0

Actions

Shares
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
0

Embeds 0

No embeds

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
    No notes for slide
  • NITLE Shared AcademicsTM is pleased to welcome our speaker Speaker Biography
  • Why cultivate collaboration? How might we foster smart change?Understand approaches to changeHow might we foster shared leadership? – an action planConsider a partnership blueprintPromote shared network leadershipHow might we measure its effectiveness? Success indicators
  • Michael Allison (CompassPoint), Susan Misra (TCC Group), and Elissa Perry (2011) worked with 27 civic non-profit orgs from 2008-2010 to explore building shared leadership within an organization. After two years, evaluation found that 78% of participants had increased their awareness, knowledge, and ability to develop staff as leaders at all levels of the organization. Significant increase in staff involvement in decision making and clear and effective accountability structures. Orgs were able to do more effective work with less funds, and shared leadership eased the stresses on exec directors.
  • Janqueline Bergman and colleagues from four institutions studied 45 teams (180 undergraduate students).Great set of resources; strong study.
  • According to Peter Senge, 2013, in a piece by this title…The difference between collaborationsthat are successful and the vast majority of others comes down to a few key conditions and a whole lot of courage. Successful collaborations (according to Peter Senge in his most recent work):Focus on transforming relationships. Groups must build a sense of mutuality, shared visions of what is possible and real trust.Create spaces for reflection and deeper conversation.Are anchored by a “backbone organization.” Highly skilled, dedicated resources are needed to sustain and coordinate complex collaborative networks.Recognize that “We have met the enemy and he is us.” Collaborating organizations must see themselves as part of the problem and, consequently, be open to changes in how they think and operate.
  • During June of this year, I visited a number of small liberal arts colleges in the Eastern U.S. This was part of Project DAVID – a look at strategic reinvention and collaboration, with focus on each institution’s Distinction, Affordability, Value, Innovation, and Digital opportunity. Here I share examples of collaboration from these visits:At Muhlenberg College in Allentown, PA, President Randolph Helm appointed an ad hoc committee / task force of faculty, staff, students, and trustees to develop recommendations for Muhlenberg’s future development of on-line course options. Over the past year, they have collaborated to develop recommendations for Muhlenberg’s future development of on-line course options.They have worked to build a sense of mutuality and shared vision of what is possible as well as real trust.I visited this campus in June and visited with its president, provost, and CIO. A component of this effort has been a focus on transforming relationships.Muhlenberg -- A culture of collaboration — where faculty, staff, students, and trustees come together to develop recommendations for Muhlenberg’s future development of online course options. Muhlenberg — a place where culture and strategy work together.
  • – 22 schools /online course development; new business models for higher ed.To pursue opportunities that are significant, urgent, and/or risky.I also visited the Wagner College campus in Staten Island, NY where quite a number of collaborative efforts are underway. This view is from President Guarasci’s office. He and the provost and VP shared with me about collaborative work underway on Learning, Value, and Cost; a “free trade zone" model (new business model for the liberal arts) in collaboration with the 22 colleges of the NAC&U (The New American Colleges and Universities); and also with the NAC&U, the development of over 100 online courses (each institution is creating five).
  • At Roanoke College in Virginia, key among the innovative collaborative directions is TAP, Transparent Assessment of Projects. Anyone (faculty, staff, students) can propose a project; it is discussed/vetted via a collaborative process; the process is transparent, and innovation abounds.During my visit with CIO Sandlin and her team, they spoke of their unique position to see things system wide and how they are critical to the whole. They also spoke of the many organizations in support of their efforts.
  • Peter Senge again talks of the need to Recognize that “We have met the enemy and he is us.” Collaborating organizations must see themselves as part of the problem and, consequently, be open to changes in how they think and operate.During my visit at Susquehanna University, CIO Mark Huber shared with me about the collaborative relationships he has forged as five colleges enhance IT partnership and shared positions. They are working To do together what cannot be done alone.To leverage infrastructure.These examples are from my visits at 13 colleges during June of this year.
  • Again, Michael Allison and colleagues studied efforts underway at 27 non-profit organizations over a two-year time period. In these cases, indicators of success included the ability to cultivate adaptability, shared leadership, trust; and a willingness to commit to change, engage broadly in this effort, and invest time in doing so.Each of you is here today. By so doing, you are indicating such a willingness to cultivate collaboration.Let’s get moving. Smart change and Shared leadership.“Developing shared leadership takes focus and energy. Despite the economic and political climate, most organizations participating in the initiative were able to create the structures, processes, and relationships that foster systems thinking and leadership development across all staff. These organizations’ leadership capac- ity has expanded, because multiple leaders are responsible for advancing the organization’s mission, leaders are more comfortable soliciting and using suggestions from others, and they are more likely to work in partnership with others, both inside and outside their organizations. This reduces the stress and potential burnout on the part of executive directors, while helping toadvance, develop, and retain other staff. The result is a healthy working environment that is aligned with democratic values of inclusiveness, participation, and empowerment. In many cases, shared leadership has also led to programmatic changes, and many of the participating organiza- tions are beginning to think about how to expand the concept of shared leadership to their boards and allies.” (36-37)
  • First, understand change. What type of change are you about?
  • Share about this major “change” event at UMN during 2005 and 2006. What type of change does it represent?Although the descriptions of this change all stated “transformative,” in the end it was a strategic change.Sustains status quoLeadership is a teamScope is bridgedApplies strategic expertise for redesignFocuses on planned changeRequires buy-in from upper adminOne dean described the effort as “moving the deck chairs on the Titanic.”
  • is exponential, requires global or big-picture thinking, and has a largely trans- or multidisciplinary focus. is imperative for finding solutions when there are no clear answers, and results in significantly expanding core capacities because it demands that people work together differently. employs next-generation technologies that infuse and integrate academic and administrative support, enabling better decision making. results in proactive detection of problems largely because of shared leadership and thus shared accountability. results in a “culture of inquiry” where individuals share insights with communities of practice. In this case, anyone can be a change agent; the assignment goes to everyone, and people are empowered to be part of the change process. It is aided by new technologies that anticipate needs and support the innovation.
  • Ask Amy Cronin, Arts Consortium (Exec Dir of the NY Six Consortium) to share about one of their collaborative initiatives.
  • Smart change is about understanding the type of change you are about. Smart change focuses on the future through…Leading over lagging indicators Principles over practicesScenarios over environmental scansEvidence over anecdoteLeadership over managementContinuous over episodic improvementCommunication over sound bitesSystem over silosShared leadership over competition
  • What exactly IS shared leadership?Mary Parker Follett (3 September 1868 – 18 December 1933) was an American social worker, management consultant and pioneer in the fields of organizational theory and organizational behavior. She also authored a number of books and numerous essays, articles and speeches on democracy, human relations, political philosophy, psychology, organizational behavior and conflict resolution. Along with Lillian Gilbreth, Mary Parker Follett was one of two great women management gurus in the early days of classical management theory. She admonished overmanaging employees, a process now known as micromanaging, as “bossism” and she is regarded by some writers as the “mother” of Scientific Management.
  • Fast forward to this century and decade.Here scholars from USA, Germany, and Denmark…have co-edited a special issue on Shared Leadership (Journal of Personnel Psychology). They state that…
  • Joyce K. Fletcher is a Professor at the Simmons School of Management in Boston and an authority on leadership and gender; her work has been well-recognized in the genre of gender and power.Reframing the Hows and Whys of Leadership
  • Together with Linda Baer, we have studied over 40 inter-institutional partnerships. As part of this effort, we have found this comparison to be useful.
  • International researchers Weibler and Rohn-Endres (2010) define shared network leadership as “networks of individuals engaged in reciprocal, preferential, mutually supportive actions… [in which the individuals] agree to forego the right to pursue their own interests at the expense of others” (182). Moreover, “Leadership emerging from the collective is embedded in a certain quality of network relationships and requires a certain learning environment.” (186).Weibler and Rohn-Endres are faculty of business admin and economics at FernUniversitat in Hagen, GermanyThey study interorganizational networks – interplay between structures, individuals, and collective for the emergence of shared network leadership.Networks studied – had regular f2f interactions among members. Non-profits in Germany.Setting analysis; document analysis. Weibler, J., & Rohn-Endres, S. (2010). Learning Conversation and Shared Network Leadership. Pp. 181-194.
  • As a professor of writing studies, I also study the language, the transactions that occur through networks of individuals engaged in mutually supportive, strategic work. During my 15 years in higher education administration, I worked to build shared leadership across academic and administrative realms because I believe it to be imperative to the future of higher education (Duin & Baer, 2010, 2011)
  • Let’s put this four-stage process in action.Role playing scenario:3 people, brought together to explore the development of online/connected learning on their campus.One represents the library: Tina Hertel, Muhlehberg CollegeAnother represents academic affairs (or a faculty member): Terri Johnson, Carroll UniversityAnother represents IT: Mark Poore, Roanoke CollegeFirst, introduce yourselves to each other.
  • (If time allows: Share story – of how faculty introduce themselves in COAFES and CFANS…)
  • Next, name a tough issue related to the development of online/connected learning on their campus…
  • Next, inquire more about these issues…
  • Name ONE point of agreement.
  • Share how this was developed… from work first with developing MnVU… later the investigation of 40 inter-institutional partnerships (FIPSE LAAP)…This blueprint is effective in assisting institutions in developing alliances, partnerships, collaboratives.
  • The power of these conditions comes from their interdependence; they must be seen as aspects of a larger whole, not as a checklist of “good ideas” that get implemented separately. Only then do people start to see that success in this new collaborative world requires new capabilities — skills and attitudes — and new practices and infrastructures to develop them.Senge (2013)

Transcript

  • 1. Fostering a Collaborative Culture: Smart Change and Shared Leadership Ann Hill Duin Professor of Writing Studies University of Minnesota ahduin@umn.edu
  • 2. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Framing Questions • Why cultivate collaboration? • How might we foster smart change? • How might we foster shared leadership? • How might we measure its effectiveness?
  • 3. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Why cultivate collaboration?
  • 4. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Rationale Why cultivate collaboration? • To pursue opportunities that are significant, urgent, and/or risky. • To do together what cannot be done alone. • To expand reach. • To improve outcomes. • To achieve synergy and open doors to innovation. • To address a clear learner need. • To leverage resources, share infrastructure. • To respond to new markets, improve competitiveness. • To enhance access and pedagogy of learning. • Other…
  • 5. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Study of the implementation of shared leadership in 27 non- profit organizations over two years “Organizations found that they could do more with less (funds) by doing more with more (leadership).” Allison, Misra, & Perry (2011, 32) Rationale Why cultivate collaboration?
  • 6. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Study of the process of shared leadership in 45 teams found that “Teams with shared leadership experienced less conflict, greater consensus, and higher intra-group trust and cohesion than teams without shared leadership.” Bergman et al. (2012, 17) Rationale Why cultivate collaboration?
  • 7. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Real collaboration takes more than meetings and powerpoints.
  • 8. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Focus on transforming relationships.
  • 9. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Create spaces for reflection and deeper conversation.
  • 10. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Be anchored by a “backbone organization.”
  • 11. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Be open to changes in how they think and operate.
  • 12. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Indicators of Success Cultivate: – adaptability within the leadership spectrum – an orientation toward shared leadership – a culture of trust Be prepared to: – commit to change – stress across-the-board engagement – invest time Allison, Misra, & Perry (2011, 30)
  • 13. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE How might we foster smart change?
  • 14. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Approaches to change Routine change Strategic change Transformative change 1. Sustains status quo 2. Leadership is solo 3. Scope is siloed 4. Applies routine expertise 5. Focuses on policy compliance 6. Requires buy-in from local management 1. Sustains status quo 2. Leadership is a team 3. Scope is bridged 4. Applies strategic expertise for redesign 5. Focuses on planned change 6. Requires buy-in from upper admin 1. Disrupts status quo 2. Leadership is shared 3. Scope is shared 4. Applies adaptive expertise to major challenges 5. Focuses on innovation 6. Requires buy-in from many levels Baer, Duin, & Ramaley. (2008). Smart Change. Planning in Higher Education.
  • 15. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE
  • 16. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Transformative change… is imperative for finding solutions when there are no clear answers, and results in significantly expanding core capacities because it demands that people work together differently.
  • 17. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Name a collaborative initiative. What type(s) of change does it represent?
  • 18. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Smart Change Focuses on the future through – Leading over lagging indicators – Principles over practices – Scenarios over environmental scans – Evidence over anecdote – Leadership over management – Continuous over episodic improvement – Communication over sound bites – System over silos – Shared leadership over competition
  • 19. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE How might we foster shared leadership?
  • 20. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE One should not merely look to the designated leader for guidance, but rather that one should let logic dictate to whom one should look for guidance on the basis of individuals’ knowledge of the situation at hand. Mary Parker Follett (1924)
  • 21. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Shared leadership occurs when group members actively and intentionally shift the role of leader to one another as necessitated by the environment or circumstances in which the group operates. Pearce, Hoch, Jeppesen, & Wegge (2010, 151)
  • 22. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Conceptualize leadership as a more relational process, a shared or distributed phenomenon occurring at different levels and dependent on social interactions and networks of influence. Fletcher & Kaufer (2003)
  • 23. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Shared leadership involves a process where all members of a team are fully engaged in the leadership of the team: Shared leadership entails a simultaneous, ongoing, mutual influence process involving the serial emergence of official as well as unofficial leaders. Pearce, Manz, & Sims (2008, 353)
  • 24. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Shared leadership entails broadly sharing power and influence among a set of individuals rather than centralizing it in the hands of a single individual who acts in the clear role of a dominant superior. Pearce, Manz, & Sims (2009)
  • 25. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Shared leadership is not a replacement for ‘leadership from above;’ rather, it works in conjunction with more traditional hierarchical leadership, thus giving an organization a more flexible, dynamic, robust and responsive leadership platform. Manz et al. (2009, 237)
  • 26. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE The gist… Look beyond the designated leader Shift the role of leader as needed See leadership as relational and emerging Lead together to achieve goals Foster simultaneous, mutual influence
  • 27. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Approaches to Leadership Vertical  Identified by position in a hierarchy  Evaluated by whether the leader solves problems  Leaders provide solutions and answers  Distinct differences between leaders and followers  Communication is formal Shared  Identified by the quality of a person’s interactions  Evaluated by how well people are working together  Leaders provide multiple means to enhance the process  Members are interdependent  Communication is critical
  • 28. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Power of a collaborative Transactions occur through networks of individuals engaged in reciprocal, preferential, mutually supportive actions… The parties agree to forego the right to pursue their own interests at the expense of others. Weibler & Rohn-Endres (2010, 182)
  • 29. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE
  • 30. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE 1. Introduce yourselves to each other. Listen for language.
  • 31. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Stage one: Talking nice Polite Repeat roles and rules Reproduce existing knowledge Little responsibility for joint tasks
  • 32. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE 2. Name a “tough” issue. Identify disagreements…
  • 33. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Stage two: Talking tough More open and authentic Reveal rules and disagreements Act in conflict Still little joint responsibility for outcomes
  • 34. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE 3. Inquire about the issue(s). Ask questions. Listen to learn.
  • 35. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Stage three: Reflective dialogue Reflective, curious Inquire Listen Begin to create conditions for shared leadership
  • 36. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE 4. Find (name) one point of agreement. Can you identify more?
  • 37. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Stage four: Generative dialogue Aware of common ground Generate rules together Transcend self interest Group as a whole explores new ideas, shares responsibility
  • 38. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE How will we measure its effectiveness?
  • 39. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Partnership Blueprint A metric for determining readiness – Vision – Description – Beliefs – Assumptions – Operations – Commitment – Collaboration – Risk – Control – Adaptation – Return (Value) on investment
  • 40. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE – Vision • What is the greater social good? – Description • What is it? How will it affect my institution? – Beliefs • What are the guiding, foundational principles? – Assumptions • What will we achieve together from this change? – Operations • How will it work? Is it feasible? – Commitment • Are multiple levels committed to it?
  • 41. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE – Collaboration • Is collaboration more important than competition? – Control • Who is sharing leadership? – Adaptation • How will the constituencies adapt to this new environment? – Risk • What are the financial, legal, academic, and experimentation risks? – Return (value) on investment • What is your potential return on this change investment? Expanded from Blueprint Model as discussed in Partnering in the Learning Marketspace, 2001.
  • 42. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Indicators of Success • Launch • Maintain • Sustain
  • 43. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Launch • Consortium or alliance existing prior to the project (pre-existing trust) • Clarity of purpose/vision (meeting a clear need) and compatible missions • Commitment (a clear lead unit; support) • Clear contribution from each partner • Champion • Communication • Capacity (e.g., technological)
  • 44. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE “What made this work was having someone they [partners] could trust that they knew would not drop the ball.” “Collaboration is the absolute key. Competition does not enter anywhere.” “There was a sense from the beginning that everyone was a partner in the real sense; i.e., everyone would contribute to it, and it would contribute back… There was a common purpose: the target was the same.”
  • 45. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Maintain • Mutual respect and trust • Understanding of intellectual property rights • Responsiveness (to partners and learners) • Patience, especially with the evolution of partners • Frequent / regular communication; sharing and networking • Commitment to embed the effort within existing structures/policies • Perseverance to come to agreements
  • 46. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE “All know that everyone else is doing something important.” “We decided not to say, ‘Here’s one shoe; make it fit.’ Rather, we provided a shoe in a number of sizes.” “It has fundamentally changed the way we do things… It required changing quite a few policies without changing standards. It took the engagement of many people to get this to happen.”
  • 47. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Sustain • Embedding of the project into institutional structures, policies, procedures • Income stream and the commitment of partners (includes contracts) • Letters of agreement OR clear established networks
  • 48. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE How will you foster a collaborative culture?
  • 49. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Attributes of Shared Leadership Competencies Authenticity Balancing Polarity Intelligence Demonstrates and values multiple literacies Exhibits emotional intelligence Works simultaneously on both poles of an issue Communication Communicates and consults regularly to increase accessibility Demonstrates values of collaboration and trust Balances environment of openess/publicness with validity of information Transparency Functions in multi- linear mode; networks and shares resources Develops multidimensional leaders Seeks multi-sector partners among competitors Change Distinguishes between routine, strategic, and transformative change Exhibits transformational leadership through a focus on shared vision Seizes innovation as a balance between improving existing processes and creating new ones
  • 50. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE http://iaa.ksu.edu/ http://www.gpidea.org/policy-procedure/Alliance-Policy-Procedure-Manual.pdf http://www.gpidea.org/policy-procedure/appendices/appendix_e1.pdf
  • 51. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE References • Allison, M, Misra, S., & Perry, E. (2011). Doing more with more: Putting shared leadership into practice. The Nonprofit Quarterly, Summer 2011, 30-37. • Bergman, J. Z., Rentsch, J. R., Small, E. E., Davenport, S.W., & Bergman, S. M. (2012). The shared leadership process in decision-making teams. The Journal of Social Psychology, 152(1): 17-42. • Fletcher, J. K., & Kaufer, K. (2003). Shared leadership: Paradox and possibility. In Shared Leadership: Reframing the Hows and Whys of Leadership. C. L. Pearce and J. A. Conger (eds). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 21-47. • Follet, M.P. (1924). Creative experience. London: Longmans, Green. • Great Plains IDEA Policy and Procedure Manual. http://www.gpidea.org/policy- procedure/Alliance-Policy-Procedure-Manual.pdf • Manz, C.C. Manz, K.P. Adams, S.B. and Shipper, F. (2011). A model of values-based shared leadership and sustainable performance. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 21, 687-702. • Pearce, C.L., Hoch, J. E., Jeppesen, H., & Wegge, J. (2010). New forms of management: Shared and distributed leadership in organizations. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9(3): 151-153. • Pearce, C.L., Manz, C.C. & Sims, H.P., Jr. (2009). Where do we go from here?: Is shared leadership the key to team success? Organizational Dynamics, 38: 234-238. • Sample agreements. http://www.autm.net/AM/Template.cfm?Section=TechTransferResources&Template=/CM/Co ntentDisplay.cfm&ContentID=7337 • Senge, P. (2013). Real collaboration takes more than meetings and power points. Network for Business Sustainability. http://nbs.net/real-collaboration-takes-more-than-meetings-and- powerpoints/ • Weibler, J., & Rohn-Endres, S. (2010). Learning conversation and shared network leadership.
  • 52. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE Collabronauts They journey from their home organization to forge new alliances and to explore creative opportunities, like leaving their home planet to bring back knowledge of strange new worlds and new civilizations… Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Evolve! (2001, 137)
  • 53. Fostering a Collaborative Culture Twitter: #NITLE They work out complicated dealings between and among partners, manage rumors, mount peace-keeping missions, and solve problems. They use personal friendships and powers of persuasion to sell people on the importance of helping a partner. Rosabeth Moss Kanter, Evolve! (2001, 137)