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    • 1. BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE (BCI) Popular Science Feb. 2004
    • 2.
      • A brain-computer interface is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain ( or brain cell culture) and an external device.
      • Sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain machine interface (BMI).
      Brain Computer Interface
    • 3.
      • In USA, more than 200,000 patients live with the motor sequelae (consequences) of serious injury. There are two ways to help them restore some motor function:
      • Repair the damaged nerve axons.
      • Build neuroprosthetic device.
      Nicolelis, 2001 Motivation for BCI/BMI Research
    • 4.
      • Invasive BCI
      • Non-Invasive BCI
      Detecting neural activity
    • 5.
      • Invasive BCI are directly implanted into the grey matter of the brain during neurosurgery.
      • They produce the highest quality signals of BCI devices .
      • Prone to building up of scar-tissue
      • Targeted repairing damaged sight and providing new functionality to paralyzed people (neuroprosthetics).
      Invasive BCI
    • 6. Invasive BCI
    • 7.
      • Neuroimaging technologies as interfaces are used.
      • Signals recorded in this way have been used to power muscle implants and restore partial movement in an experimental volunteer.
      • Non-invasive implants produce poor signal resolution .
      Non Invasive BCI
    • 8. Non Invasive BCI
    • 9. EEG
      • Electroencephalography (EEG) is the measurement of electrical activity produced by the brain as recorded from electrodes placed on the scalp.
      Mussa-Ivaldi & Miller, 2003
    • 10. EEG Data Recordings of brainwaves produced by an electroencephalogram
    • 11. Typing words by mind
    • 12. Help impaired hands to grasp by mind EEG-MRP Hold cup for drinking
    • 13. Play videogames by mind Leuthardt et al.,2004 ECoG based BCI Video Pfurtscheller et al., 2003
    • 14. Neuron spike based BCI
      • high speed real time control
      • precise control of movement
      • invasive
      • high risk for clinical application
      Nicolelis, 2001
    • 15. Miguel Nicolelis Experiment Diagram of the BCI developed by Miguel Nicolelis and collegues for use on Rhesus monkeys
    • 16. Real time movement of 2d/3d objects 2D movement control 3D movement control
    • 17. Animal BCI Research Garrett Stanley's recordings of cat vision using a BCI implanted in the lateral geniculate nucleus (top row: original image; bottom row: recording)
    • 18. Working of Simple BCI Schematic diagram of a BCI system
    • 19.
      • P300 detection
      • EEG mu-Rhythm Conditioning
      • VEP Detection
      BCI Methods
    • 20.
      • How can you type words by mind?
      • The P300 (P3) wave is an event related potential (ERP) which can be recorded via electroencephalography (EEG) as a positive deflection in voltage at a latency of roughly 300 ms in the EEG.
      P300 Detection
    • 21. Experiment Design
      • Alphabet row/column was flashing randomly on the computer screen
      • Human subject was gazing at the screen
      • Human EEG was recorded simultaneously
      • P300 components in EEG was extracted in real time for letter guess
      EEG amplifier Human subject Visual feedback
    • 22. Experiment Design (Donchin, 1988, 2000) Flashing of rows/columns containing the desired letter will elicit P300 response at vertex
    • 23. Application Release The Power of Brain
    • 24. 1.Artificial Sensory channel Artificial Hearing Since 1978, about 70,000 cochlear recipients worldwide.
    • 25. Artificial Vision
    • 26. 2. Artificial Motor Channel Nicolelis, 2001 Nicolelis, 2001
    • 27. 3. Neural Disorder Control Parkinson’s disease Seizure prediction and control Nicolelis, 2001
    • 28.
      • BrainGate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech company Cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University.
      FDA approval for brain implant Cyberkinetics Inc. Neural Signals Inc.
    • 29. Future: Silicon Cognition Ted Berger , University of Southern California MIT Technology Review, May 2003
    • 30. Silicon Cognition Ted Berger , University of Southern California MIT Technology Review, May 2003
    • 31.
      • BCIs will help creating a Direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain and any external devices like computers.
      • BCI has increased the possibility of treatment of disabilities related to nervous system along with the old technique of Neuroprosthetics.
      • Techniques like EEG, MEG and neurochips have come into discussions since the BCI application have started developing.
      • This has provided a new work area for scientists and researchers around the world.
    • 32. Disadvantages
      • In case of Invasive BCI there is a risk of formation of scar tissue.
      • There is a need of extensive training before user can use techniques like EEG
      • BCI techniques still require much enhancement before they can be used by users as they are slow.
      • Ethical implications of BCI will arise in future
      • BCI techniques are costly. It requires a lot of money to set up the BCI environment.
    • 33.
      • Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a method of communication based on voluntary neural activity generated by the brain and independent of its normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles.
      • The neural activity used in BCI can be recorded using invasive or noninvasive techniques.
      • We can say as detection techniques and experimental designs improve, the BCI will improve as well and would provide wealth alternatives for individuals to interact with their environment.
    • 34. Refrences