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  • 1. BRAIN COMPUTER INTERFACE (BCI) Popular Science Feb. 2004
  • 2.
    • A brain-computer interface is a direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain ( or brain cell culture) and an external device.
    • Sometimes called a direct neural interface or a brain machine interface (BMI).
    Brain Computer Interface
  • 3.
    • In USA, more than 200,000 patients live with the motor sequelae (consequences) of serious injury. There are two ways to help them restore some motor function:
    • Repair the damaged nerve axons.
    • Build neuroprosthetic device.
    Nicolelis, 2001 Motivation for BCI/BMI Research
  • 4.
    • Invasive BCI
    • Non-Invasive BCI
    Detecting neural activity
  • 5.
    • Invasive BCI are directly implanted into the grey matter of the brain during neurosurgery.
    • They produce the highest quality signals of BCI devices .
    • Prone to building up of scar-tissue
    • Targeted repairing damaged sight and providing new functionality to paralyzed people (neuroprosthetics).
    Invasive BCI
  • 6. Invasive BCI
  • 7.
    • Neuroimaging technologies as interfaces are used.
    • Signals recorded in this way have been used to power muscle implants and restore partial movement in an experimental volunteer.
    • Non-invasive implants produce poor signal resolution .
    Non Invasive BCI
  • 8. Non Invasive BCI
  • 9. EEG
    • Electroencephalography (EEG) is the measurement of electrical activity produced by the brain as recorded from electrodes placed on the scalp.
    Mussa-Ivaldi & Miller, 2003
  • 10. EEG Data Recordings of brainwaves produced by an electroencephalogram
  • 11. Typing words by mind
  • 12. Help impaired hands to grasp by mind EEG-MRP Hold cup for drinking http://www.dpmi.tugraz.at/
  • 13. Play videogames by mind Leuthardt et al.,2004 ECoG based BCI Video Pfurtscheller et al., 2003
  • 14. Neuron spike based BCI
    • high speed real time control
    • precise control of movement
    • invasive
    • high risk for clinical application
    Nicolelis, 2001
  • 15. Miguel Nicolelis Experiment Diagram of the BCI developed by Miguel Nicolelis and collegues for use on Rhesus monkeys
  • 16. Real time movement of 2d/3d objects 2D movement control 3D movement control
  • 17. Animal BCI Research Garrett Stanley's recordings of cat vision using a BCI implanted in the lateral geniculate nucleus (top row: original image; bottom row: recording)
  • 18. Working of Simple BCI Schematic diagram of a BCI system
  • 19.
    • P300 detection
    • EEG mu-Rhythm Conditioning
    • VEP Detection
    BCI Methods
  • 20.
    • How can you type words by mind?
    • The P300 (P3) wave is an event related potential (ERP) which can be recorded via electroencephalography (EEG) as a positive deflection in voltage at a latency of roughly 300 ms in the EEG.
    P300 Detection
  • 21. Experiment Design
    • Alphabet row/column was flashing randomly on the computer screen
    • Human subject was gazing at the screen
    • Human EEG was recorded simultaneously
    • P300 components in EEG was extracted in real time for letter guess
    EEG amplifier Human subject Visual feedback
  • 22. Experiment Design (Donchin, 1988, 2000) Flashing of rows/columns containing the desired letter will elicit P300 response at vertex
  • 23. Application Release The Power of Brain
  • 24. 1.Artificial Sensory channel Artificial Hearing Since 1978, about 70,000 cochlear recipients worldwide. www.cochlearamericas.com
  • 25. Artificial Vision http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/10.09/vision.html
  • 26. 2. Artificial Motor Channel Nicolelis, 2001 Nicolelis, 2001
  • 27. 3. Neural Disorder Control Parkinson’s disease Seizure prediction and control Nicolelis, 2001 www.medtronic.com
  • 28.
    • BrainGate is a brain implant system developed by the bio-tech company Cyberkinetics in 2003 in conjunction with the Department of Neuroscience at Brown University.
    FDA approval for brain implant Cyberkinetics Inc. Neural Signals Inc.
  • 29. Future: Silicon Cognition Ted Berger , University of Southern California MIT Technology Review, May 2003
  • 30. Silicon Cognition Ted Berger , University of Southern California MIT Technology Review, May 2003
  • 31.
    • BCIs will help creating a Direct communication pathway between a human or animal brain and any external devices like computers.
    • BCI has increased the possibility of treatment of disabilities related to nervous system along with the old technique of Neuroprosthetics.
    • Techniques like EEG, MEG and neurochips have come into discussions since the BCI application have started developing.
    • This has provided a new work area for scientists and researchers around the world.
  • 32. Disadvantages
    • In case of Invasive BCI there is a risk of formation of scar tissue.
    • There is a need of extensive training before user can use techniques like EEG
    • BCI techniques still require much enhancement before they can be used by users as they are slow.
    • Ethical implications of BCI will arise in future
    • BCI techniques are costly. It requires a lot of money to set up the BCI environment.
  • 33.
    • Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) is a method of communication based on voluntary neural activity generated by the brain and independent of its normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles.
    • The neural activity used in BCI can be recorded using invasive or noninvasive techniques.
    • We can say as detection techniques and experimental designs improve, the BCI will improve as well and would provide wealth alternatives for individuals to interact with their environment.
  • 34. Refrences
    • http://www.nicolelislab.net/NLnet_Load.html
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7-cpcoIJbOU
    • http://www.en.wikipedia.com/braincomputerinterface