Capsule Dosage formCapsule Dosage form
Mr. Nitin M. KadamMr. Nitin M. Kadam
1. They may be used to mask the unpleasant tastes, aromas, or
appearance of a drug.
2. They allow powders to be dispensed in an uncompressed form, thus
allowing for quicker dissolution and absorption of the drug following
oral dosing (as compared with tablets).
3. They offer the pharmacist versatility to prepare any dose desired for a
variety of administration routes(e.g. oral, inhalation, rectal, or to be
diluted for vaginal, rectal, oral or topical use).
4. They may be easier than tablets for some people to swallow.
5. They can be make to alter the release rate of the drug.
Easy to administer
Easy to Manufacture
Liquids can be encapsulated ( non water soluble) Small to large sizes
Odour and taste masking
Ready availability of drug hence faster action.
Specialised dosage forms can be made
e.g. chewable, extended release, captabs etc. Can be used for ophthalmic
preparations e.g. aplicaps, vaginal / rectal suppositories
1. They are easily tampered
2. They are subject to the effects of relative humidity and to
3. They may be difficult for some people to swallow.
4. More expensive (commercially).
Water soluble material are difficult to incorporate
Highly Moisture sensitive Efflorescent material
cannot be incorporated, they may cause
softening / leaching
Deliquescent materials cannot be incorporated,
they may cause hardening or brittle capsules.
Capsule shell compositionCapsule shell composition
Gelatin blend, certified dyes, opaquing agents, plastisizers, and preservatives.
Methods of formationMethods of formation
With methyl cellulose and polyvinyl alcohols and denatured gelatin
for solubility modification and enteric effect.
Dry solids- Powders, pellets, granules or
Semisolids- Suspensions,pastes, etc.
Liquids- Non-aqueous liquids
Capsules are used for filling different materials
es of formulation such as:
Powder Granules Beads
Capsule Filling, Problems in Filling & Remedies
Filling capsule with a
Forming a pipe or pouring a melt.
Consistency is important.
[For fluid- cornstarch or similar material for firm
For too firm with satisfactory M.P. materials.
For enhancing the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs.
[Drug + melt of materials like PEG]
Filling of Liquids in Capsule
Manual Small Scale
Solubility of gelatin.
Alcoholic solutions, fixed oils & volatile oils
Filling and sealing
Industrial Scale Filling
Variety of shapes and sizes
Semi-to fully automatic
Output from 5000 to 15000 per hour.
Filling of Solids in Capsule
Adequate flow properties
Choice of excipients:
Diluents, lubricants & glidants, wetting agents,
DIFFICULTIES IN CAPSULE FILLING
1. Deliquescent / Hygroscopic powders.
Remedy: Adsorbent [magnesium carbonate, heavy / light
2. Eutectic mixture
Remedy: Use of adsorbent [magnesium carbonate, kaolin]
3. Small dose of drug
Remedy: Addition of inert powder.
4. Incompatibilities of materials
Remedy: Use of two capsules – small in large
5. Lack of adhessiveness difficult to fill by punch method
Remedy: moistened with alcohol , granules reduced to powders
HARD GELATIN CAPSULES
Substitute for gelatin in two piece hard capsules
QUALI-V by Shionogi Qualicaps: First HPMC Capsule
Special Techniques of Processing
Special purpose Capsules
[To retard solubility of gelatin to delay absorption of drug]
* Formalin treatment
* Various coatings
Separation of Incompatible materials
In-process Quality And
Quality Control Parameters
Choice of suitable control procedure for filling operation:
[should desirable to provide 100% weight checking after filling]