Benjamin West<br />Born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, but spent most of his adult life in England<br />Renaissance masters who inspired him the most, including Raphael, Michelangelo, and Titian<br />Founding member of the Royal Academy Arts, created by King George III in 1768<br />One of West’s most influential paintings was a large historical scene, The Death of General Wolfe (1770)<br />Illustrated the final moments in the life General James Wolfe, who died in 1759 during the Battle of Quebec<br />
Continued…<br />Next major historical, William Penn’s Treaty with the Indians (1771-1772)<br />The focus of his painting is on the exchange of gifts for land<br />The infamous “ Walking Purchase” of 1737 indicative a new relationship with the Native American people under the leadership of Thomas Penn (son of William Penn)<br />Walking Purchase became more controversial in the late 1750’s <br />Native American groups led raids on settlements in PA, siding with the French in the French & Indian War (1756-1763)<br />They claim that continued resentment resulting from the Walking Purchase motivated them to turn against the British settlers in PA.<br />
William Hodges<br />Born in London<br />First independent work involved painting, landscapes scenery for theatrical productions in London<br />In 1786 Hodges became an associate member of the Royal Academy, he was made a full member in 1787 and he exhibited there until 1794<br />Two of his allegorical landscapes, The Effects of War and The Consequences of Peace<br />Inappropriate and dangerous in the context of Britain's Military engagement with France<br />HMS Resolution and Adventure with Fishing Craft in Matavi Bay is a large landscape painting depicting a protected Bay along Tahiti’s Northern coastline<br />
Joseph Mallord William Turner<br />Born in London<br />His painting Dido Building Carthage (National Gallery, London, 1815) depicts ancient Roman history through a monumental, picturesque landscape<br />Snow Storm—Hannibal Crossing the Alps (Turner Collection, London, 1812) refers to the storm of 218 B.C.E that caught the ancient Roman military leader and his troops in the mountains.<br />Slave ship - based on an event recounted in Thomas Clarkson’s The History of the Abolition of the Slave Trade (1808)<br />
Continued…<br />Clarkson was one of the few non- Quaker members of the organizing committee<br />Britain abolished slavery throughout the empire in 1833<br />British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society was formed in 1839<br />Zong Affair involved a captain who ordered more than one hundred slaves to be thrown overboard in order to collect an insurance payment<br />
James Abbott McNeill Whistler<br />Born in Massachusetts in 1834, but he spent most of his life abroad<br />Whistler promoted the idea of “art for art’s sake”<br />Primary goal of the artist was to create beauty<br />Best works:<br /> Symphony in White, No.1: The White Girl (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C., 1862)<br />Arrangement in Grey and Black: The Artist’s Mother (Musée d’Orsay, Paris, 1871)<br />Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket (Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit, 1874) <br />Purple and Rose: The Lange Leizen of the Six Marks is a small painting focusing on a female figure surrounded by beautiful Chinese objects<br />
John Frederick Lewis<br />Born in London in 1805<br />Provided glimpses of a distant land through his highly detailed paintings<br />Lewis’s life in Cairo was documented by novelist William Makepeace Thackery in his Notes of a Journey from Cornhill to Grand Cairo (1846)<br />Lewis made over six hundred watercolor paintings and drawings during the decade he lived in Cairo<br />A Lady Receiving Visitors (The Reception) is a highly detailed view of a complex interior space with a high ceiling<br />Focus is on the main chamber of the room, where the lady of the house is seated<br />Painted and exhibited The Reception in 1873<br />
Yinka Shonibare<br />Born in London to Nigerian parents<br />When he was 19, he suffered from paralysis caused by transverse myelitis, an inflammation of the spinal cord <br />Series of five photographs entitled The Sleep of Reason Produces Nightmares references a famous print from the late eighteenth century by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya (1746–1828)<br />
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