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Sensors and their applications
 

Sensors and their applications

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    Sensors and their applications Sensors and their applications Presentation Transcript

    • SENSORS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS PRESENTED BY MRINAL NEHA SHRIVASTAVA NIDHI.P.TIGGA 1
    • TOPICS INCLUDED IN THIS PRESENTATION  INTRODUCTION  OPTICAL SENSORS  PRINCIPLE OF SENSORS  CLASSIFICATION AND COMPARISON  SOME INTERESTING APPLICATIONS  CHRONOLOGY  CONCLUSION 2
    • SENSOR INTRODUCTION A sensor is a device that produces a measurable response to a change in a physical condition, such as temperature or thermal conductivity, or to a change in chemical concentration. Sensors are particularly useful for making in-situ measurements such as in industrial process control.  Sensors are responsible for converting some type of physical phenomenon into a quantity measurable by a data acquisition (DAQ) system.  3
    • OPTICAL SENSOR INTRODUCTION  NEW REVOLUTION OF OPTICAL FIBER SENSORS  IT IS A “SPIN-OFF” FROM OTHER OPTICAL TECHNOLOGIES  SEEING THE POTENTIAL IN SENSING APPLICATIONS – DEVELOPED AS ITS OWN FIELD 4
    • OPTICAL SENSOR MEASURANDS TEMPERATURE CHEMICAL SPECIES PRESSURE FORCE FLOW RADIATION LIQUID LEVEL pH DISPLACEMENT HUMIDITY VIBRATION STRAIN ROTATION VELOCITY MAGNETIC FIELDS ELECTRIC FIELDS ACCELERATION ACOUSTIC FIELDS 5
    • WORKING PRINCIPLE • LIGHT BEAM CHANGES BY THE  PHENOMENA THAT IS BEING MEASURED • LIGHT MAY CHANGE IN ITS FIVE OPTICAL                                                                                  PROPERTIES i.e INTENSITY, PHASE,  POLARIZATION,WAVELENGTH AND  SPECTRAL DISTRIBUTION   6
    • CLASSIFICATION OPTICAL SENSORS ARE OF TWO TYPES  EXTRINSIC SENSORS  INTRINSIC SENSORS 7
    • EXTRINSIC SENSORS WHERE THE LIGHT LEAVES THE FEED OR TRANSMITTING FIBER TO BE CHANGED BEFORE  IT CONTINUES TO THE DETECTOR BY MEANS  OF THE RETURN OR RECEIVING FIBER  8
    • INTRINSIC SENSORS INTRINSIC SENSORS ARE DIFFERENT IN THAT THE LIGHT BEAM DOES NOT LEAVE THE OPTICAL FIBER BUT IS CHANGED WHILST STILL CONTAINED WITHIN IT. 9
    • COMPARISON OF THE TWO TYPES EXTRINSIC INTRINSIC APPLICATIONS- APPLICATIONS- TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE,LIQUID LEVEL AND FLOW. ROTATION, ACCELERATION, STRAIN, ACOUSTIC PRESSURE AND VIBRATION. MORE SENSITIVE TOUGHER TO MULTIPLEX REDUCES CONNECTION PROBLEMS MORE ELABORATE SIGNAL DEMODULATION MORE EXPENSIVE LESS SENSITIVE EASILY MULTIPLEXED  INGRESS/ EGRESS CONNECTION PROBLEMS EASIER TO USE LESS EXPENSIVE 10
    • Types of Optical Sensors Chemical/Gas Concentration  Temperature  Strain  Biomedical  Electric & Magnetic Fields  Rotation  Pressure  Displacement &Position  11
    • CHEMICAL SENSORS    REMOTE SPECTROSCOPY GROUNDWATER AND SOIL CONTAMINATION MAJOR PLAYERS IN CHEMICAL SENSORS 1) PHARMACIA BIOTECH (SWEDEN) 2) FIBERCHEM 3) THE QUANTUM GROUP 12
    • Chemical/Gas Sensor Types and Applications. Sensor type Detectable gases Usable range Pro's Con's ppm levels 3 year lifetime slightly lower at Low power, accurate, high temps; some repeatable types are crosssensitive Flammables LEL levels Can be damaged by Generally good in all high levels of H2S, ways; portable but poison resistant types are available Infrared Flammables and CO2 0.1 (or less) to 100% by volume Fail safe; generally excellent Thermal Conductivity Many, at % levels, including binary mixtures % levels 20 year life (at least); Only appropriate for stable; can detect certain gases inert gases Electrochemical Pellistor Toxics, oxygen Expensive (but getting cheaper); non-portable 13
    • TEMPERATURE SENSORS LARGEST COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE SENSORS  RANGE -40 deg C TO 1000 deg C  14
    • TYPES OF TEMPERATURE SENSORS  Thermocouples  Thermistors  Radiation Pyrometer  Radiation Thermometers  Resistance Temperature Detectors  Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors  Silicon Temperature Sensors 15
    • APPLICATIONS HVAC - room, duct, and refrigerant equipment  Motors - overload protection  Electronic circuits - semiconductor protection  Electronic assemblies - thermal management, temperature compensation  Process control - temperature regulation  Automotive - air and oil temperature  Appliances - heating and cooling temperature  16
    • STRAIN SENSORS  FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS (FBG) TECHNOLOGY  SENSES AS LITTLE AS 9 MICROSTRAIN  NRL and UNITED TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH 17
    • BIOMEDICAL SENSORS  SPECTROSCOPIC BIOMEDICAL SENSORS  CO 2, O 2 and pH CAN BE MEASURED SIMULTANEOUSLY  FLOW MONITORING BY LASER DOPPLERIMETRY FIBERS – OPTHALMOLOGIC APPLICATION 18
    • ELECTRICAL AND MAGNETIC SENSORS  APPEALING- INHERENT DIELECTRIC NATURE  LESS SENSITIVE TO ELECTROMAGNETIC INTERFERENCE  SMALL SIZE AND SAFER  THEY ARE ALMOST ALWAYS HYBRID  ABB CORPORATION RESEARCH CENTER 19
    • APPLICATION  Compassing and navigation  Vehicle Detection  Virtual Reality  Laboratory Instrumentation  a Medical Instruments  Underground Boring Equipment  Flux Gate Replacement 20
    • ROTATION SENSOR  BASED ON THE SAGNAC EFFECT  TWO TYPES RING LASER GYROSCOPE (RLG) AND FIBER OPTIC GYROSCOPE (FOG)  US COMPANIES PURSUING HIGH PERFORMANCE FOG’s (HONEYWELL, LITTON, NORTHRUP, ALLIED SIGNAL etc.) 21
    • PRESSURE SENSORS  EARLIER BASED ON PIEZORESISTIVE TECHNIQUE  BASED ON MOVABLE DIAPHRAGM  HIGH PERFORMANCE(POLARIZATION BASED SENSORS)  OPERATING PRESSURE RANGES FROM 0-70,000 torr 22
    • DISPLACEMENT AND POSITION SENSORS  ONE OF THE FIRST OPTOELECTRONIC SENSORS TO BE DEVELOPED.  SIMPLE SENSORS RELY ON THE CHANGE IN RETROREFLECTANCE DUE TO A PROXIMAL MIRROR SURFACE  ALSO REFERRED AS LIQUID LEVEL SENSORS 23
    • WHY OPTICAL SENSORS  ELECTROMAGNETIC IMMUNITY  ELECTRICAL ISOLATION  COMPACT AND LIGHT  BOTH POINT AND DISTRIBUTED CONFIGURATION  WIDE DYNAMIC RANGE  AMENABLE TO MULTIPLEXING 24
    • APPLICATIONS  MILITARY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT THIS SENSOR ENABLES LOW LIGHT IMAGING AT TV FRAME RATES AND ABOVE WITHOUT THE LIMITATIONS OF VACUM TUBE BASED SYSTEMS. 25
    • NIGHT VISION CAMERA (contd.) COMPRISES OF :  AMPLIFIED CCD SENSOR  ANTI BLOOMING TECHNOLOGY  CRYSTAL POLYMER SHUTTER ADVANTAGES :  EXCEPTIONAL DAY LIGHT RESOLN.  IMMUNE TO OVER EXPOSURE  VERY HIGH CONTARAST LEVELS  NO HALOING OR SCINTILLATIONS 26
    • BIOMETRICS YOUR FACE, FINGERS AND EYES IN A WHOLE NEW LIGHT • IMAGE CAPTURE • IMAGE PROCESSING • FEATURE EXTRACTION • FEATURE COMPARISON 27
    • PARTIAL DISCHARGE DETECTION USES OPTICAL FIBER SENSORS OPTICAL FIBER SENSORS ARE BEING TESTED FOR USE IN DETECTING PARTIAL DISCHARGES IN ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMERS. PINPOINTING SUCH DISCHARGES IS ESSENTIAL TO PREVENTING INSULATION BREAKDOWN AND CATASTROPHIC FAILURES. 28
    • CONCLUSIONS LOOKING AT THE INDUSTRY TRENDS IN THE PAST 2 DECADES AND THE EXPONENTIAL CURVE IT SEEMS TO ME THAT THERE IS GOING TO BE A LOT OF RESEARCH AND IMPROVEMENTS TO THE EXISTING SENSORS OPTICAL SENSORS ARE HERE TO STAY !!!! 29
    • THANK YOU FOR YOUR PATIENCE AND TIME QUESTIONS ?? 30