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Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
 

Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums

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    Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums Presentation Transcript

    • UbiComp4D : Infrastructure and Interaction for International Development Nithya Sambasivan | UC, Irvine Nimmi Rangaswamy | Microsoft Research India Ed Cutrell | Microsoft Research Bonnie Nardi | UC, Irvine The Case of Urban Indian Slums
    • It’s a planet of slums
      • World population: 6.7 billion
      • No. of people below $2.50 a day: 3 billion
      • No. of non-literate: 1 billion
      • No. of people in slums : 1 billion
      Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
      • Accelerated poverty
      • In hypercities and megacities
      • Acute shortage of resources
      • Ubicomp can play a role here
    • Ubicomp Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
    • Ubicomp Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
      • Traditionally for wealthy western audiences
      • Weiser’s vision
        • invisible, seamless, ubiquitous computation
      • Messy “Ubicomp of the present” [Bell & Dourish]
    • Rethinking Ubicomp – Ubicomp4D
      • Understanding use and appropriation of tech in low-income contexts is critical
      • Ubicomp4D is the application of ubiquitous computing in addressing poverty-related issues
      • Low-cost, robust technological solutions
        • in resource-constrained environments
      Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
    • In this talk.. Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
      • Ethnographic findings from slums of Mumbai and Bangalore, India
      • Reimagining Ubicomp toward development
      • Design considerations for Ubicomp
    • Concepts
      • ICT4D and millennium development goals
        • Health care [Sherwani et al] Agriculture [Gandhi et al] Education [Kam et al] Livelihoods [Jenson et al]
        • User innovations: Calling Practices [Sey] , sharing [Burrell] , Small Business: India [Donner] , Social networking: Jamaica [Horst & Miller]
      • Infrastructure : a vision of infrastructure that can be physical, social and interpersonal installations [Mainwaring et al]
      • Information Ecologies : system of people, practices, values and technologies in specific environments [Nardi]
      • Communication Ecologies : processes describing people communicating with others through extended social networks [Tacchi]
      Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
    • Methods Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
      • Ethnography
        • Participant observation
        • Semi-Structured interviews
        • Surveys
        • Photo Diaries
        • Profiles of technology use
      • Context
        • Habitats 3 (Mumbai 1 Bangalore 2)
        • people 32 (25 women 7)
        • self employed ,services
        • secondary to no schooling
        • migrants
    • Research site: The Slum Ecology Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
      • External Geography
        • Metro-core
        • Assorted habitats of main roads and small alleyways
      • Dynamic Commercial space
        • Assorted enterprises and services
      • Domestic Space
        • 100-200 sq feet, partitioned, open doorways
      • Communal Space
        • Play grounds
        • Water Taps
        • Street corners
        • Door steps
      • Infrastructure
        • Disruptive
        • Discontinuous
        • Unstable
      • Usage
        • Communication
        • Entertainment
      • Devices
        • Nokia 2600 Phone/radio
        • Phone Camera
        • Cable TV/VCD
        • Fridge/ Blender
        • Home PC
      Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009 Technology landscape
    • Vignette 1 : Kannama shared Work Phone
      • Kannama, 70, widow
      • Shares a Nokia 2600 with
      • son and daughter-in-law
      • Mobile is work-phone
        • Work efficiency
        • Constant connectivity
        • Status updates
      Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
    • Vignette 2 : Shabnum: Rich Mobile Use
      • Shabnum, 27, single mother of 2
        • Support artiste with national TV
      • All-purpose Mobile Phone
        • Always on
        • Expanded memory
        • 100 Songs
        • 4 Movies
        • 50 photos
        • Alerts and notifications
        • Her life-line
        • Her bodyguard
      Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
    • Vignette 3 : Pushpa’s Mediated VCD
      • Pushpa, 31, mother of three, domestic worker
      • Movies and music everyday
      • Husband is tech operator
      • Son mediates VCD use
        • Proximate intermediary
      • Their father usually operates these devices. I don’t know how I can watch movies without their assistance
      Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
    • Socio-Technical Ecology
      • Family
      • Peer
      • Friends
      • Experts
      • Business partners
      Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
      • Oral/ graphic
      • Communal
      • Semi-private
      • Shared
      • Mediated
      • Managed
      • Phone
      • TV
      • VCD
      • Radio
      • Print
      • PC
      Dynamics Technology
    • Re-imagining Ubicomp for Development
      • Aspirations incorporate the technological dream
      • Despite resource deficits, they heavily consume ICTs
        • However, still plagued by poverty
        • Turn the consumption into a resource
      • Ubicomp builds good user experiences anywhere/everywhere
      • ICT4D is a social, economic, cultural, infrastructural, political
      • Multi-disciplinarity
      • Ubicomp4D: between grounded-ness and proximate future
      Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
    • Design considerations: Infrastructure Automation is not always the answer
      • Human mediators often inexpensive , more usable than automation
      • Enables ground checks and tech diffusion
        • e.g., DigitalGreen and StoryBank projects
      • Reinforces social networks
      Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
      • Electricity failures , technology obsolescence
      • Seamful design [Chalmers and MacColl]
        • Beyond beautiful
      • Delay-tolerant networks [Aoki & Ho]
      • Asynchronous design
      • Tolerance of heat and dust
      • Design for interrupted use, non-use
      Design considerations: Infrastructure Design for Disruptions Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
      • Instead of introducing new technologies, build upon the existing
      • Mobile phones are great
        • But , inexpensive large displays, phone projectors, computer-TV
      • Interlinking can add to computational power
      Design considerations: Infrastructure Create low-cost technologies Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
      • Information handling is oral
        • informal , fluid, and negotiable exchange
      • Literacy levels are diverse
        • Build for non-literacy
        • Visual and auditory modalities
      Design considerations: Interaction Design for orality and literacy Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
      • Multi-purpose spaces, objects, technologies
      • Cramming objects
      • Design must accommodate uses
      • Design for appropriation
      Design considerations: Interaction Multi-purpose design Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
      • Security : Contextual handling
      • Tightening security may be disruptive to daily lives
      • Design : Multiple user profiles
      • Location can undermine/encourage usage
        • Communal places are opportunistic locations
      Design considerations: Interaction Community Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
    • Conclusion
      • Presented technology usage in slum communities
      • Creative appropriation of ICTs
      • A starting point is collaboration with local and grassroots partners
      • Ubicomp for a global community
      Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
      • Questions?
      Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009