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Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums
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Ubicomp4D: Interaction and Infrastructure for International Development-The Case of Urban Indian Slums

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  • 1. UbiComp4D : Infrastructure and Interaction for International Development Nithya Sambasivan | UC, Irvine Nimmi Rangaswamy | Microsoft Research India Ed Cutrell | Microsoft Research Bonnie Nardi | UC, Irvine The Case of Urban Indian Slums
  • 2. It’s a planet of slums <ul><li>World population: 6.7 billion </li></ul><ul><li>No. of people below $2.50 a day: 3 billion </li></ul><ul><li>No. of non-literate: 1 billion </li></ul><ul><li>No. of people in slums : 1 billion </li></ul>Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009 <ul><li>Accelerated poverty </li></ul><ul><li>In hypercities and megacities </li></ul><ul><li>Acute shortage of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Ubicomp can play a role here </li></ul>
  • 3. Ubicomp Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 4. Ubicomp Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009 <ul><li>Traditionally for wealthy western audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Weiser’s vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>invisible, seamless, ubiquitous computation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Messy “Ubicomp of the present” [Bell & Dourish] </li></ul>
  • 5. Rethinking Ubicomp – Ubicomp4D <ul><li>Understanding use and appropriation of tech in low-income contexts is critical </li></ul><ul><li>Ubicomp4D is the application of ubiquitous computing in addressing poverty-related issues </li></ul><ul><li>Low-cost, robust technological solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>in resource-constrained environments </li></ul></ul>Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 6. In this talk.. Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009 <ul><li>Ethnographic findings from slums of Mumbai and Bangalore, India </li></ul><ul><li>Reimagining Ubicomp toward development </li></ul><ul><li>Design considerations for Ubicomp </li></ul>
  • 7. Concepts <ul><li>ICT4D and millennium development goals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Health care [Sherwani et al] Agriculture [Gandhi et al] Education [Kam et al] Livelihoods [Jenson et al] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User innovations: Calling Practices [Sey] , sharing [Burrell] , Small Business: India [Donner] , Social networking: Jamaica [Horst & Miller] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure : a vision of infrastructure that can be physical, social and interpersonal installations [Mainwaring et al] </li></ul><ul><li>Information Ecologies : system of people, practices, values and technologies in specific environments [Nardi] </li></ul><ul><li>Communication Ecologies : processes describing people communicating with others through extended social networks [Tacchi] </li></ul>Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 8. Methods Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009 <ul><li>Ethnography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participant observation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-Structured interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo Diaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiles of technology use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitats 3 (Mumbai 1 Bangalore 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people 32 (25 women 7) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>self employed ,services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secondary to no schooling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>migrants </li></ul></ul>
  • 9. Research site: The Slum Ecology Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009 <ul><li>External Geography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metro-core </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assorted habitats of main roads and small alleyways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Commercial space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assorted enterprises and services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domestic Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100-200 sq feet, partitioned, open doorways </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Communal Space </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Play grounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water Taps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street corners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Door steps </li></ul></ul>
  • 10. <ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disruptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discontinuous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unstable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nokia 2600 Phone/radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phone Camera </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cable TV/VCD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fridge/ Blender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home PC </li></ul></ul>Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009 Technology landscape
  • 11. Vignette 1 : Kannama shared Work Phone <ul><li>Kannama, 70, widow </li></ul><ul><li>Shares a Nokia 2600 with </li></ul><ul><li>son and daughter-in-law </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile is work-phone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Work efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constant connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Status updates </li></ul></ul>Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 12. Vignette 2 : Shabnum: Rich Mobile Use <ul><li>Shabnum, 27, single mother of 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support artiste with national TV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All-purpose Mobile Phone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Always on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 Songs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 Movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50 photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alerts and notifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Her life-line </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Her bodyguard </li></ul></ul>Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 13. Vignette 3 : Pushpa’s Mediated VCD <ul><li>Pushpa, 31, mother of three, domestic worker </li></ul><ul><li>Movies and music everyday </li></ul><ul><li>Husband is tech operator </li></ul><ul><li>Son mediates VCD use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proximate intermediary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Their father usually operates these devices. I don’t know how I can watch movies without their assistance </li></ul>Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 14. Socio-Technical Ecology <ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Peer </li></ul><ul><li>Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Experts </li></ul><ul><li>Business partners </li></ul>Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009 <ul><li>Oral/ graphic </li></ul><ul><li>Communal </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-private </li></ul><ul><li>Shared </li></ul><ul><li>Mediated </li></ul><ul><li>Managed </li></ul><ul><li>Phone </li></ul><ul><li>TV </li></ul><ul><li>VCD </li></ul><ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Print </li></ul><ul><li>PC </li></ul>Dynamics Technology
  • 15. Re-imagining Ubicomp for Development <ul><li>Aspirations incorporate the technological dream </li></ul><ul><li>Despite resource deficits, they heavily consume ICTs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, still plagued by poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn the consumption into a resource </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ubicomp builds good user experiences anywhere/everywhere </li></ul><ul><li>ICT4D is a social, economic, cultural, infrastructural, political </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-disciplinarity </li></ul><ul><li>Ubicomp4D: between grounded-ness and proximate future </li></ul>Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 16. Design considerations: Infrastructure Automation is not always the answer <ul><li>Human mediators often inexpensive , more usable than automation </li></ul><ul><li>Enables ground checks and tech diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., DigitalGreen and StoryBank projects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reinforces social networks </li></ul>Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 17. <ul><li>Electricity failures , technology obsolescence </li></ul><ul><li>Seamful design [Chalmers and MacColl] </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beyond beautiful </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Delay-tolerant networks [Aoki & Ho] </li></ul><ul><li>Asynchronous design </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance of heat and dust </li></ul><ul><li>Design for interrupted use, non-use </li></ul>Design considerations: Infrastructure Design for Disruptions Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 18. <ul><li>Instead of introducing new technologies, build upon the existing </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile phones are great </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But , inexpensive large displays, phone projectors, computer-TV </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Interlinking can add to computational power </li></ul>Design considerations: Infrastructure Create low-cost technologies Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 19. <ul><li>Information handling is oral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>informal , fluid, and negotiable exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Literacy levels are diverse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build for non-literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual and auditory modalities </li></ul></ul>Design considerations: Interaction Design for orality and literacy Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 20. <ul><li>Multi-purpose spaces, objects, technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Cramming objects </li></ul><ul><li>Design must accommodate uses </li></ul><ul><li>Design for appropriation </li></ul>Design considerations: Interaction Multi-purpose design Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 21. <ul><li>Security : Contextual handling </li></ul><ul><li>Tightening security may be disruptive to daily lives </li></ul><ul><li>Design : Multiple user profiles </li></ul><ul><li>Location can undermine/encourage usage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communal places are opportunistic locations </li></ul></ul>Design considerations: Interaction Community Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 22. Conclusion <ul><li>Presented technology usage in slum communities </li></ul><ul><li>Creative appropriation of ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>A starting point is collaboration with local and grassroots partners </li></ul><ul><li>Ubicomp for a global community </li></ul>Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009
  • 23. <ul><li>Questions? </li></ul>Ubicomp4D, Ubicomp 2009

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