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The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
The french revolution
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The french revolution

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  • 1. The French Revolution By, Nithya,Sneha,Aarthi,Sumitra, Simone
  • 2. Louis XVI  August 23 1754 – January 21 1793.  Was the king of France from 1774 – 1791.  He was from the bourbon dynasty .  On 10 August 1792, he was tried by the National Convention and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793. He was the only king of France to be executed.  Married to Marie antoinette , the austrian princess.
  • 3. Guillotine  The guillotine is a machine used to kill (behead) people (by chopping off their heads) as death penalty.
  • 4. Economic causes  The treasury was empty as: 1)long years of war had drained the financial resources of france 2)They helped America gain independence from Britain.  The state was forced to increase the taxes to maintain the army etc.
  • 5. Role of the middle class  The people of the middle class were educated .  They wrote many books which inspired the people to revolt against the unfair rule . Thus they were also known as philosophers .  The most important philosophers are Voltaire , Rousseau , Montesquieu , John locke .
  • 6. Voltaire  Believed that man’s destiny is in his own hands and not in the hands of heaven .
  • 7. Rousseau  Rousseau believed that there should be social contract between the ruler and the people.
  • 8. Montesquieu  Montesquieu believed that there should be a division of power in the government between the legislature executive and judiciary .
  • 9. John locke  He wrote treatise of the government in which he questioned the divine and absolute right of the monarch
  • 10. What happened in the estate general assembly .  Louis XVI wanted to increase the taxes thus they needed to vote . But none of the estates wanted to increase the taxes .so he decided each of the estates should meet seperately so that the votes of the first two estates would outnumber the vote of the third estate . But the third estate refused to meet seperately .
  • 11. Tennis court oath  On 20th june -> the representatives of the third estate went to and old tennis court and declared themselves as national assembly . They drafted a constitution , passed many laws etc.
  • 12. Laws passed  Feudal system abolished  Tithe and taille abolished  Church property confisticated  Powers of the monarch are limited  Powers are seperated into legislature , executive and the judiciary  gave themselves the power to make laws .  Only men above 25 years who pa tax can vote.
  • 13. Virtuals of the french revolution  Liberty  Equality  Fraternity
  • 14. Declaration of rights of man  Right to life  Freedom of speech  Freedom of opinion  Equality before law
  • 15. Political clubs  During the time of the national assembly many political clubs came up .  The most prominent among them was Jacobins whose leader was Maxmilian Robespierre .
  • 16. Rule of the Jacobins (Reign Of Terror )  1792- Jacobins protested against the king & with the help of some other people attack the palace .  1793- Louis XVI was sentence to death .  The period from 1793-1794 is called the reign of terror . Robespierre followed a policy of severe punishment . All his enemies , including people from his own party who did not agree with him were executed . Robespierre pursued his policies so relentlessly that even his supporters began to demand moderation . Finally , he was convicted by a court in July 1794 , arrested and on the next day sent to the guillotine .
  • 17. The Directory  The fall of the Jacobin government allowed the wealthier middle classes to seize power .  A new constitution was introduced .  It provided for two elected legislative councils. These then appointed a directory , an executive made up of five members . This was a safeguard so that all powers are not given to one person .  However , the directory often clashed with the legislature , who did not listen to them .  The political instability of the directory paved the way for the rise of a military dictator , Napolean Bonaparte
  • 18. Women’s revolution  From the very beginning women were active participants in the events which brought about so many important changes in French society.  The most prominent women’s club was the society of revolutionary and republican women .  Most women did not have access to education or job training. Only daughters of nobles or wealthier members of the third estate could study at a convent, after which their families arranged a marriage for them .
  • 19. Women’s Revolution  Women were disappointed that the Constitution of 1791 reduced them to passive citizens. They demanded the right to vote, to be elected to the Assembly and to hold political office. Only then, they felt, would their interests be represented in the new government.  the revolutionary government did introduce laws that helped improve the lives of women. Together with the creation of state schools, schooling was made compulsory for all girls. Their fathers could no longer force them into marriage against their will. Marriage was made into a contract entered into freely and registered under civil law. Divorce was made legal, and could be applied for by both women and men. Women could now train for jobs, could become artists or run small businesses.
  • 20. Napolean Bonaparte  In 1804, Napoleon Bonaparte crowned himself Emperor of France. He set out to conquer neighbouring European countries, dispossessing dynasties and creating kingdoms where he placed members of his family. Napoleon saw his role as a moderniser of Europe.  Initially, many saw Napoleon as a liberator who would bring freedom for the people. But soon the Napoleonic armies came to be viewed everywhere as an invading force. He was finally defeated at Waterloo in 1815.
  • 21. Impact of french revolution on the world  The French Revolution, though it seemed a failure in 1799 and appeared nullified by 1815, had far-reaching results. In France the landowning classes emerged as the dominant power. The Revolution unified France and enhanced the power of the national state. The Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars tore down the ancient structure of Europe.

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