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STAGES OF THE CONSUMER BUYING PROCESS Problem Recognition Post- Information Purchase Search Evaluation Evaluation Purchase of alternatives Purchase Decision
Problem recognition The consumer identifies that he has an unsatisfied need to be satisfied. As an example, an undergraduate who just enrolled for a degree is given assignments to be submitted with deadline. He needs portability in the computer to work at home as well as at the college. This is where he recognized he has a problem which can be solved with laptop.
Information search This is where the consumer starts searching information about the products that can satisfy his satisfied need. Internal Search: --- Memory External Search: --- Friends and Relatives A successful information search leaves a buyer with possible alternatives, the evoked set. example the undergraduate who wanted to buy a laptop would gather information about laptop brands such as HP, Dell, Mac and acer .
Evaluation of alternatives This is where the customer evaluate products based on chosen criteria such as performance, durability, warranty, price, after sale services and quality on competitive basis. example the undergraduate who gathered information about laptop brands such as HP, Dell, Mac and Acer will now evaluate the product in terms of price, durability, speed, warranty, performance and colour.
Purchase decision Choose buying alternative, includes product, package, store, method of purchase etc. example after the evaluation of many brands of laptop the undergraduate decides to purchase a HP laptop due to the high battery life.
Purchase May differ from decision, time lapse between purchase decision and the actual purchase, product availability. This is where the customer make the final choice and ends up effectively purchasing the product.
Post purchase evaluationPositive post purchase behaviour This is where the consumer holds a positive feedback about the product and happy with the product quality. example if the undergraduate is happy with the performance of the HP laptop he will recommend his fellow students to purchase a HP and will be brand loyal by purchasing more of HP products.Negative post purchase behaviour This is where the customer is dissatisfied with the product and holds a negative feedback about the product. If the undergraduate who purchased the HP is not happy with the laptop he will persuade is friends not to buy a HP as his experience about HP is negative.
TYPES OF CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOR Routine Response/Programmed Behavior Limited Decision Making Extensive Decision Making Impulse buying
Routine Response/Programmed Behavior :- Buying low involvement, frequently purchased, low cost items.Examples : Soft drinks, snack foods, milk etc. Limited Decision Making :- Buying product occasionally. That is when you need to obtain information about unfamiliar brand in a familiar product category.Example: • Clothes , shoes etc .
Extensive Decision Making :- Complex high involvement, unfamiliar, expensive and infrequently bought products. Spend a lot of time seeking information and deciding. High degree of risk.Example: Cars, homes, computers, education. Impulse buying :- No conscious planning. The purchase of the same product does not always elicit the same Buying Behavior. Product can shift from one category to the next.Example: ○ while shopping in mall the choice for a soap may change if the available product is not there . ○ Choice of a cold drink on a hot climate day
Factors Influencing Consumer Behavior Personal Psychological Social Cultural
Personal Psychological Age Motivation Life-Cycle Stage Perception Occupation Learning Economic Beliefs Circumstances Attitudes Life Style
Social class Culture Maintaining the status Adopting the culture Sharing similar values, among the peers interests and behaviors Pattern of usage and behavior among the group of individuals (family , friends )
Examples of Buying Motives:Psychological or Functional? A girl wants to remember her grandmother on her birthday. Her primary motive is…? Psychological
A homemaker needs a new washingmachine and has had goodexperiences with LG. Her primary motive is …? Functional
A teacher wants to buy a practical carto be used for family transportation. Her/his primary motive is …?Functional
A career woman always buysbranded clothes. Her primary motive is…?Psychological