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  • Single Solar panels with single axis tracking systems. The panels can turn around the centre axis. LINAK can provide the actuators that tilt the panels. Dual Dual axis tracking is typically used to orient a mirror and redirect sunlight along a fixed axis towards a stationary receiver. But the system can also gain additional yield on your PV cells. LINAK can provide you with quality actuators that move these panels on dual axis.
  • Single Solar panels with single axis tracking systems. The panels can turn around the centre axis. LINAK can provide the actuators that tilt the panels. Dual Dual axis tracking is typically used to orient a mirror and redirect sunlight along a fixed axis towards a stationary receiver. But the system can also gain additional yield on your PV cells. LINAK can provide you with quality actuators that move these panels on dual axis.
  • 150 MW capacity
  • EDLC and pseudocapacitors National Research Council Canada, 800 Collip Circle, London, Ontario,, Canada n a lead-acid car battery the two electrodes when charged are composed of lead and lead-oxide but during discharge these electrodes are converted to lead-sulfateead-oxide,

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  • 1. Meeting future energy needs in anMeeting future energy needs in an environmentally responsible way requiresenvironmentally responsible way requires scientific breakthroughs to efficientlyscientific breakthroughs to efficiently generate, store, transmit, and use largegenerate, store, transmit, and use large amounts of poweramounts of power SUBMITTED BY :NITESH KUMAR JHA ROLL NO. : 06214804909 GROUP : EEE1 Energy Innovations
  • 2. ENERGY INNNOVATIONSENERGY INNNOVATIONS
  • 3. Smart PV module Nanomaterial for photovoltaic Floating wind turbine Offshore Turbine of MW capacity Microbial fuel cell Tidal, Geothermal and other renewable resources innovations
  • 4. Smart PV module Smart PV module Nanomaterial for photovoltaic Floating wind turbine Offshore Turbine of MW capacity Microbial fuel cell Tidal, Geothermal and other renewable resources innovations
  • 5. Solar panel tracking system Solar Tracking System is a device for orienting a solar panel or concentrating a solar reflector or lens towards the sun. Concentrators, especially in solar cell applications, require a high degree of accuracy to ensure that the concentrated sunlight is directed precisely to the powered device. Precise tracking of the sun is achieved through systems with 1.Single axis tracking or 2.Dual axis tracking. Fig: Single axis tracking Fig: Dual axis tracking Smart PV module Nanomaterial for photovoltaic Floating wind turbine Offshore Turbine of MW capacity Microbial fuel cell Tidal, Geothermal and other renewable resources innovations
  • 6. Increasing energy yield of PV panels by using smart bypass Large-area PV panels consist of multiple individual cells, connected in series to deliver a large amount of electrical power to the load. By putting the cells in series, the energy transfer is accomplished at rather low current levels and a relatively high voltage, minimizing the power losses in the power lines. This system works well if all cells in a panel receive the same amount of light, so that they contribute equally to the overall power conversion. However, if one cell receives less light intensity because it’s temporarily in the shade or because its surface got dirty, the current in the series connection of all cells will be limited by this failing cell. So not only the power of the failing cell itself is lost, but also the power generation of all well-illuminated cells is dramatically reduced. And in the limit, when the photocurrent of one cell drops to zero, the power conversion of the whole system is even stopped. Smart PV module Nanomaterial for photovoltaic Floating wind turbine Offshore Turbine of MW capacity Microbial fuel cell Tidal, Geothermal and other renewable resources innovations
  • 7. To work around this problem, some kind ofTo work around this problem, some kind of electrical bypass must be placed in parallel toelectrical bypass must be placed in parallel to each cell (or in parallel to sub-strings, i.e. smalleach cell (or in parallel to sub-strings, i.e. small chains of cells). This is commonly done bychains of cells). This is commonly done by means of a silicon PN junction diode in anti-means of a silicon PN junction diode in anti- parallel to the PV cell. When the generatedparallel to the PV cell. When the generated photocurrent of a particular cell becomesphotocurrent of a particular cell becomes smaller than the photocurrent of all other cellssmaller than the photocurrent of all other cells in the panel, the load current will now circulatein the panel, the load current will now circulate through the bypass diode in anti-parallel to thisthrough the bypass diode in anti-parallel to this failing PV cell. So, even when its photocurrentfailing PV cell. So, even when its photocurrent drops to zero, there is still a conductive path fordrops to zero, there is still a conductive path for the circulation of the current generated by thethe circulation of the current generated by the other cells.other cells. Unfortunately, this situation is not yet ideal. InUnfortunately, this situation is not yet ideal. In fact, the conducting bypass diode will dissipatefact, the conducting bypass diode will dissipate an amount of power that is similar to the poweran amount of power that is similar to the power generated by one of the other cells. As a result,generated by one of the other cells. As a result, we lose the power of the failing cell twice!we lose the power of the failing cell twice! Increasing energy yield of PV panels by using smart bypass
  • 8. As a first step in the Smart PV project, we have replacedAs a first step in the Smart PV project, we have replaced these anti-parallel diodes with a smart bypass to reducethese anti-parallel diodes with a smart bypass to reduce the power loss during partial shading. This smartthe power loss during partial shading. This smart bypass senses when the current through the cell is notbypass senses when the current through the cell is not matched with the current of the other cells (reducing thematched with the current of the other cells (reducing the total output power) and activates an internal switch tototal output power) and activates an internal switch to redirect the load current. The power dissipated in thisredirect the load current. The power dissipated in this switch will only be a fraction of the power lost in theswitch will only be a fraction of the power lost in the traditionally used diode. The smart bypass istraditionally used diode. The smart bypass is completely independent and is powered by thecompletely independent and is powered by the surrounding solar cells. Once the switch is activated, thesurrounding solar cells. Once the switch is activated, the smart bypass will periodically check to see whether thesmart bypass will periodically check to see whether the cell has regained full functionality. If this is the case, thecell has regained full functionality. If this is the case, the smart bypass deactivates and the solar cell can againsmart bypass deactivates and the solar cell can again add power to the system. If the cell is still in the shade,add power to the system. If the cell is still in the shade, the switch stays activated.the switch stays activated. Increasing energy yield of PV panels by using smart bypass
  • 9. This phenomenon, called “carrier multiplication,” arises from the unique physics of nanomaterials and could provide conceptually new approaches that may dramatically improve solar energy conversion efficiency. Nanomaterial for photovoltaic Unlike conventional solar panels, solar cells based on Nano-sized “quantum dots” can generate multiple electrons per photon, greatly increasing efficiency. While significant technical hurdles still remain before carrier multiplication can be used in devices, this advance could open the door to next-generation solar panels that are far more cost- effective. Smart PV module Nanomaterial for photovoltaic Floating wind turbine Offshore Turbine of MW capacity Microbial fuel cell Tidal, Geothermal and other renewable resources innovations
  • 10. ADVANTAGEADVANTAGE  Reduce visual pollutionReduce visual pollution  Noise pollution is no longer aNoise pollution is no longer a problemproblem  Wind is typically more consistentWind is typically more consistent and stronger over the seaand stronger over the sea Floating wind turbine A floating wind turbine is an offshore wind turbine mounted on a floating structure that allows the turbine to generate electricity in water depths where bottom-mounted towers are not feasible Smart PV module Nanomaterial for photovoltaic Floating wind turbine Offshore Turbine of MW capacity Microbial fuel cell Tidal, Geothermal and other renewable resources innovations
  • 11. Floating wind turbine Principle of floating wind turbine Tension leg mooring system Catenary loose mooring systems left-hand tower-bearing structure (grey) is free floating, the right-hand structure is pulled by the tensioned cables (red) down towards the seabed anchors (light- grey) adds 60 tonne weights hanging from the midpoint of each anchor cable to provide additional tension.
  • 12. Offshore Turbine of megawatt capacity The V164 platform was from the very beginning developed with a possible potential of increasing the turbine size. The progress in the technology development has now shown that an 8 MW version will offer lower cost of energy and at the same time keep the reliability and structural integrity of the turbine unchanged Smart PV module Nanomaterial for photovoltaic Floating wind turbine Offshore Turbine of MW capacity Microbial fuel cell Tidal, Geothermal and other renewable resources innovations
  • 13. AA microbial fuel cellmicrobial fuel cell ((MFCMFC) or) or biological fuel cellbiological fuel cell is a bio-is a bio- electrochemical system that drives aelectrochemical system that drives a current by mimicking bacterialcurrent by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature .interactions found in nature . TYPES OF MICROBIAL FUEL CELLTYPES OF MICROBIAL FUEL CELL  Mediator microbial fuel cellMediator microbial fuel cell  Mediator-free microbial fuel cellMediator-free microbial fuel cell Mediator-less MFCs are a more recent development; due to this, factors that affect optimum efficiency, such as the strain of bacteria used in the system, type of ion-exchange membrane , and system conditions (temperature, pH, etc.) were not particularly well understood. Microbial fuel cell Smart PV module Nanomaterial for photovoltaic Floating wind turbine Offshore Turbine of MW capacity Microbial fuel cell Tidal, Geothermal and other renewable resources innovations
  • 14. Hydrogen is stored in chemicalHydrogen is stored in chemical bonds of Ammonia-Borane that canbonds of Ammonia-Borane that can then be reacted to release hydrogen onthen be reacted to release hydrogen on boardboard  The spent storage material can againThe spent storage material can again be regeneratedbe regenerated  chemical hydrogen carriers couldchemical hydrogen carriers could overcome the infrastructure obstacleovercome the infrastructure obstacle for hydrogen by enabling use of ourfor hydrogen by enabling use of our current fuel delivery infrastructure ofcurrent fuel delivery infrastructure of pipelines and tanker truckspipelines and tanker trucks
  • 15. Unfortunately, Super capacitors undergo a process called ‘self discharge’. This is where the super capacitor loses charge when it has been charged but not Immediately used Supercapacitors, ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors (ECs), are energy storage devices that store energy as charge on the electrode surface or sub surface layer, rather than in the bulk material as in batteries, therefore, they can Provide high power due to their ability to release energy more easily from surface or sub-surface layer than from the bulk. Since charging-discharging occurred on the surface, which does not induce drastic Structural changes upon electroactive materials, supercapacitors possess excellent cycling ability. Due to those unique features, supercapacitors are regarded as one of the most promising energy storage devices.
  • 16. SuperconductivitySuperconductivity is ais a phenomenon of exactlyphenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistancezero electrical resistance andand expulsion of magneticexpulsion of magnetic fieldsfields occurring in certainoccurring in certain materials when cooledmaterials when cooled below a characteristicbelow a characteristic critical temperaturecritical temperature Whereas "ordinary" or metallic superconductors usually have transition temperature of about 30 K ( 243.2 °C), HTS− superconductors have been observed with transition temperatures as high as 138 K ( 135 °C)− Only drawback is we can’t develop HTS at atmospheric temperature so that transmission losses can be eliminated
  • 17. Nikola Tesla he is who invented radio and shown us he is indeed the “Father of Wireless”. Nikola Tesla is the one who first Conceived the idea Wireless Power Transmission and demonstrated “the transmission of electrical energy without wires" that depends upon electrical conductivity as early as 1891[2]. In 1893, Tesla demonstrated the illumination of vacuum bulbs without using wires for power transmission at the World Columbian Exposition in Chicago. The Wardenclyffe tower shown in Figure was designed and constructed by Tesla mainly for wireless transmission of electrical power rather than telegraphy
  • 18. • Fuel less vehicle , airplaneFuel less vehicle , airplane and helicopter(this hasand helicopter(this has already been experimented)already been experimented) • Wireless power for solarWireless power for solar power satellite (SPS)power satellite (SPS) • Inter planetary energyInter planetary energy transfertransfer Application of wireless powerApplication of wireless power transmissiontransmission
  • 19. Development of more efficient Lighting Appliances Quantum-dot technique builds 'better light bulb LEDs have a much higher luminous efficiency than fluorescent and incandescent lamps or HID lights (such as Sodium or Mercury) and LEDs do not contain hazardous chemicals that threaten our environment and the health of all living things on this planet
  • 20. Development of More efficient motor Energy efficient ECPlus & DCPlus motors Using the ECplus™ as in new equipment or as a retrofit to replace shaded pole OEM motors this can save the user up to 65 percent in energy usage. Electronically Commutated Motors Commutation process involves major part of losses in electric motor so electronically commutated motor increases efficiency of motor
  • 21. optimization of power electronic switch Replacing traditional switch with power electronic static switch could result in elimination of loss due to electric arc. Today Power Electronic switch are used in nearly every electrical appliances. So low loss power electronic switch could increase the efficiency of load end.
  • 22. REFERENCESREFERENCES • www.eetimes.com -EE TIMESwww.eetimes.com -EE TIMES • www.mitei.mit.edu – MIT ENERGY INNOVATIONwww.mitei.mit.edu – MIT ENERGY INNOVATION • www.spectrum.ieee.org – IEEE SPECTRUMwww.spectrum.ieee.org – IEEE SPECTRUM • http://ed.ted.com -TEDhttp://ed.ted.com -TED
  • 23. THANK YOUTHANK YOU