SUBMITTED BY: NITEESH KUMAR [EI 3 rd  YEAR] ROLL No.-0903532017 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
WHAT IS AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM? <ul><li>A special purpose computer that can perform a single or few functionalities . </li></u...
BLOCK DIAGRAM  02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) CPU MEMORY A/D SENSOR HUMAN INTERFACE D/A ACTUATORS LCD
EMBEDDED SYSTEM CONSIST OF: <ul><li>An EMBEDDED SYSTEM consist of: </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software <...
HARDWARE <ul><li>The physical components of a system. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.- </li></ul><ul><li>CPU </li></ul><ul><li>MEMOR...
CONTINUE… <ul><li>A TO D CONVERTOR </li></ul><ul><li>D TO A CONVERTOR </li></ul><ul><li>ACTUATORS </li></ul><ul><li>LCD </...
CPU <ul><li>The  central processing unit  ( CPU ) is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of...
CPU STRUCTURE <ul><li>Registers </li></ul><ul><li>Internal bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address Bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><l...
REGISTERS <ul><li>Temporal storage inside the CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flip-flop and latches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul>...
ALU <ul><li>Carries on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmatic operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+,-,/….. </li></ul>...
CONTROL UNIT <ul><li>Control the internal flow to fetch,decode and execute  instructions  </li></ul><ul><li>INSTRUCTIONS  ...
MEMORY <ul><li>They are used store data and instructions </li></ul><ul><li>They can divided into : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>V...
CLASSIFICATION MEMORIES NON-VOLATILE VOLATILE SRAM DRAM E2PROM NAND FLASH NOR FLASH 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
PROCESSOR IN EMBEDDED <ul><li>In EMBEDDED SYSTEMS we use microprocessor or microcontroller IC </li></ul><ul><li>MICROCONTR...
MICROPROCESSOR <ul><li>A  microprocessor  incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a si...
THE 8085 µP <ul><li>The features of INTEL 8085 are : </li></ul><ul><li>It is an 8 bit processor. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a...
CONTINUE…. <ul><li>It has multiplexed address and data bus.(AD0-AD7). </li></ul><ul><li>It works on 5 Volt dc power supply...
GENERAL PURPOSE µP CPU General-Purpose Micro-processor RAM ROM I/O Port Timer Serial COM Port Data Bus Address Bus General...
8085 IC 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) IC 8085 MICROPROCESSOR
PIN DIAGRAM 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
PIN DESCRIPTION <ul><li>AD0-AD7:  Multiplexed Address and data lines.  </li></ul><ul><li>A8-A15:  Tri-stated higher order ...
CONTINUE…. <ul><li>READY:  This an output signal used to check the status of output device. If it is low, µP will WAIT unt...
CONTINUE…. <ul><li>HOLD&HLDA:   HOLD is an input signal .When µP receives HOLD signal it completes current machine cycle a...
ARCHITECHTURE 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
MICROCONTROLLER <ul><li>A  microcontroller  (sometimes abbreviated  µC ,  uC  or  MCU ) is a small computer on a single in...
MICROCONTROLLER Microcontroller <ul><ul><li>A smaller computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports... ...
8051 IC  <ul><li>The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of ...
8051 IC <ul><li>The 8051 family characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4K Bytes ROM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><l...
INTERNAL ARCHITECHTURE 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
PIN DIAGRAM Ground Voltage Supply (+5V) 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
CONTINUE…. Port 0 from Pin-39 to Pin-32 An 8-bit open drain  bidirectional port.  DUAL FUNCTION Used to access both data a...
CONTINUE…. Port 1 from Pin-1 to pin-8 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups  02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
CONTINUE…. Port 2 from Pin-21 to pin-28 Used to access address and I/O 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
CONTINUE…. Port 3 from  Pin-10 to Pin-17 P3.0   :  RxD(serial input port) P3.1   :TxD (serial output port) P3.2   : INT0 (...
CONTINUE…. crystal reset External memory Add. Latch enable Program Store Enable 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
SENSOR <ul><li>A  sensor  (also called  detectors ) is a device that measures a measurable attribute and converts it into ...
TYPES <ul><li>Electric current, electric potential, magnetic </li></ul><ul><li>Optical, light </li></ul><ul><li>  Pressure...
EXAMPLES 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
IR SENSOR An object reflects, transmits, and emits energy, as shown in the diagram. 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
REQUIREMENT <ul><li>To detect & differentiate between two contrasting surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, black & white ...
WORKING Reflects most of the incident light Absorbs almost of the incident light Photodiode (detector) Photodiode (detecto...
CONTINUE…. Hurray! I‘ve found white I think I am on black surface 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
LINE FOLLOWER 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
CKT. DIAGRAM 3.5V 4V 5V 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
CONTINUE…. 3.5V 2.5V 0V 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
A TO D CONVERTER <ul><li>An  analog-to-digital converter  (abbreviated  ADC ,  A/D  or  A to D ) is a device that converts...
SAR ADC 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
An 8-level ADC coding scheme 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
D TO A CONVERTER <ul><li>A digital-to-analog converter  ( DAC  or  D-to-A ) is a device that converts a digital (usually b...
BLOCK DIAGRAM 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
OUTPUT 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
ACUATORS <ul><li>An  actuator  is a type of motor for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. It is operated by a sou...
TYPES Actuators Rotational Linear Pneumatics DC Motors Stepper Motors Geared RC Servo Bipolar Unipolar Artificial Muscles ...
DC MOTOR <ul><li>A  DC motor  is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity. DC motors were used to ru...
DC ELECTRIC MOTOR 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
DC GEARED <ul><li>Reliable, sturdy & relatively powerful </li></ul><ul><li>A major actuator in robotics </li></ul><ul><li>...
INSIDE DC GEARED 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
DC SERVO <ul><li>A  servomotor  is a motor which forms part of a servomechanism. The servomotor is paired with some type o...
SERVO <ul><li>Remote Controlled Servo (RC Servo) </li></ul><ul><li>Used mostly in RC aeroplanes and cars </li></ul><ul><li...
SERVO CONTROL Basic Operation of a RC Servo Motor Vcc Gnd PWM Control Signal 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) Signal  Conditi...
INSIDE SERVO 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
STEPPER MOTOR <ul><li>A  stepper motor  (or  step motor ) is a brushless DC electric motor that can divide a full rotation...
CLOCKWISE ROTATION Truth table 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) 1 2 3 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
UNIPOLAR STEPPER cw ccw 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) FULL STEPPING  (wave drive) a,b 1a 1b 1c 1d 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 ...
BIPOLAR STEPPER <ul><li>Construction is similar to unipolars but without the center taps </li></ul><ul><li>Current flows i...
IDENTIFYING STEPPER <ul><li>Unipolar Steppers </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly have 5 to 6 wires </li></ul><ul><li>There are alway...
PNEUMATIC <ul><li>Powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Bulky </li></ul>02/...
MOTOR INTERFACING <ul><li>DC motors are always preffered over stepper motors </li></ul><ul><li>There are many things which...
CONTINUE…. <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>we can control the speed of motor </li></ul><ul><li>we can control the d...
CONTINUE…. <ul><li>Usually H-bridge is preferred way of interfacing a DC motor. </li></ul><ul><li>L293D is most used H-Bri...
IC L293D 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
WORKING 02/25/12 M +Vcc GND niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
LCD 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
PIN CONFIGURATION 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
PIN DESCRIPTION Connections  JP1 Pins 1 - 8  Description  JP1 Pins 9 -16  Description  Pin1  Ground    Pin9  D2 (Not Used)...
SOFTWARE Software’s   Used   Kiel µVision Top View  Simulator Express PCB 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
EXAMPELS 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
APPLICATIONS <ul><li>Industrial automation </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics application and consumer device </li></ul><ul><li...
APPLICATIONS <ul><li>Point of sales terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Chocolate Vending Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Step...
APPLICATIONS <ul><li>digital panel meter for voltage, current, resistance and frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard control...
QUESTION 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
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Introduction to embedded system

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  • Intel ’ s x86: 8086,8088,80386,80486, Pentium Motorola ’ s 680x0: 68000, 68010, 68020,68030,6040
  • Introduction to embedded system

    1. 1. SUBMITTED BY: NITEESH KUMAR [EI 3 rd YEAR] ROLL No.-0903532017 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    2. 2. WHAT IS AN EMBEDDED SYSTEM? <ul><li>A special purpose computer that can perform a single or few functionalities . </li></ul><ul><li>Functionalities is done by dedicated HW & SW with limited resources. </li></ul><ul><li>On average, a person is interacts with 100s of embedded system on daily basis. </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded system are of high diversity. </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    3. 3. BLOCK DIAGRAM 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) CPU MEMORY A/D SENSOR HUMAN INTERFACE D/A ACTUATORS LCD
    4. 4. EMBEDDED SYSTEM CONSIST OF: <ul><li>An EMBEDDED SYSTEM consist of: </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>Software </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    5. 5. HARDWARE <ul><li>The physical components of a system. </li></ul><ul><li>Ex.- </li></ul><ul><li>CPU </li></ul><ul><li>MEMORY </li></ul><ul><li>SENSOR </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    6. 6. CONTINUE… <ul><li>A TO D CONVERTOR </li></ul><ul><li>D TO A CONVERTOR </li></ul><ul><li>ACTUATORS </li></ul><ul><li>LCD </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    7. 7. CPU <ul><li>The  central processing unit  ( CPU ) is the portion of a computer system that carries out the instructions of a computer program, to perform the basic arithmetical, logical, and input/output operations of the system. </li></ul><ul><li>It is similar to the BRAIN. </li></ul><ul><li>Performs arithmetic , control and I/O operations </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    8. 8. CPU STRUCTURE <ul><li>Registers </li></ul><ul><li>Internal bus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Address Bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data Bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control Bus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CU : Control Unit </li></ul><ul><li>ALU: Arithmetic Logic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) CU REGISTERS INTERNAL BUS ALU
    9. 9. REGISTERS <ul><li>Temporal storage inside the CPU </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flip-flop and latches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A register can be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A general purpose register </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carry out program or data processing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A control register </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control the program or CPU </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A status/flag register </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Show the current status of CPU </li></ul></ul></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    10. 10. ALU <ul><li>Carries on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arithmatic operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>+,-,/….. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logic operation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>AND,OR ,SHIFT,etc </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Operates and store results in general registers </li></ul><ul><li>Store operation status status/flag registers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carry occurrence,overflow occurance, etc. </li></ul></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    11. 11. CONTROL UNIT <ul><li>Control the internal flow to fetch,decode and execute instructions </li></ul><ul><li>INSTRUCTIONS </li></ul>INSTRUCTION REGISTER INSTRUCTION DECODER PROGRAM COUNTER 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) CONTROL SIGNAL GENERATOR MEMORY DEVICE
    12. 12. MEMORY <ul><li>They are used store data and instructions </li></ul><ul><li>They can divided into : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Volatile memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When power is off, content are lost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non volatile memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When power is off, content are preserved </li></ul></ul></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    13. 13. CLASSIFICATION MEMORIES NON-VOLATILE VOLATILE SRAM DRAM E2PROM NAND FLASH NOR FLASH 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    14. 14. PROCESSOR IN EMBEDDED <ul><li>In EMBEDDED SYSTEMS we use microprocessor or microcontroller IC </li></ul><ul><li>MICROCONTROLLER is widely used because it : </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consume less power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce complexity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internal timer/counter </li></ul></ul></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    15. 15. MICROPROCESSOR <ul><li>A  microprocessor  incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Ex- intel 8085,8086,Z80 etc. </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    16. 16. THE 8085 µP <ul><li>The features of INTEL 8085 are : </li></ul><ul><li>It is an 8 bit processor. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a single chip N-MOS device with 40 pins. </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    17. 17. CONTINUE…. <ul><li>It has multiplexed address and data bus.(AD0-AD7). </li></ul><ul><li>It works on 5 Volt dc power supply. </li></ul><ul><li>The maximum clock frequency is 3 MHz while minimum frequency is 500kHz. </li></ul><ul><li>It provides 74 instructions with 5 different addressing modes. </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    18. 18. GENERAL PURPOSE µP CPU General-Purpose Micro-processor RAM ROM I/O Port Timer Serial COM Port Data Bus Address Bus General-Purpose Microprocessor System <ul><ul><li>CPU for Computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No RAM, ROM, I/O on CPU chip itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example--Intel’s x86: 8086,8088,80386,80486, Pentium </li></ul></ul>Many chips on mother board 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    19. 19. 8085 IC 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) IC 8085 MICROPROCESSOR
    20. 20. PIN DIAGRAM 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    21. 21. PIN DESCRIPTION <ul><li>AD0-AD7: Multiplexed Address and data lines. </li></ul><ul><li>A8-A15: Tri-stated higher order address lines. </li></ul><ul><li>ALE: Address latch enable is an output signal. It goes high when operation is started by processor . </li></ul><ul><li>S0,S1: These are the status signals used to indicate type of operation. </li></ul><ul><li>RD¯: Read is active low input signal used to read data from I/O device or memory. </li></ul><ul><li>WR¯: Write is an active low output signal used write data on memory or an I/O device. </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    22. 22. CONTINUE…. <ul><li>READY: This an output signal used to check the status of output device. If it is low, µP will WAIT until it is high. </li></ul><ul><li>TRAP: It is an Edge triggered highest priority , non mask able interrupt. After TRAP, restart occurs and execution starts from address 0024H. </li></ul><ul><li>RST 5.5,6.5,7.5: These are maskable interrupts and have low priority than TRAP. </li></ul><ul><li>INTR¯&INTA: INTR is a interrupt request signal after which µP generates INTA or interrupt acknowledge signal. </li></ul><ul><li>IO/M¯: This is output pin or signal used to indicate whether 8085 is working in I/O mode(IO/M¯=1) or Memory mode(IO/M¯=0 ). </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    23. 23. CONTINUE…. <ul><li>HOLD&HLDA: HOLD is an input signal .When µP receives HOLD signal it completes current machine cycle and stops executing next instruction. In response to HOLD µP generates HLDA that is HOLD Acknowledge signal. </li></ul><ul><li>RESET IN¯: This is input signal. When RESET IN¯ is low µp restarts and starts executing from location 0000H. </li></ul><ul><li>SID: Serial input data is input pin used to accept serial 1 bit data . </li></ul><ul><li>X1 & X2 : These are clock input signals and are connected to external LC,or RC circuit. These are divide by two so if 6 MHz is connected to X1X2, the operating frequency becomes 3 MHz </li></ul><ul><li>VCC & VSS: Power supply VCC=+ -5Volt& VSS=-GND reference. </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    24. 24. ARCHITECHTURE 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    25. 25. MICROCONTROLLER <ul><li>A  microcontroller  (sometimes abbreviated  µC ,  uC  or  MCU ) is a small computer on a single integrated circuit containing a processor core, memory, and programmable input/output peripherals </li></ul><ul><li>Ex- intel 8051,ATMEL,MOTOROLA,etc. </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    26. 26. MICROCONTROLLER Microcontroller <ul><ul><li>A smaller computer. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-chip RAM, ROM, I/O ports... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example:- Motorola’s 6811, Intel’s 8051 and PIC 16X </li></ul></ul>A single chip 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) RAM ROM I/O Port Timer Serial COM Port CPU
    27. 27. 8051 IC <ul><li>The 8051 is the first microcontroller of the MCS-51 family introduced by Intel Corporation at the end of the 1970’s. </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    28. 28. 8051 IC <ul><li>The 8051 family characteristics: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4K Bytes ROM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>128 Bytes RAM </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two timer/counters (16 bit) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A serial port </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>32 input/output port </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interrupt controller </li></ul></ul></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) IC 8051 MICROCONTROLLER
    29. 29. INTERNAL ARCHITECHTURE 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    30. 30. PIN DIAGRAM Ground Voltage Supply (+5V) 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    31. 31. CONTINUE…. Port 0 from Pin-39 to Pin-32 An 8-bit open drain bidirectional port. DUAL FUNCTION Used to access both data and address 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    32. 32. CONTINUE…. Port 1 from Pin-1 to pin-8 8-bit bidirectional I/O port with internal pull-ups 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    33. 33. CONTINUE…. Port 2 from Pin-21 to pin-28 Used to access address and I/O 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    34. 34. CONTINUE…. Port 3 from Pin-10 to Pin-17 P3.0 : RxD(serial input port) P3.1 :TxD (serial output port) P3.2 : INT0 (external interrupt 0) P3.3 : INT1 (external interrupt 1) P3.4 :T0 (timer 0 external input) P3.5 :T1 (timer 1 external input) P3.6 :WR (external data memory write strobe) P3.7 :RD (external data memory read strobe) 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    35. 35. CONTINUE…. crystal reset External memory Add. Latch enable Program Store Enable 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    36. 36. SENSOR <ul><li>A  sensor  (also called  detectors ) is a device that measures a measurable attribute and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an instrument. </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    37. 37. TYPES <ul><li>Electric current, electric potential, magnetic </li></ul><ul><li>Optical, light </li></ul><ul><li>  Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>  Force, density, level </li></ul><ul><li>Thermal, heat, temperature </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    38. 38. EXAMPLES 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    39. 39. IR SENSOR An object reflects, transmits, and emits energy, as shown in the diagram. 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    40. 40. REQUIREMENT <ul><li>To detect & differentiate between two contrasting surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Generally, black & white </li></ul><ul><li>Small & attachable </li></ul><ul><li>Operates at +5V and also gives output in TTL (0V/5V) </li></ul><ul><li>Configurable </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    41. 41. WORKING Reflects most of the incident light Absorbs almost of the incident light Photodiode (detector) Photodiode (detector) 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    42. 42. CONTINUE…. Hurray! I‘ve found white I think I am on black surface 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    43. 43. LINE FOLLOWER 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    44. 44. CKT. DIAGRAM 3.5V 4V 5V 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    45. 45. CONTINUE…. 3.5V 2.5V 0V 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    46. 46. A TO D CONVERTER <ul><li>An  analog-to-digital converter  (abbreviated  ADC ,  A/D  or  A to D ) is a device that converts a continuous quantity to a discrete time digital representation </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    47. 47. SAR ADC 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    48. 48. An 8-level ADC coding scheme 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    49. 49. D TO A CONVERTER <ul><li>A digital-to-analog converter  ( DAC  or  D-to-A ) is a device that converts a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal(current , voltage, or electric charge) </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    50. 50. BLOCK DIAGRAM 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    51. 51. OUTPUT 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    52. 52. ACUATORS <ul><li>An  actuator  is a type of motor for moving or controlling a mechanism or system. It is operated by a source of energy, usually in the form of an electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure or pneumatic pressure, and converts that energy into some kind of motion </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    53. 53. TYPES Actuators Rotational Linear Pneumatics DC Motors Stepper Motors Geared RC Servo Bipolar Unipolar Artificial Muscles Hydraulics 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    54. 54. DC MOTOR <ul><li>A  DC motor  is an electric motor that runs on direct current (DC) electricity. DC motors were used to run machinery </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    55. 55. DC ELECTRIC MOTOR 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    56. 56. DC GEARED <ul><li>Reliable, sturdy & relatively powerful </li></ul><ul><li>A major actuator in robotics </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to use </li></ul><ul><li>Available in various shapes and sizes </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    57. 57. INSIDE DC GEARED 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    58. 58. DC SERVO <ul><li>A  servomotor  is a motor which forms part of a servomechanism. The servomotor is paired with some type of encoder to provide position/speed feedback </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    59. 59. SERVO <ul><li>Remote Controlled Servo (RC Servo) </li></ul><ul><li>Used mostly in RC aeroplanes and cars </li></ul><ul><li>Needs PWM signal to control its position </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot rotate more than 180 degrees </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    60. 60. SERVO CONTROL Basic Operation of a RC Servo Motor Vcc Gnd PWM Control Signal 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) Signal Conditioning (Analog/Digital) Driver Geared Motor POT RC Servo Motor
    61. 61. INSIDE SERVO 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    62. 62. STEPPER MOTOR <ul><li>A  stepper motor  (or  step motor ) is a brushless DC electric motor that can divide a full rotation into a large number of steps. The motor's position can be controlled precisely without any feedback mechanism </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    63. 63. CLOCKWISE ROTATION Truth table 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) 1 2 3 4 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
    64. 64. UNIPOLAR STEPPER cw ccw 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT) FULL STEPPING (wave drive) a,b 1a 1b 1c 1d 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
    65. 65. BIPOLAR STEPPER <ul><li>Construction is similar to unipolars but without the center taps </li></ul><ul><li>Current flows in both directions </li></ul><ul><li>Highest Torque </li></ul><ul><li>Complex driving circuitry </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    66. 66. IDENTIFYING STEPPER <ul><li>Unipolar Steppers </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly have 5 to 6 wires </li></ul><ul><li>There are always 1 or 2 commons </li></ul><ul><li>Bipolar Steppers </li></ul><ul><li>Always have 4 wires </li></ul><ul><li>No commons </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    67. 67. PNEUMATIC <ul><li>Powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Complicated </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive </li></ul><ul><li>Bulky </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    68. 68. MOTOR INTERFACING <ul><li>DC motors are always preffered over stepper motors </li></ul><ul><li>There are many things which we can do with our DC motor when interfaced with microcontroller </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    69. 69. CONTINUE…. <ul><li>For example: </li></ul><ul><li>we can control the speed of motor </li></ul><ul><li>we can control the direction of rotation </li></ul><ul><li>we can also do encoding of the rotation made by DC motor i.e. keeping track of how many turns are made by our motors etc. </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    70. 70. CONTINUE…. <ul><li>Usually H-bridge is preferred way of interfacing a DC motor. </li></ul><ul><li>L293D is most used H-Bridge driver IC. </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    71. 71. IC L293D 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    72. 72. WORKING 02/25/12 M +Vcc GND niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    73. 73. LCD 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    74. 74. PIN CONFIGURATION 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    75. 75. PIN DESCRIPTION Connections JP1 Pins 1 - 8 Description JP1 Pins 9 -16 Description Pin1 Ground Pin9 D2 (Not Used) Pin2 VCC (+5) Pin10 D3 (Not Used) Pin3 Contrast Pin11 D4 Pin4 Data/Command (R/S) Pin12 D5 Pin5 Read/Write (W) Pin13 D6 Pin6 Enable (E1) Pin14 D7 Pin7 D0 (Not Used) Pin15 VCC (LEDSV+) Pin8 D1 (Not Used) Pin16 Ground 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    76. 76. SOFTWARE Software’s Used Kiel µVision Top View Simulator Express PCB 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    77. 77. EXAMPELS 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    78. 78. APPLICATIONS <ul><li>Industrial automation </li></ul><ul><li>Electronics application and consumer device </li></ul><ul><li>Communication application </li></ul><ul><li>Biomedical application </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>Digital camera </li></ul><ul><li>Robots </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    79. 79. APPLICATIONS <ul><li>Point of sales terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic Chocolate Vending Machine </li></ul><ul><li>Stepper motor controllers for a robotics system </li></ul><ul><li>Washing or cooking system </li></ul><ul><li>Multitasking Toys </li></ul><ul><li>Microcontroller- based single or multi-display </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    80. 80. APPLICATIONS <ul><li>digital panel meter for voltage, current, resistance and frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Keyboard controller </li></ul>02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    81. 81. QUESTION 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
    82. 82. 02/25/12 niteesh kumar(BBDIT)
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