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  • 1. Earth Science Weathering and Soil Rabbi Goldberg Unit 10 Weathering I. Introduction a. Weathering - __________________________________________ b. Weathering breaks ______________________________________ _____________________________________________________ c. These loose pieces are called __________________. i. ____________________ ii. ____________________ iii. ____________________ 1. ___________________________________________ d. Weathering has caused _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ e. Weathering also produces ( makes) _____________________________________________________ f. There are two different types of weathering i. ___________________ ii. ___________________ II. Mechanical Weathering a. Mechanical weathering ___________________________________ _____________________________________________________ b. This means that the general ______________________________ _____________________________________________________ i. Each fragment has ________________________________ ii. There are three main processes of mechanical weathering each in its own way ______________________________. 1
  • 2. Earth Science Weathering and Soil Rabbi Goldberg Unit 10 c. Plants and animals i. Plants – 1. Water and nutrients _________________________ 2. This helps _________________________________ 3. As the roots grow ___________________________ _________________________________________ ii. Animals – 1. _________________________________________ __________________________________________ 2. As these animals ____________________________ __________________________________________ 3. Once the sediments are pushed _______________ __________________________________________ d. Ice wedges i. Ice wedging occurs ________________________________ ________________________________________________ ii. Since water ______________________________________ ________________________________________________ iii. This pressure _____________________________________ ________________________________________________ iv. The Ice then melts _________________________________ ________________________________________________ v. Ice wedging is more noticeable in the mountains where ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ 1. This process causes _________________________ 2. This process also effects ______________________ __________________________________________ a. This causes ___________________________ 2
  • 3. Earth Science Weathering and Soil Rabbi Goldberg Unit 10 e. Surface Area i. Mechanical weathering by ___________________________ breaks _________________________________________. ii. These pieces cover more ___________________________ iii. This allows chemical weathering to ___________________ III. Chemical Weathering a. Chemical Weathering occurs ______________________________ _____________________________________________________ b. This type of weathering changes __________________________ _____________________________________________________ c. Natural Acid i. Naturally formed _________________________________ _______________________________________________ ii. When water reacts with _____________________________ ________________________________________________ iii. This carbonic acid _________________________________ ________________________________________________ iv. Over thousands of years so much limestone has been weathered that __________________________________ v. Chemical weathering also occurs when _______________ _______________________________________________ vi. Over a long period of time ___________________________ ________________________________________________ 1. Clay is _____________________________________ 3
  • 4. Earth Science Weathering and Soil Rabbi Goldberg Unit 10 d. Plant Acids i. Some roots and ___________________________________ that also _________________________________________ ii. When these minerals _______________________________ ________________________________________________ iii. Eventually the rocks will ____________________________ ________________________________________________ iv. As the rock weathers _______________________________ e. Oxygen i. Causes chemical weathering. ii. rust is caused by ______________________ iii. Oxidation occurs when ____________________ ___________________________________________ 1. For example when iron is _________________ _____________________________________ 2. Another common example ___________________ ________________________________________ iv. Oxidation of minerals _____________________________ IV. Effects of weathering a. Climate is ________________________________________ _________________________________________________ b. Climate effects ____________________________________ i. Mechanical weathering is faster in places ___________ _____________________________________________ 4
  • 5. Earth Science Weathering and Soil Rabbi Goldberg Unit 10 ii. Chemical Weathering is more rapid in ________________ _______________________________________________ iii. So a place like the rain forest _______________________ V. Effects of rock Type a. Rock Type also ________________________________________ b. In wet climates ___________________ _____________________ 5
  • 6. Earth Science Weathering and Soil Rabbi Goldberg Unit 10 Soil I. The nature of soil a. Formation of Soil i. As we stated above weathering ___________________________ ______________________________________________ ii. These fragments form___________________________________ ________________________________________________ iii. However, they don’t _____________________________________ iv. Plants and animals add organic _____________________ ______________________________________________ v. Soil is _______________________________________________ ________________________________________________ vi. What effects the form of soil 1. _________________________________ 2. _________________________________ 3. _________________________________ 4. _________________________________ a. Different soil form in ___________ ____________________________ b. Soils that develop in _____________ _____________________________ b. Composition of soil i. Soil as we just learned is made of __________________ _____________________________________________ ii. Most of these fragments are _______________________ 6
  • 7. Earth Science Weathering and Soil Rabbi Goldberg Unit 10 iii. However, some ________________________________ iv. Most organic __________________________________ _____________________________________________ 1. ___________________ 2. ___________________ 3. ___________________ v. Animals and ____________________________________ vi. After plants and animals get into the soil ________________ ________________________________________________ vii. The dark colored , decayed organic matter is called _______ viii. This humus provides _______________________________ ix. As _____________________________________________ ________________________________________________ x. Good Quality _____________________________________ xi. Soil had many ____________________________________ 1. during a drought ________________________ 2. When there is water ______________________ c. Soil Profile i. If you ever dug a deep hole in the soil you have seen _______________________________________________ 1. You probably also observed that ________________ __________________________________________ 2. the top layer is also _________________________ ii. These different layers are called ____________________ iii. All the Horizons_____________________________ 1. Most soils have __________________________ a. _______________________ b. ______________________ c. _______________________ iv. A horizon 1. This is the ________________________________ 7
  • 8. Earth Science Weathering and Soil Rabbi Goldberg Unit 10 2. In a forest the ______________________________ a. Litter -_________________________________ b. The litter helps ________________________ _____________________________________ 3. The A horizons also known as ________________ a. It is usually __________________ & _____________________________________ i. The darkness is formed by the _________________________ v. B Horizon 1. the b Horizon ______________________________ 2. Due to the fact _____________________________ _________________________________________ 3. The B horizon contains material from the A horizon by a process called ______________________. a. Leaching is ____________________________ _____________________________________ i. Here water seeps thru the _____________ ii. Water then reacts with the humus ________________________________ ________________________________ _______________________________. vi. The C Horizon 1. This consists of _________________________ _________________________________________ 2. It is usually the ______________________________ 3. It doesn’t ___________________________________ 8
  • 9. Earth Science Weathering and Soil Rabbi Goldberg Unit 10 4. It is usually made of ________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ a. If you would dig down to the bottom of the C horizon you will find _____________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ _____________________________________ d. Glacier deposits i. During the Ice age ________________________________ ________________________________________________ ii. When the glacier melted it left ________________________ ________________________________________________ 1. This material covers ________________________ iii. The soil that developed from this is ________________________________________________ iv. However, if you would dig __________________________ ________________________________________________ II. Soil Types a. The soil here in New York ________________________________ i. Some are _________________________________ 1. ____________________________________ 2. ____________________________________ ii. Soil types reflect climate 1. desert soil a. ________________________ b. ______________________________ c. _______________________________ 2. Forest soil a. ____________________________ b. ____________________________ 9
  • 10. Earth Science Weathering and Soil Rabbi Goldberg Unit 10 c. ____________________________ iii. Other factors 1. The parent material ______________________ ______________________________________ a. Clay soil often ___________________ _______________________________ 2. Rock Types also ________________________ ______________________________________ 3. Time affects ____________________________ 4. Slope ____________________________________ ___________________________________________ __________________________________________. 10