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The nervous system
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The nervous system


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  • 1. The Nervous System
  • 2. Human Regulation
    • In humans and animals regulation is done by the nervous and endocrine system
      • There are some differences and some similarities between the two systems
  • 3. Similarities between the Endocrine and Nervous system
    • Both secret chemical messages
      • Nervous system secretes – neurotransmitters
      • Endocrine – secretes hormones
  • 4. Differences between the Endocrine and Nervous system
    • Nervous system response is much much faster
    • Nerve response is shorter in duration than endocrine
  • 5. Human Nervous system
    • What is a neuron?
      • A neuron is the basic cell of the nervous system
  • 6. There are three types of neurons.
    • Sensory Neurons
      • Transmit ( sends messages) from receptors to the central nervous system ( fire is hot)
      • They are located near the sensory organs such as
        • Eyes
        • Ears
        • Nose
        • Tongue
        • Skin
  • 7. Interneuron
    • Another type of neurons
    • Located mainly in the central nervous system
      • It’s job is to interpret and relay the information from the sensory neurons to the motor neurons
  • 8. Motor Neurons
    • Transmit impulses from the central nervous system to the effectors
      • Effectors are glands and muscles
    • These messages cause the effectors to respond
      • ( fire is hot pull hand back)
  • 9. So what are nerves?
    • Nerves are groups of neurons or parts of neurons specialized for high speed and long distances impulse transmission
    • They can be
      • motor neurons
      • Sensory neurons
      • Or mixed
  • 10. Nerves
    • Most nerves have a fatty sheath
      • This is for
        • Protection
        • Make sure not touching other nerves or tissues
    • A neuron is a long cell that consists of three regions: a cell body , dendrites , and an axon.
  • 11. Nerves continued
    • Dendrites- receive impulses and carry them toward the cell body
    • Axon- carries impulses away from the cell body and toward other neurons, muscles, or glands.
    • Cell body - contains the nucleus
  • 12. How does it work
    • Resting - no impulse, cell is polarized ( + on outside & - on inside)
      • Sodium/Potassium pump in axon using ATP maintains this polarity
    • 2. Impulse : stimulus excites neuron
      • Na+ gates open
      • Na+ goes inside, therefore inside becomes more +
      • Depolarization occurs ~ a nerve impulse
      • Impulse moves in one direction
  • 13. Connection between Neurons
    • Synapse : gap between neurons or neurons and effectors
    • Neurotransmitter : chemical, such as acetylcholine, which, when secreted aid in the transmission of of an impulse across a synapse.
  • 14. There are two parts to the Nervous System
    • Central Nervous system
    • Peripheral Nervous system
  • 15. Central Nervous System (CNS)
    • There are two main parts to the CNS
      • Brain
      • Spinal Cord
  • 16. Brain
    • Is a large mass of neurons located in the head
      • Responsible for controlling and coordinating most activities of the body
        • Cerebrum:
          • Conscious activities
          • Intelligence
          • Memory
          • Language
          • Voluntary activity
        • Cerebellum:
          • Coordinates motor activity
          • Balance
        • Medulla Oblongata:
          • involuntary activities such as breathing, & heart rate
  • 17. Spinal Cord
    • Lies within the vertebrae
      • Bones of the spinal column
    • Spinal cord is connected to the Medulla
    • It is the center for reflex activities
      • Does not require activity from the brain to give off a response
    • Reflex actions – are inborn reflexes
      • Ex blinking
  • 18. Peripheral Nervous system
    • Is located outside the CNS
      • It contains nerves that extend throughout the body
      • There are two parts to the PNS
        • Somatic nervous system
        • Autonomic nervous system
  • 19. Somatic Nervous system
    • These neurons deal with voluntary actions
      • Ex
        • run
        • Play
        • Swing
        • Hit
  • 20. Autonomic nervous system
    • Generally deal with involuntary acts
      • Breathing glands
  • 21. Malfunctions of the nervous system
    • Listed are some of the malfunctions of the nervous system
      • Cerebral Palsy
      • Meningitis
      • Stroke
      • Polio
  • 22. Cerebral Palsy (CP)
    • A group of diseases you are born with which disturb the motor functions
    • Person still has normal mental capacity but
      • Speach and motor function are distorted
  • 23. Meningitis
    • Inflammation of the membrane that surrounds the spinal cord and brain
  • 24. Stroke
    • Caused by a cerebral Hemorrhage ( burst of blood vessels) or a blood clot in the brain
      • May cause brain damage or death
  • 25. Polio
    • Viral disease in the CNS may cause paralysis
    • Can be prevented through immunization Shots