Respiratory system


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Respiratory system

  1. 1. The Respiratory System: the exchange of gases <ul><li>Section Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the structures involved in external respiration. </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast external and cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the mechanics of breathing. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Passageways and Lungs <ul><li>respiratory system consists of a pair of lungs & a system of tubes that carry air to them </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing is just one of the functions that the respiratory system carries out. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The path air takes <ul><li>air enters through the nasal cavity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It passes through the pharynx and larynx into the trachea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The trachea forks to form two bronchi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each bronchus branches into numerous bronchioles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The bronchioles end in clusters of tiny sacs called alveoli </li></ul>
  4. 5. Alveoli: The place of gas exchange <ul><li>Alveoli : the sacs of the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion between the air and blood. </li></ul><ul><li>surrounded by networks of tiny blood vessels, or capillaries. </li></ul><ul><li>External respiration: exchange of gases between alveoli and blood </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular respiration: use of O 2 to create ATP in mitochondria </li></ul>
  5. 6. Blood transport of gases <ul><li>oxygen diffuses into the blood vessels surrounding the alveoli, it is pumped by the heart to the body cells, where it is used for cellular respiration </li></ul><ul><li>carbon dioxide ( a waste product ) diffuses into the blood, which carries it back to the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>During exhalation, this carbon dioxide is removed from your body. </li></ul>
  6. 7. The Mechanics of Breathing <ul><li>Breathing ventilates the lungs </li></ul><ul><li>The action of your diaphragm and the muscles between your ribs enable you to breathe in and breathe out. </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing is the alternation of inhalation (active) and exhalation ( passive) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Control of Respiration <ul><li>Breathing is usually an involuntary process. </li></ul><ul><li>partially controlled by an internal feedback mechanism that involves signals being sent to the medulla oblongata about the chemistry of your blood. </li></ul><ul><li>medulla oblongata responds to higher levels of carbon dioxide in your body by sending nerve signals to the rib muscles and diaphragm. </li></ul><ul><li>nerve signals cause these muscles to contract, and you inhale. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Cleaning dirty air <ul><li>To prevent foreign material from reaching the respiratory system is lined with ciliated cells that secrete mucus. </li></ul><ul><li>The cilia constantly beat upward in the direction of your throat, where foreign material can be swallowed or expelled by coughing or sneezing </li></ul>
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