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Respiratory system
Respiratory system
Respiratory system
Respiratory system
Respiratory system
Respiratory system
Respiratory system
Respiratory system
Respiratory system
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Respiratory system

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  • 1. The Respiratory System: the exchange of gases
    • Section Objectives:
    • Identify the structures involved in external respiration.
    • Contrast external and cellular respiration
    • Explain the mechanics of breathing.
  • 2. Passageways and Lungs
    • respiratory system consists of a pair of lungs & a system of tubes that carry air to them
    • Breathing is just one of the functions that the respiratory system carries out.
  • 3. The path air takes
    • air enters through the nasal cavity
      • It passes through the pharynx and larynx into the trachea
      • The trachea forks to form two bronchi
      • Each bronchus branches into numerous bronchioles
    • The bronchioles end in clusters of tiny sacs called alveoli
  • 4.  
  • 5. Alveoli: The place of gas exchange
    • Alveoli : the sacs of the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged by diffusion between the air and blood.
    • surrounded by networks of tiny blood vessels, or capillaries.
    • External respiration: exchange of gases between alveoli and blood
    • Cellular respiration: use of O 2 to create ATP in mitochondria
  • 6. Blood transport of gases
    • oxygen diffuses into the blood vessels surrounding the alveoli, it is pumped by the heart to the body cells, where it is used for cellular respiration
    • carbon dioxide ( a waste product ) diffuses into the blood, which carries it back to the lungs
    • During exhalation, this carbon dioxide is removed from your body.
  • 7. The Mechanics of Breathing
    • Breathing ventilates the lungs
    • The action of your diaphragm and the muscles between your ribs enable you to breathe in and breathe out.
    • Breathing is the alternation of inhalation (active) and exhalation ( passive)
  • 8. Control of Respiration
    • Breathing is usually an involuntary process.
    • partially controlled by an internal feedback mechanism that involves signals being sent to the medulla oblongata about the chemistry of your blood.
    • medulla oblongata responds to higher levels of carbon dioxide in your body by sending nerve signals to the rib muscles and diaphragm.
    • nerve signals cause these muscles to contract, and you inhale.
  • 9. Cleaning dirty air
    • To prevent foreign material from reaching the respiratory system is lined with ciliated cells that secrete mucus.
    • The cilia constantly beat upward in the direction of your throat, where foreign material can be swallowed or expelled by coughing or sneezing

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