Reproductive system human fertlization
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Reproductive system human fertlization Document Transcript

  • 1. Name: ______________________ Reproduction and Humans I. Male Reproductive System a. It forms two main functions i. Produces sperm ii. Deposits sperm into the female reproductive tract b. How does it work? i. The testes (male gonad that produces sperm & testosterone) produces the sperm ii. The testes are found in the scrotum 1. What is the Scrotum? a. Scrotum is a sac of skin, below male genital organs and contains two testes. b. It is also 1-2 degrees Celsius cooler in there than the rest of the body i. This provides the correct temp for sperm production and storage. iii. From the testes the sperm moves through the sperm duct and the urethra 1. Urethra is the tube inside the penis a. The penis is a structural adaptation for internal fertilization c. What is Semen? i. Glands secret (let out) a liquid into the tubes. ii. The liquid is used as a transport agent for the sperm iii. The liquid and sperm cells make up SEMEN. d. What is Testosterone? i. Not only do the testes produce sperm, but it also produces a hormone called Testosterone. 1. This regulates the maturity of the sperm 2. Also it causes a lower voice pitch 3. And beard development 1
  • 2. Name: ______________________ Reproduction and Humans 2
  • 3. Name: ______________________ Reproduction and Humans II. The Female Reproduction System a. What are the parts of the female reproductive system? i. Ovaries 1. The ovaries are paired structures located in the lower portion of the female body cavity. 2. Ovaries produce eggs (ova) in tiny cavities called follicles ii. Oviduct 1. After ovulation ( release of the egg from the ovary) the egg is brought to the uterus (muscle organ in female where the fetus develops) through the oviduct (fallopian tube) iii. Cervix 1. At the lower end of the uterus, known as the cervix, there is a muscular tube, called the vagina. iv. Vagina 1. The vagina receives the sperm from the male and the birth canal. b. Where do the eggs come from? i. When a female baby is born she has all her eggs that she will ovulate in an immature form. ii. Usually only one egg is released in her body at a time c. What else do the ovaries do? i. In addition to eggs the ovaries also produce the female sex hormones 1. estrogen 2. progesterone. ii. These hormones are in charge of 1. secondary female sex characteristics a. Mammary glands – breasts b. Wider pelvis c. Menstrual cycle d. What is the Menstrual cycle ? i. The menstrual cycle begins when a girl hits puberty and continues until she hits menopause. 1. Puberty – time in a person’s life where they begin to produce gametes and sex hormones 2. Menopause – a time in a woman's wife when she stops menstruating 3
  • 4. Name: ______________________ Reproduction and Humans ii. On average the cycle is 28 days long (every woman is different) iii. There are 4 stages to the cycle 1. Stage #1 follicle stage a. Involves the maturing of an egg in a follicle b. It also secrets the hormone estrogen c. Estrogen starts the thickening of the blood tissue in the uterus 2. Stage #2 Ovulation a. When the follicle releases the egg 3. Stage #3 Corpus Lustrum stage a. After the release of the egg Corpus Lustrum comes out of the follicle b. This is a yellow group of cells that lets out progesterone which enhances the uterine lining. 4. Stage #4 Menstruation a. So now the egg is in the Uterus ready to be fertilized b. If the egg is not fertilized it goes through a periodic shedding of the thickened Uterine lining i. Usually lasts a few days iv. Role of Hormones in Menstrual cycle 1. The reproductive cycle of human female involves interactions in hormones from hypothalamus, ovaries and pituitary glands a. FSH – follicle stimulus hormone- i. Released during menstrual cycle from the pituitary glands ii. Stimulates follicle growth and ovaries to produce estrogen b. LH- Luteinizing Hormone i. Also during cycle and from the pituitary gland ii. Influences the functioning of the ovaries iii. Stimulates growth of the Corpus lotem to secrete Progesterone which helps estrogen production 4
  • 5. Name: ______________________ Reproduction and Humans 2. Homeostasis with the Hormones a. The ovaries secrete estrogen and progesterone to start the changes in the uterus b. Estrogen stops the release of FSH make sure not too much III. Fertilization & Development a. We all know the basics of how humans fertilize b. Fertilization usually occurs in the upper 1/3 of the oviduct i. Oviduct – same as fallopian tube – transports egg from follicles to ovary ii. If eggs not fertilized within 24-48 hours after ovulation the eggs starts to go bad. iii. If fertilization does occur the for 6-10 days cleavage occurs in the oviduct and then the zygote goes and implants itself in the uterus lining iv. At this stage the yolk has been depleted but the embryo gets it’s nourishment from the uterus. IV. Twins a. If more than one egg is released and fertilized multiple births can occur Identical Twins Fraternal Twins When the zygote splits during the When the fallopian tubes release cleavage stage two eggs and they both get The children will look alike fertilized by sperm V. Medical abilities to help parents have children a. In vertro fertilization (IVF) - is when doctors take out the egg and the sperm and put them together in a test tube and then implants the zygote into the uterus of the woman b. Done when woman have trouble conceiving 5
  • 6. Name: ______________________ Reproduction and Humans VI. Prenatal Development (STEP BY STEP AND DIFFERENT PARTS) 1. Fertilization 2. Cleavage When the sperm meets the egg a. the multiplying of cells b. done in the oviduct 3. gastrulating 4. Differentiation and Growth a. done after the embryo is •Results in the formation of implanted in uterus specialized tissue and organs from the different layers of the gastrula a. Prenatal development is dependent on structures similar to those in external developing eggs i. Placenta ii. Amnion iii. Umbilical cord Placenta Umbilical Cord a. “connection” between mother a. AKA “life line” and baby b. Holds the blood vessel b. Allows nutrients, respiratory gases, and wastes to be that carry material from exchanged between embryo and mom to embryo mom c. There is no direct connection •Therefore the blood of the mother and embryo do not mix Amnion a. Is the membrane that surrounds the embryo b. It contains the ammonic fluid that protects the embryo from shock and temperature changes 6
  • 7. Name: ______________________ Reproduction and Humans VII. Nutrition and Pregnancy a. It is important for prenatal development that there is a balance of nutrients going to the embryo b. Good nutrition during pregnancy is good for mom and embryo development VIII. Avoid Health Issues a. In Humans Embryonic development of essential organs occur early on b. The embryo may encounter risks from problems with genes and it’s mother exposure to hazards in the environment i. Drugs ii. Toxin iii. Alcohol iv. Smoke v. Infections IX. Birth a. Usually in humans occurs after 9 months b. During birth strong contractions of the uterine muscles (labor) will force the baby through the cervix and the vagina ( birth canal) 7
  • 8. Name: ______________________ Reproduction and Humans c. The getting rid of the placenta occurs after birth d. If placenta stays in will probably cause infection X. Postnatal development a. Continues with different parts of the body growing at different rates b. This process goes all the way through until a person dies does not stop at adults 8