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Notes rocks minerals



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  • 1. Name:___________________ Date:__/___/09 Earth Science Rabbi Goldberg Minerals & Rocks Review Notes Vocabulary 1. Monomineralic- rock made of one mineral 2. Polymineralic- rocks made out of more than one mineral 3. rocks- formed material made up of one or more minerals 4. rockformers- are minerals that are common in most rocks 5. streak – color of the powder when scratched or crushed on a streak plate 6. Luster- appearance of the outside when looked at in the light 7. cleavage- smooth planes when the rock breaks 8. fracture- when rock cracks rough edge 9. crystalline- atoms inside are bonded in a particular structure or pattern 10. magma- molten rock inside the earth 11. lava- molten rocks that breaks through the surface of the Earth 12. vesicular- bubbles of gas that solidified and formed holes 13. extrusive igneous rocks – lava flows out and cools and hardens on the surface 14. intrusive igneous rocks – magma cools and hardens inside the Earth 15. transporting agents – things in nature that move particles from one place to another
  • 2. Monomineralic Polymineralic Rocks Rockformers Streak Luster Cleavage Fracture Crystalline Magma Lava Vesicular intrusive igneous extrusive igneous rocks rocks transporting agents
  • 3. rock made of one mineral rocks made out of more than one mineral formed material made up of are minerals that are common one or more minerals in most rocks color of the powder when appearance of the outside scratched or crushed on a when looked at in the light streak plate smooth planes when the rock when rock cracks rough edge breaks atoms inside are bonded in molten rock inside the earth a particular structure or pattern molten rocks that breaks bubbles of gas that solidified and formed holes through the surface of the Earth magma cools and hardens magma cools and hardens inside the Earth inside the Earth things in nature that move particles from one place to another
  • 4. Name:___________________ Date:11/___/09 Earth Science Rabbi Goldberg Minerals & Rocks Review Notes I. Introduction a. The Lithosphere is the solid potion of the Earth i. It is made of naturally formed material called rock 1. all rocks are made of minerals a. monomineralic – made of 1 mineral b. Polymineralic – made of more than one mineral II. Minerals a. Introduction i. Minerals are naturally occurring, inorganic, crystalline, solid material, with definite chemical compositions, and specific physical properties ii. There are more than 2,400 minerals found on earth iii. There are only 12 minerals called rockformers that make up 90% of the rocks on earth. b. Characteristics of minerals in rock i. Minerals are made up of elements 1. Elements – made of atoms having the same protons and electrons cant be broken down mechanically a. The must abundant element is oxygen b. the second most abundant element is silicon c. Physical and Chemical properties i. Minerals can be identified based on their physical and chemical properties 1. Color – a. The color of the mineral can help identify certain minerals b. However, since VERY few minerals have a specific color it really can’t be used 2. Hardness a. Hardiness- is the resistance of a mineral being scratched i. Hard mineral will make a mark on a softer mineral b. Moh’ Scale of Hardness i. List 10 minerals from soft to the hardest 1. #1 is talc with is the softect mineral
  • 5. 2. #10 is diamonds which is the hardest mineral ii. By using this list we can determine which minerals will scratch the other 1. For example if a mineral cant scratch quartz but can scratch feldspar What number of hardness is it? a. Answer is 6.5 3. Streak a. Is the color of powder of a mineral when it is either crushed or scratched on a streak plate b. The color of the mineral might be different then the color of the streak 4. Luster a. If you would look at the mineral in light what type reflection would it give off b. It might shine like metal and therefore would have a metallic luster OR c. it might not shine like metal and therefore would be called non metallic luster 5. Cleavage vs Fracture a. Lets say I would break a mineral b. If the mineral breaks with smooth edges or surfaces it is said to have cleavage c. If the mineral has jaggered or rough surface by the break then it is said to be fracture 6. Crystal formation a. This depends on the atomic structure of the mineral b. Is the mineral formed under the amount of pressure c. Two mineral with similar properties can be distinguished by their crystal formation 7. Specific gravity a. The ratio of the weight of a mineral to equal volume of water b. A mineral with specific gravity 3.0 will be 3x heavier then the equal volume of water c. Specific gravity = density 8. Special Properties a. Some mineral have special properties
  • 6. b. Calcite will bubble carbon dioxide when dropped in hydrochloric acid c. Halite – tastes salty d. Magnetite – is magnetic 9. Mineral Properties a. Minerals are crystalline i. The atoms inside are bonded in a particular way ii. Two mineral with the same chemical composition (make up) CAN HAVE DIFFERENT PROPERTIES 1. Graphite and diamonds are both chemically made up the same materials 2. Diamonds are under extreme pressure and therefore their crystalline composition is closer together and stronger than graphite III. Rocks a. There are three categories of rocks i. Igneous rocks ii. Sedimentary rocks iii. Metamorphic rocks IV. Igneous Rock a. Igneous Rocks Definition i. Igneous rocks are formed from the solidification (making hard) and crystallization of molten rock. ii. This makes the rocks hard, solid and compact. b. Two Types of Molten Rocks i. Magma – is the molten rock beneath the Earth’s surface ii. Lava is the molten rock that reaches the Earth’s surface c. How is it made? i. When magma or lava cools and solidifies it forms igneous rocks ii. As the liquid rocks gets harder crystals may form iii. This gives the igneous rocks it’s texture d. Two types of Igneous Textures i. The texture of igneous rock is dependent (relies) the rate (speed) of cooling. ii. Slow cooling bigger crystals 1. Coarser (rougher) texture e. Rapid cooling smaller crystals 1. Finer texture
  • 7. f. Vesicular i. When bubbles of gas are in solidified lava there are gas holes called Vesicles ii. Igneous rocks that have these holes are said to be vesicular. g. Cooling , Temperature, & Pressure i. Cooling is related to both temperature and pressure 1. When the temperature drops rapidly or pressure is lessened you are going to have less crystals and a finer texture. 2. This is usually with molten rocks closer to the earth’s surface or lava on top of the surface. What are extrusive and intrusive Igneous rocks? h. Extrusive Igneous rocks i. Extrusive – when the lava exits the earth’s surface and hardens. ii. since it is cooler and less pressure exists on the surface the rocks are finer and have less crystals. i. Intrusive Igneous Rocks i. Intrusive when the magma hardens inside the earth. ii. since there is more pressure and heat the deeper you go into the Earth iii. the larger the crystals and the courser (rougher) the texture of the rock is Through the Let’s recap! solidification and How do Igneous crystallization of rocks form ? magma and lava! How does Minerals must be magma form? melted Some like mica melt under very low temp and other needs a
  • 8. V. Igneous rock scheme ( ESRT) • This chart is used to help us identify: What type of Igneous rock it is. – It shows us • Color • Texture • Density • Mineral composition Where are igneous rocks found? All over They are in oceans, continental
  • 9. I. Sedimentary rocks a. How are Sedimentary rocks made? i. The weathering process breaks down rock and make inorganic sediments (pieces) ii. The sediments are then transported either by water, glaciers and wind and deposit the pieces in different locations iii. Then they are made into rocks by one of the following ways 1. Compression cementations 2. Chemical process 3. Biological process 4. Transporting agents b. What are the different Transporting agents? i. As we said before 1. Wind 2. Glaciers 3. Water – this is the most common form of transportation for these sediments c. Why does sedimentary rocks usually of rounded sediments? i. This is due to the water. 1. The water pushes the sediments down a stream or whatever and the sediments get reformed II. Compression and cementation a. This is when the water and other sediments out pressure on a group of sediments i. This pressure alone sometimes can cause these sediments to form a rock 1. Ex Shale b. Sometimes they are combined by mineral cements that separate from the mineral i. This is like glue that sticks the pieces together ii. Usually occurs with larger sediments like sand, pebbles small rocks III. Chemical Processes a. Some sedimentary rocks are formed from i. Evaporation ii. Precipitation iii. Of minerals out of evaporating water iv. Ex 1. Gypsum 2. Limestone 3. Etc…
  • 10. IV. Biological Process a. Sometimes organic (living) sediments of remains –including plants and animals b. They decay and then they compress with other materials to form a rock c. FOSSILS are primarily found in sedimentary rocks V. How are sedimentary rocks classified? a. There are three main categories of sedimentary rocks i. Organic ii. Fragmental (clastic) iii. Chemical b. Fragmental (clastic) Sedimentary Rock i. These are the sedimentary rocks that fragments are pressed and cemented together 1. Ex. Sandstone ii. These rocks are classified based on grain size iii. Horizontal Layers 1. The size of the rocks is based on the agent hat transported the particles a. Horizontal layered rocks are transported by rocks b. The larger particles are on the bottom and the smaller ones on top c. Chemically formed i. Identified based on composition and texture ii. Chemically sedimentary tend to be made with one mineral 1. ex: halite is only made of salt d. Fossils i. Found in sedimentary rocks provide evidence of the environment in which the rocks formed.