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Notes digestive system

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  • 1. Name:___________________ Date:________ Living Environment Rabbi Goldberg Human Digestive System Vocabulary •__________ - life function by which humans use for energy, growth, and repair •___________- mouth •___________- wave of muscular contractions •__________- microscopic parts that help with absorption in the small intestine •____________- bile movements (semi solid stored in rectum) •_____________ - splitting by adding water (break down od big pieces into smaller ones) I. Let’s Review a. One of the Life Process that is ________________________ _________________________________________________ b. Nutrition is needed for i. _________________ ii. _________________ iii. _________________ c. In order for us to get nutrition we need to break down _________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ II. Digestive System Overview a. There are four parts to digestion i. __________- taking in food ii. ___________- mechanical and chemical breakdown of food so that it can be absorbed by the cells iii. ______________: cells lining the digestive tract take up (absorb) small nutrient molecules iv. ________________: undigested material passes out of the digestive tract III. There are two ways digestion breaks up the food a. Mechanical digestion – ______________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________ b. Chemical digestion – i. hydrolysis – ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ( in other words; breaking complex molecules into simple ones) ii. The process of chemical digestion ( hydrolysis) is controlled by _______________________
  • 2. c. Examples of Chemical Digestion: i. Carbohydrates+ water -> simple sugars (glucose for instance) ii. Proteins+ water -> amino acids iii. Lipids+ water -> 3 fatty acids +glycerol IV. HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM a. Oral Cavity i. Oral Cavity _____________________________________ 1. Used to _____________________________ b. Teeth – 1. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ __________________________________________ c. Tongue 1. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ d. Saliva 1. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ e. Pharynx i. Pharynx is another name __________________________________ ii. The tongue pushes ________________________________ iii. This starts the ______________________ 1. food is now in _____________________________ iv. Epiglottis: _____________________________________ f. Esophagus i. Esophagus: ______________________________________ ii. by process of peristalsis: ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ g. Stomach i. Stomach: _________________________________ ii. mechanically churns food ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ iii. ___________________________________ iv. stomach empties in about 2-6hrs., v. food now liquid ______________________________ vi. Gastric Juice 1. Components of gastric juice: a. water-solvent b. mucus-lubrication
  • 3. c. enzyme that begins chemical digestion of protein d. hydrochloric acid (HCl) h. Small Intestine i. the major organ ________________________________ _____________________________________________ ii. long twisted tube with small diameter, iii. enzymes and fluids needed to complete ___________________________________________ 1. ____________________________ 2. pancreas______________________ 3. liver-> gallbladder->small intestine iv. Main organ for absorption 1. ___________- : fingerlike projections that increase surface area of small intestine contain a network of capillaries for absorption of amino acids and simple sugars into blood, center contains lymph vessel called lacteal which absorbs fatty acids i. Large Intestine i. The food now __________________________________ ii. It gets the food that has not been digested 1. ________________________________ 2. ________________________________ iii. Reabsorbs the ___________________________________ ________________________________________________ iv. the feces are stored at ______________________________ _______________________________________________ v. Leaves the __________________________________ V. Accessory Organs to the digestive system a. Even though not part of the food tube there are important organs for digestion i. Liver ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ii. Gallbladder 1. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________
  • 4. iii. Pancreas ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ _______________________________________________ VI. Some Digestive disorders a. Constipation i. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ii. Diarrhea 1. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ iii. Gall stones 1. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ iv. Acid reflux 1. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 2. Appendicitis a. _____________________________________