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  • 1. Minerals By: Rabbi Goldberg
  • 2. Introduction
    • The lithosphere is made of one or more naturally formed materials called ROCK.
      • All Rocks are made up minerals
        • Monominerelic – made up of one mineral
        • Polymineralic- a rock made up of more than one mineral
    One Mineral
  • 3. Minerals
    • Minerals
      • Are naturally occurring, inorganic crystalline solid materials with definite chemical composition, structure, and specific physical properties
  • 4.
    • Scientist have discovered over 2,400 minerals in the world.
    • Around 12 of them make up 90% of all the rocks
      • These minerals are nicknamed rockformers.
  • 5. Characteristics of minerals in rocks
    • Minerals can be made up of one element or more than more element
    • The most abundant ( plenty of ) element is oxygen with silicon coming in #2
  • 6. How can we tell what type of mineral were are looking at?
    • Minerals are identified based upon physical and chemical properties
      • Color
      • Luster
      • Cleavage vs fracture
      • Streak
      • Crystal form
      • Etc…….
  • 7. Color
    • The outside color of the mineral can help identify very few minerals.
      • Such as
        • Sulfur
    • This is most minerals have more than one color and very few have a distinct color
  • 8. Hardness
    • Hardeness- is the resitence of a mineral being scratched
      • Hard mineral will make a mark on a softer mineral
  • 9. Hardness continued
    • Moh’ Scale of Hardness
      • List 10 minerals from soft to the hardest
        • #1 is talc with is the softect mineral
        • #10 is diamonds which is the hardest mineral
      • By using this list we can determine which minerals will scratch the other
  • 10. Hardness continued
    • For example if a mineral cant scratch quartz but can scratch feldspar What number of harness is it?
      • Answer is ______
  • 11. Streak
    • Is the color of powder of a mineral when it is either crushed or scratched on on a streak plate
      • The color of the mineral might be different then the color of the streak
  • 12. Luster
    • Luster
      • If you would look at the mineral in light what type reflection would it give off
        • It might shine like metal and therefore would have a metallic luster
        • OR
        • it might not shine like metal and therefore would be called non metallic luster
  • 13. Cleavage vs. Fracture
    • Lets say I would break a mineral
        • If the mineral breaks with smooth edges or surfaces it is said to have _______________
        • If the mineral has jaggered or rough surface by the break then it is said to be _______________.
    cleavage fractured cleavage fractured
  • 14. Crystal formation
    • This depends on the atomic structure of the mineral
      • Is the mineral formed under the amount of pressure
      • Two mineral with similar properties can be distinguished by their crystal formation
  • 15. Specific gravity
    • The ratio of the weight of a mineral to equal volume of water
      • A mineral with specific gravity 3.0 will be 3x heavier then the equal volume of water
      • Specific gravity = density
  • 16. Special Properties
    • Some mineral have special properties
      • Calcite will bubble carbon dioxide when dropped in hydrochloric acid
      • Halite – tastes salty
      • Magnetite – is magnetic
  • 17. Mineral Properties
    • Minerals are crystalline
      • The atoms inside are bonded in a particular way
        • Two mineral with the same chemical composition (make up) CAN HAVE DIFFERENT PROPERTIES
          • Graphite and diamonds are both chemically made up the same materials
            • Diamonds are under extreme pressure and therefore their crystalline composition is closer together and stronger than graphite