Introduction to gentics

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  • 1. Name:______________________ Date:_____________________ Living Environment Rabbi Goldberg Introduction to Genetics I. Father of genetics a. _________________ _____________ i. He was an Austrian Monk who was a teacher ii. He carried out the first important studies of ______________. 1. heredity – is the passing along of characteristics from parents to their offspring 2. genetics – is the study of how characteristics are passed 45down from parent to child 3. We call these characteristics ________________. iii. Mendel used ___________________ to do his research II. Why pea plants? a. Garden pea plants produce _____________________. i. This means they have two ________________________. 1. sex cells are called gametes ii. In peas both the male and female gametes are ________________________________________________. a. Male gamete - ___________________ b. Female gamete -_________________ 2. fertilization is when the _______________________ __________________________________________ a. In flowers and pea plants this is called ____________________________________ iii. In order to study inherit traits Mendel had to _______________________________________________.
  • 2. III. Mendel’s Monohybrid crosses a. Mendel crossed the two pea plants by taking out the pollen from one plant and putting it in the ovule of the other plant b. Monohybrid – on trait was different between the parent plants i. Mono = ______________ hybrid -_______________ c. First Generation - ________ i. Mendel took a tall plants from long line of tall parents and 1 short pea plant from a long line of short pea plants ii. He crossed them iii. What he found out _______________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ d. Second generation -__________ i. He then crossed two of these tall plants together ii. What happened?_________________________________ _______________________________________________ iii. Different symbols were made to represent the different generation 1. p1- _______________________________ 2. f1-________________________________ 3. f2-_________________________________ iv. Mandel did this for seven different traits and he found out ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ______________________________________________
  • 3. e. ***The Rule of unit factors i. Mendel also discovered that each organism has _____________________________________________ ii. We know that these factors are ____________ and they are located on the ______________________. iii. Genes exists in many different forms these forms are called __________________________. 1. For example each pea plant had an allele to determine its height part from the mom and part from the dad. f. ***** The rule of dominance i. We receive as we said two traits one from the mom and another from the dad the trait that we can see Mendel called _______________________________. ii. The other trait – the one we CANT see is called _____________________________________. 1. For example we know that when Mendel crossed the tall and short plants ALL the offspring were tall that tallness in pea plants is ______________________ and shortness is __________________________. g. **** The rule of segregation i. When Mendel crossed the two f1 plants and in the f2 generation shortness reappeared told Mendel the following 1. When gametes are formed the two alleles for each trait MUST separate. 2. a parent therefore only ______________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________
  • 4. IV. Phenotypes and genotypes a. Mendel experiment showed us that ________________________ i. Two off spring can look alike but have different genetic make-ups b. Phenotype is the _____________________________________. i. The phenotype of tall plants is ____________ not matter what the genetic makeup is. c. Genotype is the _____________________________________. i. Whether it has TT of Tt or tt ii. You cant know the genotype just by looking at the organism iii. An organism is homozygous if _____________________ ______________________________________________ 1. ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ iv. An organism is heterozygous if _______________________ ________________________________________________ V. Mendel’s Dihybrid crosses a. Mendel then used _______________________________________ _____________________________________________________ i. This is called __________________________________ b. The first generation i. Mendel took pea plants that had both yellow seed and round and crossed them with pea plants which their seeds were green and wrinkled 1. What Mendel found is that all the offspring ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ ___________________________________________ 2. Therefore a. Dominant was _____________ & ____________________________________.
  • 5. c. The second generation i. Then Mendel crossed two f1 plants they produced ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ii. This led to Mendel’s ___________________________ d. The law of independent assortment i. That genes of different traits are inherited independently from each other 1. For example ____________________________ a. If a pea plant has Rr the two will separate VI. The Punnett Square a. Reginald Punnett came up with a shorthand way of finding the probability of genes of the offspring Diploid cross