Genetic material


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Genetic material

  1. 1. Genetic material
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>- The characteristics of all living things depends on the combination of traits </li></ul><ul><li>They have been inherited from the organism’s parent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>this was done through ASEXUAL reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All the traits of come from 1 Parent </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Or inherited by a combination of genes from both parents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is done through Sexual reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the traits come from both Parents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>*** We are going top learn later though organisms get their traits from their parent(s) their traits can be changed due to the interaction with the environment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. DNA <ul><li>In the 1940’s Avery, MacLoed and Macarty found the d eoxyribo n ucleic a cid AKA DNA </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA is the genetic material which replicates (copies) and passes from one generation to the next </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In the 1950’s American scientist Hershey and Chase concluded that DNA controls cellular activity by helping produce enzymes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA is found in the nucleus of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inside the DNA there are thousands of repeated Units called Nucleotides . </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is the purpose and function of DNA? <ul><li>DNA Structure and Function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA provides the set of coded instructions required by every organism for specifying its traits. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The DNA molecule also provides for a reliable way for parents to pass their genetic code from one generation to the next.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heredity refers to this passage of these instructions from one generation to another.   </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Nucleotides <ul><li>Nucleotides are made out of three parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous base </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Phosphate group <ul><li>This group is made up of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphorous </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Deoxyribose <ul><li>(5 carbon Sugar ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Nitrogenous base <ul><li>This base is made up of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. What Exactly does DNA look like? <ul><li>What is DNA? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA is a double stranded molecule which has the shape of a twisted ladder.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This shape is called a double helix.    </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The sides of this twisted ladder are composed of alternating phosphate and deoxyribose sugar units, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>while the rungs of the ladder are composed of pairs of nitrogenous bases.   </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>These bases are called adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C).  </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. How do they connect? <ul><ul><li>Remember the following acronym </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A ll T eacher G o C razy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The A-adenine attaches to T-Thymime </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The G- guanine attaches to C-cytosine </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This principle is sometimes called complementary base </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>This Model helps understand two key principles of genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genes characteristics are passed down from generation to generation by the replication of the genetic code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genes control cellular activity by controlling the production of enzymes (phenotype) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Where is DNA located? <ul><li>DNA is located in the nucleus </li></ul>
  13. 13. So what is the order from smallest to largest <ul><li>Gene-Chromosome Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hereditary information is contained in genes, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>which are composed of DNA,  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>located in the chromosomes of each cell.   </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of each cell. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each gene carries a separate piece of information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one genes, but is usually determined by the interaction of many different genes.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A single gene can influence more than one trait.  </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. So Let us graph that out! Body Cell Nucleus Chromosome Gene DNA
  15. 15. Gene Mutation <ul><ul><li>Changes in the sequence of the DNA molecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>therefore the gene are called mutations.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A mutation may change the manner in which a trait is expressed by an organism. </li></ul></ul>