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Genetic material


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  • 1. Genetic material
  • 2. Introduction
    • - The characteristics of all living things depends on the combination of traits
    • They have been inherited from the organism’s parent
      • this was done through ASEXUAL reproduction
            • All the traits of come from 1 Parent
    • Or inherited by a combination of genes from both parents
      • Which is done through Sexual reproduction
        • the traits come from both Parents
        • *** We are going top learn later though organisms get their traits from their parent(s) their traits can be changed due to the interaction with the environment
  • 3. DNA
    • In the 1940’s Avery, MacLoed and Macarty found the d eoxyribo n ucleic a cid AKA DNA
        • DNA is the genetic material which replicates (copies) and passes from one generation to the next
    • In the 1950’s American scientist Hershey and Chase concluded that DNA controls cellular activity by helping produce enzymes
      • DNA is found in the nucleus of cells
    • Inside the DNA there are thousands of repeated Units called Nucleotides .
  • 4. What is the purpose and function of DNA?
    • DNA Structure and Function
      • DNA provides the set of coded instructions required by every organism for specifying its traits.
      • The DNA molecule also provides for a reliable way for parents to pass their genetic code from one generation to the next.  
      • Heredity refers to this passage of these instructions from one generation to another.  
  • 5. Nucleotides
    • Nucleotides are made out of three parts
      • Phosphate group
      • Deoxyribose
      • Nitrogenous base
  • 6. Phosphate group
    • This group is made up of
      • Oxygen
      • Hydrogen
      • Phosphorous
  • 7. Deoxyribose
    • (5 carbon Sugar )
      • Made up of
        • Carbon
        • Hydrogen
        • Oxygen
  • 8. Nitrogenous base
    • This base is made up of
      • Carbon
      • Oxygen
      • Hydrogen
      • Nitrogen
  • 9. What Exactly does DNA look like?
    • What is DNA?
      • DNA is a double stranded molecule which has the shape of a twisted ladder.  
      • This shape is called a double helix.   
        • The sides of this twisted ladder are composed of alternating phosphate and deoxyribose sugar units,
        • while the rungs of the ladder are composed of pairs of nitrogenous bases.  
        • These bases are called adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). 
  • 10. How do they connect?
      • Remember the following acronym
        • A ll T eacher G o C razy
          • The A-adenine attaches to T-Thymime
          • The G- guanine attaches to C-cytosine
      • This principle is sometimes called complementary base
  • 11.
      • This Model helps understand two key principles of genetics
        • Genes characteristics are passed down from generation to generation by the replication of the genetic code
        • Genes control cellular activity by controlling the production of enzymes (phenotype)
  • 12. Where is DNA located?
    • DNA is located in the nucleus
  • 13. So what is the order from smallest to largest
    • Gene-Chromosome Model
      • Hereditary information is contained in genes,
      • which are composed of DNA, 
      • located in the chromosomes of each cell.  
      • Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of each cell.
      • Each gene carries a separate piece of information.
      • An inherited trait of an individual can be determined by one genes, but is usually determined by the interaction of many different genes. 
      • A single gene can influence more than one trait. 
  • 14. So Let us graph that out! Body Cell Nucleus Chromosome Gene DNA
  • 15. Gene Mutation
      • Changes in the sequence of the DNA molecule
      • therefore the gene are called mutations. 
      • A mutation may change the manner in which a trait is expressed by an organism.